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36
Codex Regius
MS No. 2365 4to  [R]
Arnamagnæan Codex
AM 748 I 4to [A]
1954 Guðni Jónsson
Normalized Text:

Hrist ok Mist
vil ek at mér horn beri,
sceigiöld ok skögul,
hildi ok Þrvði,
hlökk ok herfjötur,
göll ok geirölul,
randgríþ ok ráþgriþr
ok reginleif;
þær bera Einherjum öl.  

Hrist ok Mist
vil ek at mér horn beri,
skægg öld ok skögul,
hildr ok Þrvðr,
hlökk ok herfjötur,
göll ok geirömul,
randgríð ok ráþgríðr
ok reginleif;
þær bera Einherjum öl.  

36. Hrist ok Mist
vil ek at mér horn beri,
Skeggjöld ok Skögul,
Hildr ok Þrúðr,
Hlökk ok Herfjötur,
Göll ok Geirölul,
Randgríðr ok Ráðgríðr
ok Reginleif;
þær bera Einherjum öl.  

English Translations
1797 Amos Simon Cottle
in Icelandic Poetry
The Song of Grimnir
1851 C.P. in
The Yale Magazine, Vol. 16
The Song of Grimner
 

XXXVI.
Hrista and Mista,
[1] daily bear
Bowls that sooth the brow of care;
Ever Odin's chiefs regale,
With soul invigorating ale.

[1] HRISTA and MISTA, these Goddesses are called Valkyries, Odin sends them into the field of battle to make choice of those who are to be slain, and to bestow the victory.

May Hrist and Mist, fair ones,
Fill for me the golden goblets with wine,
While Herfiötör, and other sisters ten,
With names as sweet, to happy Einheriar bear
Full bowls of sparkling sherry for their lips
.

 

 
1866 Benjamin Thorpe
in Edda Sæmundar Hinns Frôða

The Lay of Grimnir
1871 Frederic G. Bergmann
"Dits de Grimnir"
 

36. Hrist and Mist
the horn shall bear me
Skeggöld and Skögul,
Hlökk and Herfjötur,
Hildi and Thrudi,
Göll and Geirölul,
Randgrid and Radgrid,
and Reginleif,
these bear beer to the Einherjar.


36. Secousse, et Brume,
je Veux qu'elles me portent la corne;
Manie-la-Hache, et Hérissée-de-lances,
Chaîne, et Lien-d'armée,
Occision, et Force,
Tumulte, et Ivresse-de-lances,
Fureur-de-boucliers, et Fureur-résolue,
et Divinement-Glorieuse, Celles- là présentent l'aile aux Troupiers-uniques.
Quake and Mist,
I want them to bear me the horn;
Handles-the-Axe and Barbed-with-spears,
Chain and Fetters-of-Armies,
Killing and Force,
Tumult and Intoxicated-with-the-spear,
Fury-of-shields and Determined-Fury,
and Divinely-glorious,
These bear ale to the Unique-Troopers.
 
1883 Gudbrand Vigfusson
in Corpus Poeticum Boreale

The Sayings of the Hooded One
1908 Olive Bray
in Edda Saemundar
The Sayings of Grimnir
 

I will have Hrist and Mist (Walkyries) to give me the horn. S. and S. etc.; these serve ale to the Chosen Host.

(Then cries he from the fire-torment.)
 
36. Would that Hrist and Mist would bear me a horn!
my Valkyries,
Axe and Spear-point,
Bond and War-fetter, Battle and Might,
Shrieker and Spear-fierce in strife ;
Shield-fierce, Counsel-fierce, Strength-maiden all
who bear ale to the Chosen in War.

 
1923 Henry Bellows
in The Poetic Edda
Grimnismol: The Ballad of Grimnir
1962 Lee M. Hollander
in The Poetic Edda
 
The Lay of Grimnir
 

36. Hrist and Mist                bring the horn at my will,
Skeggjold and Skogul;
Hild and Truth,        Hlok and Herfjotur,
Gol and Geironul,
Randgrith and Rathgrith        and Reginleif
Beer to the warriors bring.


37. Hrist and Mist the horn shall bear me,
Skeggjold and Skogul;
but Hild and Thruth, Hlokk and Herfjotur,
Goll and Geironul,
Randgrith and Ráthgrith and Reginleif,
[1]
to the einherjar ale shall bear.


[1] The names of the valkyries indicate their warlike activities, like those of "Völuspá," St. 30.

