Thomas Percy Translation (1770): [GYLFAGINNING]
Rasmus Anderson Translation (1872): [PROLOGUE][GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
A. Brodeur Translation (1916): [PROLOGUE &GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
English Translation of
Written by Snorri Sturluson
Prose or Younger Edda
Translated by George Webb Dasent
PREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR.
The short work now for the first time, it is believed, laid before the English reader, forms in the original the first part of a collection published by Prof. Rask at Stockholm in 1818, under the following title, “Snorra-Edda ásamt Skáldu og þarmed fylgjandi Rit-gjörðum", "Snorri's Edda together with the Skálda and the Treatises thereto belonging". It was the opinion of that great Philologist that this collection grew together in the family of Snorri Sturluson, the work of several hands at different times; and the Translator has not scrupled to separate writings, which have scarcely any other connection than the fact of their being found following one another in the same MS. At some other time he looks forward to stating his convictions on this matter, and his reasons for them, at greater length; but for the present he must content himself with saying, that his opinion is in the main the same as that mentioned above as expressed by Prof. Rask.
Without entering into any discussion on the present occasion, as to the time at which the younger Edda was written, or as to its author; The Translator wishes to say that he has felt no hesitation in placing the "Foreword to the Edda", along with the “Afterwords to Gylfi's Mocking and the Edda", at the end of the volume, partly because they are plainly of a later age, but chiefly because he is desirous to save the reader from falling at the very threshold, into those false conceptions concerning the nature of the Asa in the old Norse Mythology, with which the Foreword in question is filled.
He has also taken the liberty of printing separately and under a different title, the chapter which in the original stands as the first in “Gylfi's Mocking", because however interesting, it has clearly nothing in common with what follows, and is doubtless,' the interpolation of some early copyist, who thought himself bound to write down at the same time all he knew about Gylfi, and could find no better place for this myth than to set it first: it is remarkable that in the Upsala MS., said by some to be the oldest extant, this chapter is omitted.
With regard to the Translation itself, his chief wish was to make it as faithful as possible, and. though he knows that it might have been smoother throughout, and that it contains much that will seem harsh and abrupt, both in wording and construction, to the polished ears of this 19th century, he could not help himself in these respects, his aim being to make a translation, not a paraphrase. In one passage only he has been, forced to soften words, which the simple Norse tongue spoke boldy without shame. but which our age, less outwardly pure perhaps, but more inwardly sensitive to what is unseemly, cannot hear without a blush.
After all the pains he has bestowed upon his translation, he is well aware that faults are to be found in it, and that his renderings of doubtful passages, may not tally with those of others'; but in the gloom that still hangs over many customs of the Old Norse men, and above all in the want of a good Glossary of their tongue, (for the collection of Björn Halldorson is poor and meagre in the extreme*) he trusts that his failings will be treated with mildness, since all may stumble in the dark.
*May the the Old Norse Glossary on which Mr. Cleasby is said to be at work soon appear.
It was his intention to prefix a facsimile from a celebrated MS. of the Edda, preserved in the Library of the University of Upsala, and up to the very last moment he hoped that this might be possible; but hindrances, to be looked for rather in the Vatican than at Upsala , have rendered this intention and hope alike fruitless.
Lastly there is yet one point on which a few words must be said: most readers, it is likely, will think a work of the kind incomplete nay useless, without a good Index of Proper Names and their meanings; to this objection the Translator is willing to allow very considerable weight, but as his excuse he would state that considerable progress had been made in such an Index, when circumstances arose, which would have made it, if printed, a hurried production, and rather than do the thing ill he gave it up for the present.
It is however his purpose to translate the Skalda at some future time, should leisure and health be granted him, and he hopes then to atone for the imperfections of this volume, by an Index which will serve for both works, as there are comparatively speaking few Names to be met with in the one, which do not also occur in the other.
