THE TROUBLE AT THE HÖGSKOLA
Titled "Barbarians enter the Forum", the cartoonist satirizes a bitter feud raged between professors Magnus Mittag-Leffler and Otto Pettersson for philosophical control over the Stockholm Högskola. Founded in 1878, the Högskola attracted some of Europe's finest minds. Although active as a lecturer at the school, Viktor Rydberg was not directly involved in the dispute. As Sweden's foremost living author, famed for his Roman, Biblical, and Old Norse studies, Rydberg was invited to teach there in 1884 and held the only liberal arts chair at the school, otherwise reserved for advanced sciences such as mathematics, chemistry and physics. The cartoon pokes fun at the on-going conflict within the Högskola at which Rydberg held the chair of Professor of Cultural History and later the J.A. Berg Chair in the History and Theory of Art.
It should also be noted that the designation högskola, which is typically translated as 'college,’ [cf. the German hochschule] has been translated literally by the same neo-pagan 'non-profit' that creatively captioned the cartoon, in an obvious effort to equate it with an American secondary school. However, while the term "high school" refers to secondary education in the United States, a secondary school in both Sweden and Germany is known as a Gymnasium, such as the Viktor Rydberg's Gymnasium in Djursholm. The facade of Göteborgs/Gothenburg University clearly illustrates the relationship between a högskola ("college") and a university.
In the cartoon, the seated body is intended to represent the Roman senate. Its leader, in the center left of the cartoon sitting slightly higher than his fellow professors, is Swedish mathematician Magnus Gösta Mittag-Leffler.The root of the problem at the school, by all accounts. Entering the hall at the head of a band of Germanic warriors is his rival Otto Pettersson. Viktor Rydberg (drawing sword) is shown supporting Pettersson. The remaining figures are other professors at the school. Note the detail the artist gives each head. These figures are clearly meant to represent actual people, and appear to be drawn from known photographs of them. Pictures of these men, widely available on the internet and reproduced above, confirm the identity of the key players in this dispute. The battle against Mittag-Leffler's effort to win control of the fledgling university was waged successfully, first by Otto Pettersson and then by his successor Svante Arrhenius.
The theme of the cartoon, possibly inspired by Viktor Rydberg's recent studies in Roman history and on-going studies in Germanic mythology, as well as Pettersson's role as an Oceanographer, was made relevent by the extravagant lifestyle and heavy-handed tactics of Mittag-Leffler, who long sought to wield political and philosophical control over the school. He is depicted as the leader of the corrupt Roman Senate, challenged by an invading Viking army. This depiction indicates that the cartoonist was sympathetic to Pettersson's cause.
To ensure that no one misunderstood his intent, the cartoonist
added the words 'Dichtung'(Poetry) and 'Wahrheit' (Truth) to
Rydberg's sword. "Dichtung und Wahrheit" is also the title
of Goethe's autobiography. Rydberg, who was a Swedish national
icon by this time, had published an acclaimed translation of
Goethe's Faust, Part I, in 1876. The Swedes of that time, of
course, took pride in their Germanic heritage. Naturally, a
Swedish cartoonist would turn to his nation's history for such
an allusion. It's rather amusing that a self-identified
'heathen' organization would miss this obvious fact. Despite the
incredible claim that one cannot find reliable
information in English regarding Rydberg's life and works (which
is simply not true), the nature of this dispute is well known,
inside and outside of Sweden. The sources presented below
provide an accurate overview of the situation depicted in the
SOURCES & CITATIONS
Nowlan, Robert A.,
A Chronicle of Mathematical People:
Batterson, Steven. Stephen Smale: The Mathematician Who Broke the Dimension Barrier, 2008, p. 134-135.
"In 1877 Mittag-Leffler was appointed to a chair at the University of Helsinki, and four years later he returned home to accept a post at the Stockholm Hogskola, later to become the University of Stockholm. In 1882, with the financial backing of his wealthy wife, Mittag-Leffler founded Acta Mathematica and served as its chief editor for 45 years."
Chapter 7: The Nobel Prize and the Fields Medal
"They were won, however, only after head-on confrontations with the old guard led by Mittag-Leffler. Petterson’s re-election as rector early in 1895 only occurred after a drawn-out fight during which the Högskola for a short while, partly as a result of Mittag-Leffler’s machinations, found itself with three rectors, two of whom had only been duly elected by the council of teachers at two successsive meetings, the third having been appointed temporarily by the governing board.
"This episode was followed four months later, in May 1895, by a row over the appointment of Arrhenius to the newly created chair of physics. In an effort to block Arrhenius, Mittag-Leffler succeeded in having Lord Kelvin called as one of the three experts judging Arrhenius’ competence. Kelvin’s opinion was predictably negative, but was transmitted to Mittag-Leffler in a personal letter rather than, as called for by the rules of appointment (sakkunnighets-
institutionen) in a formal opinion addressed to the Högskola. This made it possible for Pettersson to disallow it."