 
1967 W. H. Auden & P. B. Taylor
in The Elder Edda
The Lay of Grimnir
1996 Carolyne Larrington
in The Poetic Edda
Grimnir’s Sayings
 

My ale-horn is brought me by Hrist and Mist:
Skegghold and Skogul,
Hildi and Hlokk, Herfjotur,
Thrudi, Goll and Geirolul,
Rangrid, Radgrid and Reginleif
Serve ale to the slain.

36. 'Hrist and Mist, I wish, would bear a horn to me, 
Skeggiold and Skogul,
Hild and Thrud, Hlokk and Herfiotur,
Goll and Geirolul,
Randgrid and Radgrid, and Reginleif;
they bear ale to the Einheriar.

 
2011 Andy Orchard
The Elder Edda: A Book of Viking Lore
'The Lay of Grimnir"
2011 Ursula Dronke
in The Poetic Edda, Vol. III: Mythological Poems 
“The Lay of Grimnir”
 

36. ‘ I want Wielder and Mist to bring me a horn;
Axe-age and Brandisher,
War and Strength, Clash and War-bonds,
Smash and Spear-weaver,
Shield-truce and Counsel-truce and Power-truce:
they bring the Einherjar ale.

36. Brandish and Battle Mist
I wish to bring me a drinking-horn
Axe Age and Ankus,
Warfare and Force,
Clamour and War Fetter,
Yell and Spear [Strong]
Rage at Shields and Rage at Reason,
[Rooter Out* and] Ruler’s Heir—
they bring the elect fighters ale.

*"Róta ok: I have added these words before Reginleif, assuming a scribal omission in a seventh pair of Valkyrie names. Róta is given as a Valkyrie name in SnE 40 in the prose following the citation of Grímnismál 36, and could relate to the text that is lost."

 

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COMMENTARY
After giving an account of the goddesses in Gylfaginning 35, Snorri quotes this verse in the following chapter accompanied by a short prose piece, elaborating on the valkyries:

Enn eru þær aðrar, er þjóna skulu í Valhöll, bera drykkju ok gæta borðbúnaðar ok ölgagna. Svá eru þær nefndar í Grímnismálum:
 
Hrist ok Mist,
vil ek, at mér horn beri,
Skeggjöld ok Skögul,
Hildr ok Þrúðr,
Hlökk ok Herfjötur,
Göll ok Geirahöð,
Randgríðr ok Ráðgríðr,
ok Reginleif,
þær bera Einherjum öl.

Þessar heita valkyrjur. Þær sendir Óðinn til hverrar orrustu. Þær kjósa feigð á menn ok ráða sigri. Guðr ok Róta ok norn in yngsta, er Skuld heitir, ríða jafnan at kjósa val ok ráða vígum.

"There are also those others whose office it is to serve in Valhall, to bear drink and mind the table-service and ale-flagons; thus are they named in Grímnismál:


Hrist and Mist | I would have bear the horn to me,
Skeggjöld and Skögull;
Hildr and Thrúdr, | Hlökk and Herfjötur,
Göll and Geirahöd,
Randgrídr and Rádgrídr | and Reginleif
These bear the Einherjar ale.

These are called Valkyrs: them Odin sends to every battle; they chose men's fate and award victory. Gudr and Róta and the youngest Norn, she who is called Skuld, ride ever to take the slain and decide fights.


Lists of Valkyries also occur elsewhere, primarily in Völuspá 30 (Codex Regius):
Sá hon valkyrjur
vítt um komnar,
görvar at ríða
til Goðþjóðar.
Skuld helt skildi,
en Skögul önnur,
Gunnr, Hildr, Göndul
ok Geirskögul.
Nú eru talðar
nönnur Herjans,
görvar at ríða
grund, valkyrjur.
30. She saw Valkyriur
coming from afar,
ready to ride
to the gods’ people:
Skuld held a shield,
and Skögul another.
Gunn,  Hild, Göndul,
and Geirskögul.
Now are tallied
Herian´s maidens,
ready to ride
over the earth
the Valkyriur.
 

According to this verse, the Valkyries appear to be under the leadership of Skuld, the youngest of the three Norns. Two more lists appear as nafnaþular [Source]
 
1 Vol. 3. Anonymous Þulur, 56. Heiti valkyrja, 1 — Þul Valkyrja 1III
Skj: Anonyme digte og vers [XII]: IV. aaa. Heiti valkyrja 1 (AI, 689; BI, 678); fornyrðislag; ed. EG; group: B; mss: A; texts: Skm 579
 
Mank valkyrjur
Viðris nefna.
Hrist, mist, herja,
hlökk, geiravör,
göll, hjörþrimul,
guðr, herfjötra,
skuld, geirönul,
skögul ok randgníð.
  