Ulfsunda near Stockholm, July 20th, 1842
|1. Frá Gylfa konungi ok Gefjuni.||GEFIUN'S PLOUGHING.|
Gylfi konungr réð þar löndum er nú
heitir Svíþjóð. Frá honum er þat sagt at hann gaf einni farandi konu at launum
skemmtunar sinnar eitt plógsland í ríki sínu þat er fjórir öxn drægi upp dag ok
nótt. En sú kona var ein af ása ætt, hon er nefnd Gefjun. Hon tók fjóra öxn
norðan ór Jötunheimum, en þat váru synir jötuns nökkurs ok hennar, ok setti þá
fyrir plóg, en plógrinn gekk svá breitt ok djúpt at upp leysti landit, ok drógu
öxnirnir þat land út á hafit ok vestr ok námu staðar í sundi nökkuru. Þar setti
Gefjun landit ok gaf nafn ok kallaði Selund. Ok þar sem landit hafði upp gengit
var þar eftir vatn. Þat er nú Lögrinn kallaðr í Svíþjóð, ok liggja svá víkr í
Leginum sem nes í Selundi. Svá segir Bragi skáld gamli:
1. Gefjun dró frá Gylfa
King Gylfi ruled in that land which now hight SvíÞiód, of him it is said that he gave a wayfaring Woman, as the meed of the passtime she made him, a ploughland in his realm, which four oxen could ear up in a day and a night. But that woman was one of the Asa stock, she is named Gefiun, she took four oxen from the north out of Jotunheim; but they, were the sons of a Giant and her, and set them before a plough. But the plough went so hard and deep that it tore up the land, and the oxen drew that land out to sea and westward, and stood still in a certain sound. There set Gefiun the land, and gave it a name and called it Sælund. And the room whence the land had gone up became afterward water, which is now called The Water (lavgrinn) in SvíÞiód and the bays; in the lake lie just as the headlands in Sælund. So saith bard Bragi the old.
"Gefiun drew from Gylfi
|2. Gylfi kom til Ásgarðs||GYLFI'S MOCKING|
Gylfi konungr var maðr vitr ok fjölkunnigr. Hann undraðist þat mjök, er ásafólk var svá kunnigt, at allir hlutir gengu at vilja þeira. Þat hugsaði hann, hvárt þat myndi vera af eðli sjálfra þeira eða myndi því valda goðmögn þau, er þeir blótuðu. Hann byrjaði ferð sína til Ásgarðs ok fór með leynð ok brá á sik gamals manns líki ok dulðist svá. En æsir váru því vísari, at þeir höfðu spádóm, ok sá þeir ferð hans, fyrr en hann kom, ok gerðu í móti honum sjónhverfingar. Ok er hann kom inn í borgina, þá sá hann þar háva höll, svá at varla mátti hann sjá yfir hana. Þak hennar var lagt gylldum skjöldum svá sem spánþak. Svá segir Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski, at Valhöll var skjöldum þökð:
Gylfi sá mann í hallardurum, ok lék at
handsöxum ok hafði sjau senn á lofti. Sá spurði hann fyrr at nafni. Hann
nefndist Gangleri ok kominn af refilstigum ok beiddist at sækja til
náttstaðar ok spurði, hverr höllina átti.
Hann sá þrjú hásæti ok hvert upp frá öðru,
ok sátu þrír menn sinn í hverju. Þá spurði hann, hvert nafn höfðingja
4. "ok stattu fram,
King Gylfi was a man wise and skilled
in spells, he wondered much that the Asafolk was so cunning that all things went
after their will, (and) he thought to himself whether that might be from their
own nature, or because of the mighty Gods whom they worshipped. He began his
journey to Asgard and went stealthily, and took on him an old man's likeness,
and hid himself so. But the Asa were wiser than he in that they had spaedom, and
they saw his journey before he came, and made ready against him false shows. Now
when he was come into the burg then saw he there a hall so high that he was
scarce able to see over it, it's roof was laid with gilded shields as it were
with shingles. So saith Þiodólf of Hvina that Valhall was thatcht with shields.
"Warriors care-vext Let on the back glisten
(smitten with stones were they) Svafnir's roof-tree."
Gylfi saw a man in the hall-door who played with small-swords, and had seven aloft at once, that (man) asked him first for his name, he called himself Gangleri, and (said he was) come from a far journey and prayed to seek a nights' lodging;
and asked who owned the hall. He answers that was their King, “But I may lead thee to see him, and then shallt thou thyself ask him his name:" and the man turned before him into the hall, but he went after, and straitway the door shut to at his heels. There saw he many rooms and much folk, some a-playing,
some a-drinking some with weapons a-fighting: then he turned him about and thought many things past belief that he saw, then quoth he
''Every gate for hard ‘tis to tell
ere one goes on where foes are sitting
about should be scanned, I’ th’ house before thee."