"...In Stockholm’s small intellectual community, where pratically everybody knew someone in the press, these conflicts received considerable attention from the newspapers which made much of 'the trouble at the Högskola.'"
Thus, the origin of the satirical cartoon.
Professors at Stockholms Högskola
The First Female Professor
T., The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution: The Science
Prizes, 1901-1915, 1987, pp. 111-112
Svansson, Artur. Otto Pettersson:
oceanografen, kemisten, uppfinnaren, 2006
"Mittag-Leffler, ...had few of the features that endeared Arrhenius to his friends. In the diary he kept for most of his adult life his bad health is a recurrent feature. From the turn of the century, (when he was in his fifties) onward, this increasingly preocccupied him. As he himself recognized, his health problems could be attributed at least partly to a nervous disposition and an overriding ambition to succeed, not only as a mathematician but also in the many related endeavors to which he applied his organizational and other skills.
"Mittag-Leffler used all means available to him to promote his various causes. Whether his aim was to secure financial support for his journal Acta Mathmematica or the Högskola, to promote or block candidates for academic positions, or later in life, to influence Sweden's defense and foriegn policy, the ingredients of his 'campaigns,' as he himself called them, were essentially the same: a stream of letters and cables would flow from his desk exhorting and cajoling those he regarded as his friends into supporting his course of action. When necessary, journalists from leading newspapers would be summoned and 'instructed,’ as the put it, in the proper way of handling the matter. In all this he displayed the skills of a public relations man and lobbyist operating on the level of present-day professionals.
"To him, all actions were justified by the righteousness of his cause. To many of his contemporaries, though, Mittag-Leffler appeared as nothing less than Machiavellian, in what they felt was his self-seeking pursuit of power and influence, and their judgments of his person were accordingly harsh.
"In his memoirs, Arrhenius recounts how when he came to the Högskola in 1891, largely through the help of Mittag-Lefflar, the latter offered to lend him money. 'If I understood him correctly,' he writes, 'it was a question of buying my support for his viewpoints. I despised him and have never since had reason to change my opinion.’
"Even without this incident, it is difficult to see how the two could have cooperated, since they were almost two exact opposites on so many counts. Although their social origins were similar, Arrhenius considered thrift both a necessity and a virtue, whereas the lifestyle of Mittag-Leffler was lavish in the extreme."
"..Arrhenius generally held liberal reformist views, whereas Mittag-Leffler’s stance was on the whole elitest, nationalist, and monarchist.”
"...Coming as it did in the aftermath of the battles at the Högskola where the 'young Turks’ led by Pettersson and Arrhenius had succesfully fought the old guard led by Mittag-Leffler, it is not surprising that the Nobel prizes should become the scene of further conflicts between Arrhenius and Mittag-Leffler."
Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
"Men ett långt brev från OP till SH-kollegan Viktor
Rydberg (VR) den 9/12 86 (KB) om rektorsval, avslöjar,
att de nedan under OPs rektorstid (1893- 96) omtalade
inre stridigheterna var aktuella redan nu.
Man skulle välja ny rektor för tvåårsperioden 1887-88.
Om VR hade kandiderat, hade han sannolikt blivit vald.
För det var nog inte bara den mindre gruppen kring OP,
som menade att "Du står utom partierna och är den ende
som kan bringa fred inom Högskolan."
Majoritetens kandidat blev då omval av
matematikprofessorn Gösta Mittag-Leffler, som i NE,
efter att ha prisats för sina stora insatser, på
sluttampen karakteriseras: "Han skydde inte strid för
att nå sina mål och blev därigenom en kontroversiell och
ibland fruktad person". Det senare motsägs inte av
brevet till VR, vilket jag citerar delar av:
Efter värt samtal i Tisdags ansäg jag vid närmare
eftertänkande, att det var ärligast och bäst, att utan
längre dröjsmål meddela mina yngre kolleger, [Knut]
Ångström och [Nordal] Wille, det svar Du gav åt mig och
[Robert] Rubenson. Jag sade dem: att Rydberg avböjt
valet till rektor för sin egen del; att han icke har
förtroende till [Gösta Mittag-] Leffler och anser, att
det icke vore lyckligt för Högskolan, om L. bleve
rektor, men av ett skäl, som är personligen bindande för
Rydberg själv, beslutit skänka Leffler sin röst vid
valet. Jag tillade, att enligt min uppfattning var
Rydbergs beslut orubbligt. Därpå bad jag mina kamrater
att förena sig med mig om en annan kanidat, eftersom
ingen av oss kunde vara med om att välja L. utan att
handla mot sin övertygelse. Jag hade väntat att få mina
kamrater med mig häruti, men fann istället ett motstånd,
som jag knappt torde kunna besegra, och fick ögonen
öppna för ett förhållande, som jag borde tänkt på förut.
Om L. blir rektor för de kommande båda åren, så är detta
egentligen endast en obehaglig händelse för oss andra,
som vi ej kunna ha något ont av - endast ledsamheter.
Men för Wille och Ångström blir det en allvarsam sak.