2 Vol. 3. Anonymous Þulur, 56. Heiti valkyrja, 2 — Þul Valkyrja 2III
Skj: Anonyme digte og vers [XII]: IV. aaa. Heiti valkyrja 2 (AI, 689; BI, 678); fornyrðislag; ed. EG; group: B; mss: A; texts: Skm  580
  
Ráðgríðr, göndul,
svipul, geirskögul,
hildr ok skeggöld,
hrund, geirdriful,
randgríðr ok þrúðr,
reginleif ok sveið,
þögn, hjalmþrimul,
þrima ok skalmöld. 


The earliest appearance of Valkyries in Germanic literature is probably as Idisi in a 10th century German charm, since "the mentioned idisi in the  First Merseberger Galder, who intervene in battle by way of magic paralysis, carry the typical qualities of the Valkyries", [Britt-Mari Näsström, Freyja—The Great Goddess of the North, 1995]. Most scholars now agree that the valkyries are counted among the beings called disir. Their action of binding men in battle with war-fetters is often compared to the name of the Valkyrie Herfjötur ('war-fetter') in this verse. Their presence typically symbolizes war or unrest.

Here the battle-maidens are identified as servers in Valhall. In Grimnismal 14, Freyja is also associated with the battle-slain, chosing half of the fallen for her hall. Like the Valkyries, Freyja serves beer in Valhall, notably when the giant Hrungnir arrives as a guest of Odin (Skáldskaparmál 34). On that occasion Freyja served him beer from Thor's horn. Once drunk, Hrungnir boasted of his plan to carry off Freyja, the sun and the moon, until Thor arrived and challenged him to a duel. The same giant is identified as the "robber of Thrud", Thor's daughter in the skaldic poem Þórsdrapa 16. Here, Þrúðr is listed among the Valkyries.  Both myths likely refer to the giants' desire for not only the goddesses, but also the poetic mead.
 
 Their names typically represent some aspect of war, as in Grímnismál 36:
The Valkyries
of Grímnismál 36
Literal Translation Frederic Bergmann
1871
Britt-Mari Näsström
1995
Andy Orchard
2012
Ursula Dronke
2012
Hrist "to shake" Quake
Secousse
"the shaker" Wielder Brandish 
Mist "mist" Mist
Brume
"the mist" Mist Battle Mist
Skeggjöld "axe-age" Handles-the-Axe
Manie-la-Hache
"wearing a war axe" Axe-age Axe Age
Skögul: Barbed-with-spears
Hérissée-de-lances
"battle" Brandisher Ankus
Hildr "battle" Killing
 Occision
"battle" War Warfare
Þrúðr "power" Force
Force
"power" Strength Force
Hlökk "sound of battle" Chain
Chaîne
"noise" Clash Clamour
Herfjötur "war-fetter" Fetters-of-Armies
Lien-d'armée
"war fetter" War-bonds War Fetter
Göll: "shriek" Tumult
Tumulte
"loud cry" Smash Yell
Geirölul
also Geirömul, Geirahöd
geir="spear-"
suffix uncertain
Intoxicated-with-the-spear
Ivresse-de-lances
"spear battle"
[read
Geirahöd after Snorri]
Spear-weaver Spear [Strong]
Randgríðr   Fury-of-shields
Fureur-de-boucliers
"shield peace" Shield-truce Rage at Shields
Ráðgríðr   Determined-Fury
Fureur-résolue
"council peace"
"gods' peace"
Counsel-truce Rage at Reason,
Reginleif Divinely-glorious
Divinement-Glorieuse
"heritage of the gods" Power-truce Ruler’s Heir

Comments on the Translations of the Names
Frederic G. Bergmann (1871):
Les Valkyries étant les servantes du dieu des combats, leurs noms rappellent leurs fonctions guerrières. La Valkyrie Hrist (Secousse) personnifie l'action de secouer les armes ou les baguettes divinatoires (cf. norr. hrista teina), indices de l'issue du combat. Mist (Brume) est la personnification de la mêlée confuse, tempêtueuse, et embrouillée du combat,qui, sous ce rapport, ressemble au brouillard. Skogul (Hérissée de lances), Skeggiolld (p. Skeggi-vold, Manie la hache), Randgrid (Fureur d'écus), Geira-olul (Joute de Framées) désignent le combat avec les différentes armes offensives et défensives. Hlôck (Chaîne), et Herfiotur (Lien de troupe) désignent les chaînes qu'on mettait aux prisonniers de guerre, condamnés à l'esclavage ou au sacrifice. Beginleif (Protection des Grandeurs) désigne l'invulnérabilité et la protection invisible accordées, par les dieux ou Grandeurs, à quelque héros dans le combat. Hildur (p. Hvildur), dont le nom est emprunté à celui de la déesse Hildur, qui est un dédoublement de Hel, désigne la mort. Thrudur (Force) est la personnification de la valeur guerrière, et Râdgrîd (Fureur résolue) désigne la fureur qui, dans le combat, fait prendre des résolutions extrêmes.
   