Deras ställning vid Högskolan är, som Du vet, osäker,
deras fullmakter lyda på några månader i sänder och
måste nu t.ex. i denna månad förnyas, om de ej skola
tvingas att lämna...
But a long letter from Otto Pettersson to his
Viktor Rydberg (VR) dated 9/12 86 (KB) regarding the
selection of a principal, reveals that during Otto
Petterson's time as rector (1893-96) talk about internal
strife was already relevant.
A new president of the two-year period from 1887 to '88 was
to be chosen. If Viktor Rydberg had stood as a candidate,
he'd probably have been elected. For it was not only the
smaller group around Otto Petterson who said that "You are
outside of the dispute and are the only one who can bring
peace within the University."
The majority's candidate was then re-elected —mathematics
professor Gösta Mittag-Leffler, who in NE, after being
praised for his great efforts, is in closing characterized,
"He spared no battle to reach his goals and thus became a
controversial and sometimes fearsome person." The latter is
not contradicted by the letter to Viktor Rydberg which I
quote parts of:
"After much conversation I carefully considered,
thinking it was best, without further delay, to inform
my younger colleagues, [Knut] Angström and [Nordal]
Wille, of the response you gave to me and [Robert]
Rubenson. I told them that Rydberg declined election to
the Vice Chancellor for himself; that he does not have
confidence in [Gösta Mittag-] Leffler and believes, that
it would not be good for the University, if Leffler
became principal, but for personal reasons Rydberg
himself intended to give Leffler his vote at the
election. I added that I believed that Rydberg's
decision was steadfast. Then I asked my friends to join
me in support of another candidate, because none of us
could be involved in choosing Leffler except we act
against our beliefs. I had been expecting my comrades to
join with me on this, but found instead a resistor,
which I would barely be able to defeat, and had my eyes
opened to a relationship, which I should have seen
before. If Leffler becomes president for the next two
years, it will certainly be an unpleasant event for us,
not anything harmful- just sadness. But for Wille and
Angström it becomes a serious matter. Their position at
the University is, as you know, uncertain, their
contacts last a few months at a time and must now— e.g.
this month, be renewed, if they are not forced to
p. 126 :
Stubhaug, Arild. Gösta Mittag-Leffler: A Man of Conviction, 2010, p. 430-431
“The University of Stockholm, founded in 1878,
was as different as possible to the Uppsala-Lund state university
tradition, since in the beginning there was no examination, the
professors represented only the natural sciences with one exception,
and the famous writer and liberal journalist Viktor Rydberg
(1828-95) was given a chair in History of Culture (later History and
Theory of Art) The institution did not like being called a
university, but was named Stockholms Högskola. From 1904, the
Högskola gained the right to set examinations, and with a new
faculty of law and social sciences and semi-municipal status from
1907, became de facto a university, finally attaining the status of
a state university in 1960, at which time is name changed to
Stockholms Universitet. The number of professors of Jewish origin
was remarkably higher in Stockholms Hogskola than in the state
universities, and one of the world’s first female professors taught
"More and more people
were moving to Djursholm. Businessmen and intellectuals and many
others settled in the new residential areas, which was widely
regarded as an ideal place to live. Most were well-to-do and had
radical interests. The average income was among the highest in the
country, and one of the wealthiest was Mittag-Leffler, who according
to public records had a taxable income of about five times the
professor salary that he received. The most famous resident was of
Djursholm was Viktor Rydberg. It was Mittag-Leffler who had
persuaded Rydberg to move to Djursholm and become his closest
neighbor. In spite of disagreements about the College, the two
neighbors often ment at social gatherings and had private
conversations. Judging by the brief notes that the two
exchanged—scribbled in all haste on calling cards and the like— it
seems like spiritualism, one of the popular interest of the day, was
occasionally included in their conversations. In any case, there
seems a hint of this in Rydberg's words: "Keenly interested in
embarking with you on the foreamentioned borderline area of
philosophy." Or perhaps this referred to mathematical ideas?
There was great sorrow
in Djursholm and in the entire country when the great poet Rydberg
unexpectedly passed away on September 21, 1895. As a response to the
many public memorials and obituaries honoring Rydberg,
Mittag-Leffler wanted to present his own portrait of the man and the
writer, with whom he'd been entralled ever since his days in
death, Mittag-Leffler and Henrik Palme, who was the founder of the
Djursholm residential area, took the initative to comission one of
the country's foremost sculptors, John Börjeson, to create a bust of
Rydberg. The bust was unveiled in Djursholm six years later."
Although it lasted many more years, the political struggle at the Högskola
peaked between March 1893 and November 1895. Viktor Rydberg died September
21, 1895, provoking a national day of mourning. The struggle continued on
after his death unabated. Ultimately the 'Young Turks' led by Svante
Arrhenius prevailed, paving the way for Stockholms
högskola to become the University of Stockholm.
Considering the well-documented nature of the cartoon's subject
in both Swedish and English, one can reasonably conclude that
the web-based cult disseminating this misinformation has intentionally misrepresented
the cartoon to support their own agenda.
The truth is out there.