The Valkyries are the servants of the God of Combat, their names recall their warlike functions. The Valkyrie Hrist (Shake) personifies the action of the arms or shaking of the divination sticks (cf. ON Hrista teina) indicating the outcome of the fight. Mist (Mist) is the personification of the confused fray, the tempestuousness and confusion of combat, which, in this respect is similar to fog. Skögul (Bristling with spears), Skeggiolld (p. Skeggi-vold, handles the ax) Randgrid (Fury of the shield) Geira-olul (Joust of spears) denote combat with different offensive and defensive weapons. Hlock (Chain), and Herfiotur (Battle fetter) denote the chains that put prisoners of war, condemned to slavery or sacrifice. Reginleif (Protection of the Great ones) denotes the invulnerability and invisible protection granted by the gods or Great ones, some heroes in the fight. Hildur (p. Hvildur), whose name is borrowed from that of the goddess Hildur, a doubling of Hel, means death. Thrudur (Force) is the personification of military valor and RadGrid (Resolute Fury) denotes the fury in battle of taking extreme resolutions.
Most all of these names are used as base-words in kennings for 'woman', and less often as base-words for 'men, warriors'. There are numerous examples of these listed in Sveinbjörn Egilsson's Lexicon Poeticum (1932). All abbreviations below are taken from the source text referenced. Examples are not intended to be inclusive:

Hrist
:
"to shake" [Cleasby/Vigfusson];

Hrist is used in kennings for 'warrior, man':
Hristar Týr, of Merlin, Merl. II 14, and for 'battle': Hristar hríð, ESk. 1, 5, Hristar él, EGils 1, 34. [Lexicon Poeticum]

Mist:
"probably akin to the neuter mistr, as is to be inferred from mistar-marr, the mist-sea = the clouds, the airy region, Hkv. 1. 46 [Cleasby/Vigfusson];

In kennings, for 'battle': frost Mistar Ht. 61, gustr Mistar Ingj. 1, 2, mót Mistar Grettis. 20, (cf. mótkennandi), — for 'sword': Mistar laukr Ht. 85, Mistar glóð (glœðr) Páll., Mistar eldr Has. 2, Mistar linnr Has. 5 [Lexicon Poeticum] 

Skeggjöld:
"from skeggja, u, f. a kind of halberd" (Cleasby/Vigfusson);

Also used as the name of the "Axe-age" that falls upon mankind before Ragnarök, Völuspá 45.

Skögul:
‘the one who towers high on horseback” (cf. skaga, ‘jut out’) and skögultann ‘fang’ [Sigurd Nordal, Völuspá];

In kennings, for battle: Skögular dynr Gldr 5, Skögular veðr Håk 8, Ht 54, for sword
Sköglar eldr Rst 7, Skögular fúrr Ingj 2, 3, Skögular tandr Rst 20, — for shield: Skögular tjöld Hl 34 a, Skögular borð Rst 29, Skögular ský Þjsk 1, 2, Nj (XII) 7, — for mail-coat: Skögular kápa Krm 18, — for raven: Skögular gögl Giz sv 1.

The valkyries Göndul and Skögul (also called Geirskögul) appear in Hákonarmál, a poem by Eyvind Skáldaspillir, to accompany King Hakon to Valhall. Skögul and Geirskögul are both named in Völuspá 30.

Hildr:
name of a Valkyrie in Völuspá 30, and Grímnismál 36; Hildr is also represented as a daughter of the mythical king Högni and the bride of Héðin, whose life is recorded in the tale of Hjaðninga-víg, Edda 89, 90: hence war is called Hildar-leikr, m. 'the game of Hildr', Bm. 1, passim"; "II. in proper names; it is rare as a prefix in northern names, but frequently in old German: of men, Hildir, Hildi-björn, Hildi-brandr, Hildi-grímr, Hild-ólfr; of women, Hildr, Hildi-gunnr, Hildi-ríðr: again, it often forms the latter part in female names, and often spelt or sounded without the aspirate, Ás-hildr, Bryn-hildr, Böðv-ildr, Dóm-hildr, Ey-ildr, Geir-hildr, Grím-hildr, Gunn-hildr, Hrafn-hildr, Matt-ildr (for.), Orm-hildr, Ragn-hildr, Svan-hildr, Úlf-hildr, Yngv-ildr, Þor-hildr, Landnamnabók [Cleasby/Vigfusson]
 
"a Valkyrie in Vóluspá 30, Grímnismál 36, þula IV 2, Darraðarljóð  3, men hjaldrs Hildr stendr und rauðum skildi "Finngálkn (11th century)". In kennings, for battle: Hildar leikr Bjark 2, Krm 13, Þjóð A 3, 2, Hildar leikmildr ESk 6, 70, Hildar hlemmidrifa Ht 54, Hildar hregg Korm Lv 30, Hildar él Edáð 3, Hildar veðr GDropl 4, Hildar hjaldr Húsdr 1 (cf. hjaldrgegnir). [Lexicon Poeticum]

Hildr is also named among the valkyries in Völuspá 30.

Þrúðr:
"the name of a goddess, the daughter of Thor and Sif, Edda; also the name of a woman, Þrúðr; as also in compounds, Her-þrúðr, Sig-þrúðr, Jar-þrúðr, Landnabók; cp. the Germ. drude = a witch or evil fairy, Grimm's Dict. s.v., used in some old poëtical compound words referring to Thor: Þrúð-hamarr, m. the master hammer of Thor, Ls. 57: Þrúð-heimr, Þrúð-vangr, m. the name of the mythical abode of Thor, Grímnismál 4, Edda: þrúð-valdr, in þrúðvaldr goða, the heroic, doughty defender of the gods, i.e. Thor, Hárbarðsljóð."  [Cleasby/Vigfusson];

"Thor's daughter, Þula IV h 2, faðir Þrúðar, Thor, EVald 2, þrámóðnir Þrúðar, Þórsdrapa 17;  The giant Hrungnir is designated as þjófr Þrúðar, Þórsdrapa 1 (whereby one should conclude that it was Hrungnir who kidnapped her); likely identical to the person listed among Odin attendant maidens, Grímnismál 36." [Lexicon Poeticum] 

Hlökk:
"genitive (thus in compounds) Hlakkar, [perh. akin to Anglo-Saxon hlanc, English lank = thin, slender] [Cleasby/Vigfusson]
 
Hlökk, 'clang', the peculiar  'sound of weapons' or 'clash of battle', thus battle in general, geirvalds hlökk, Odin's clang, StjO II 7; the word became personified as the Valkyrie Hlökk, cf þula IV h 4, aaa 1,  this applies then equally as the example of Hildr, (goddess);  In kennings, for battle, Hlökkar veðr HolmgB 4, Hlökkar drifa HolmgB 6, Hlökkar él Hfr Lv 14, Hlökkar mót Vell 16 [Lexicon Poeticum]
 
Herfjötur:
"a mythical term, 'war-fetter:' a valiant man who in the stress of battle feels himself spell-bound, and unable to stir, was in old lore said to be caught in a 'war-fetter;' this was attributed to the weird sisters of battle (the Valkyries), as is shewn by the fact that one of them was called Herfjöturr, 'Shackle', Edda (Gl.); they were the messengers of Odin, by whom the warriors were doomed to death (kjósa val); the passages referring to this lore are Fms. viii. 170, Sturl. ii. 233, Ísl. ii. 104 twice (Harð. S.) :-- a similar belief appears in the Greek, see Od. xxii. 297 sqq., Iliad xiii. 358-360, xxii. 5 sqq. [Cleasby/Vigfusson]

"valkyrie-name (she 'who chains, binds, the hosts, warriors' with death)" [Lexicon Poeticum]

Göll
göll, f. a shriek, Edda (Gl.) 110. [Cleasby/Vigfusson]
göll, f, clang, noise, göll geira, battle, Gisl 8, ESk 6, 52, göll ståls Hl 15 b. [Lexicon Poeticum]

Geirölul:
Geirömul, valkyrie-name, Þul IV aaa 1, Grímnismál 36 (written  -ra/lul, R and -römul A) accordingly 'the one with spears emerging' [Lexicon Poeticum]

"GEIRR, m. [Anglo-Saxon gâr; Hel. gêr; OHG. keir, whence kesja, q.v.; cp. also Lat. gaesum, a Teut.-Lat. word] :-- a spear, Edda 41, Fms. i. 177, Hm. 15, 37, Hkv. 1. 15, Hbl. 40; Odin is represented wielding a geir, called Gungnir, as are also the Valkyries; marka sik geirs-oddi, to mark oneself in the breast with a spear's point, so as to make blood flow, was a heathen rite whereby warriors on their death-bed devoted themselves to Odin; it was the common belief that a man who died a natural death was not admitted into Valhalla after death; this rite is only mentioned in mythical Sagas such as Yngl. S. ch. 10; cp. also Gautr. S. ch. 7. -- þá stakk Starkaðr sprotanum á konungi ok mælti, nú gef ek þik Óðni: the origin of this rite is in Hávamál, where Odin himself is represented as hanging on the tree Yggdrasil 'wounded with a spear and given to Odin, myself to myself;' some trace it to a Christian origin, which is not very likely. Again, the cruel blóðörn ('blood-eagle') is no doubt connected with this kind of sacrifice to Odin. II. a personal name, and also in many compds, Sig-geirr, Þór-geirr, Ás-geirr, Vé-geirr (the holy spear), and Geir-hildr, Geir-ríðr, Geir-mundr, Geir-laug, Geir-röðr, and many others [Cleasby/Vigfusson]

Randgríðr:
"randar-, from rönd, a shield, whence also are formed the poëtical compds, rand-álfr, -berendr, -ullr, -viðr, = a warrior; rand-él, -fár, -óp, = battle; rand-áll, -gálkn, -hængr, -laukr, -linnr, -ormr, = a sword; rand-garðr, -hvel, -láð, -völlr, = a shield. 2. personal names of men, Rand-verr; of women, Rand-eiðr, Fms.; Rand-gríð, one of the Valkyries, Grímnismál 36." [Cleasby/Vigfusson]

"The giantess (Gríðr) of the shield" or "shield-destroyer" [Lexicon Poeticum]

Ráðgríðr:
"RÁÐ, n. [Danish raad; Old English reed; German rath], 'rede' counsel, advice" [Cleasby/Vigfusson]

"GRÍÐ, f. frantic eagerness; í gríð, eagerly: gríðar-liga (gríðu- liga, Mag. 99, Ed.), adv. eagerly: gríðar-ligr, adj. eager." [Cleasby/Vigfusson]

The final suffix in the names Randgríðr and Ráðgríðr is sometimes read as -grið, “peace”, instead of –gríð, “eager”.

Reginleif:
REGIN, n. plural only in nomative and accusative:-- the gods as the makers and rulers of the universe, the word being peculiar to the ancient poems; regin heita goð heiðin, bönd ok rögn, Edda ii. 430: frequently in the Völuspá, þá gengu r. öll á rökstóla, ginnheilög goð, 6, 9, 27, 29; ...II. in personal names, Reginn, a mythical name, Edda, Völsunga Saga: especially in compounds, Regin-leif, a feminine name, Landnabók., but mostly contr. Ragn- or Rögn-: of women, Ragna, Ragn-heiðr, Ragn-hildr; of men, Ragnarr, Rögn-valdr, Landn.; cp. old Germ. and Saxon names beginning with Ragin-, mod. Rain-, Rayn-, Ran-, as Reginald, Reynolds. In Compounds, mighty, great: regin-djúp, n. the deep sea. regin-djúpr, adj. mighty deep, Vísna bók 1612. regin-dómr, m. pl. the mighty doom, the last judgment, Völuspá 64. [Cleasby/Vigfusson]
 
 
Like a Valkyrie
Madonna, Super Bowl 2012
Britt-Mari Näsström, Freyja, The Great Goddess of the North, 1995, p. 139: 

 "In the 11th century, the Anglo-Saxon bishop Wulfstan noted what he called 'choosers of the slain' (wælcyrge) among witches and evil-doers on his list of sinners in his Sermo Lupi. This is an example not only of Christian demonizing of the pagan world, but of the widespread and popular perception of those dieties whose function was to decide between life and death on the battlefield.

"Like the Disir, the Valkyries form an indistinct group of female deities with a close connection to the battle-field. They belong to the sphere of Óðinn and Freyja, who share the dead on the battlefield. Like Freyja they choose among the men who are going to die. They reflect the cruelty of death, but also the joyful life on the other side when welcoming the fallen heroes to Valhall."
 
 

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