Be saw three highseats one above the other, and three men sat, one in each, then asked he what the names of those Lords might be. He that led him in answers, that he who sat in the nethermost highseat was a King and hight Har, but next sat one hight Jafnhár, and uppermost he that hight Þriðí. Then Hár asks the comer what more his errand is, and says meat and drink are free to him as to all there in Háva-hall. He says he will first spy out if there be any wise man there within. Hár says, that he comes not whole out unless he be wiser,
''and stand thou forth
since thou askest
he that sayeth shall sit.”
|3. Um Alföðr, æðstan goða|
Gangleri hóf svá mál sitt: "Hverr er
æðstr eða elztr allra goða?"
Hárr segir: "Sá heitir Alföðr at váru máli, en í Ásgarði inum forna átti hann tólf nöfn. Eitt er Alföðr, annat er Herran eða Herjan, þriðja er Nikarr eða Hnikarr, fjórða er Nikuðr eða Hnikuðr, fimmta Fjölnir, sétta Óski, sjaunda Ómi, átta Bifliði eða Biflindi, níunda Sviðurr, tíunda Sviðrir, ellifta Viðrir, tólfta Jálg eða Jálkr."
Þá spyrr Gangleri: "Hvar er sá guð, eða hvat má hann, eða hvat hefir hann unnit framaverka?"
Hárr segir: "Lifir hann of allar aldir ok stjórnar öllu ríki sínu ok ræðr öllum hlutum, stórum ok smám."
Þá mælir Jafnhárr: "Hann smíðaði himin ok jörð ok loftin ok alla eign þeira."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Hitt er þó mest, er hann gerði manninn ok gaf honum önd þá, er lifa skal ok aldri týnast, þótt líkaminn fúni at moldu eða brenni at ösku, ok skulu allir menn lifa, þeir er rétt eru siðaðir, ok vera með honum sjálfum þar sem heitir Gimlé eða Vingólf, en vándir menn fara til Heljar ok þaðan í Niflhel. Þat er niðr í inn níunda heim."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafðist hann áðr at en himinn ok jörð væri ger?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Þá var hann með hrímþursum."
3. Gangleri began his speech thus; Who is first or eldest of all
Gods? Hár says. He hight Allfadir in our tongue, but in the old Asgard
he had twelve names; the first is Allfadir, the second is Herran or
Herian, the third is Nikarr or Hnikarr, the fourth is Nikuz
or Hnikuðr, the fifth Fiölnir, the sixth Oske, the seventh Omi, the
eighth Bifliþi or Biflindi, the ninth Sviðrorr, the tenth Sviðrir, the
eleventh Viðrir, the twelfth Jalg or Jálkr. Then asks Gangleri; Where
is that God ? or what is his might ? or what has he been pleased to work
out? Hár says. He lives from all ages, and rules over all his realm, and
sways all things great and small. Then said Jafnhár. He smithied heaven
and earth and the lift and all that belongs to them. Then said Þriði:
What is most he made man, and gave him a soul that shall live and never
perish, though the body rot to mould or burn to ashes; and all men that
are right-minded shall live and be with himself in the place called
Vingolf; but wicked men fare to
Hell, and thence into Niflhel that is beneath in the ninth
world. Then said Gangleri; Where kept he ere Heaven and Earth were yet
made? Then answers Hár: Then was he with the HrímÞursar.
|4. Frá Niflheimi ok Múspelli||Of Niflheim and Muspelli|
Gangleri mælti: "Hvat var upphaf eða hversu hófst, eða hvat var áðr?"
Hárr svarar: "Svá sem segir í Völuspá:
5. Ár var alda,
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Fyrr var þat mörgum öldum en jörð var
sköpuð er Niflheimr var gerr, ok í honum miðjum liggr bruðr sá, er
Hvergelmir heitir, ok þaðan af falla þær ár, er svá heita: Svöl,
Gunnþrá, Fjörm, Fimbulþul, Slíðr ok Hríð, Sylgr ok Ylgr, Víð, Leiftr.
Gjöll er næst Helgrindum."
6. Surtr ferr sunnan
4. Gangleri said; What was the beginning? or how did it
arise? or what was before? Hár answers: As it is said in Völuspá.
''Twas the morning of timeEarth was not found
nor Heaven above
but grass nowhere.”
Then spake Jafnhár: Many ages ere the earth was shapen was Niflheim made; and in the midst of it lieth the spring hight Hvergelmir and thence fall those rivers hight thus. Svavl, Gunnþra, Fiörm, Fimbul, Þul, Sliðr and Hriþ, Sylgr and Ylgr, Við, Leiptr, Giöll is nearest Helgate. Then spake Þriði: But first was that world in the southern sphere hight Muspell, it is so bright and hot that it burns and blazes, and may not be trodden by those who are outlandish and have no heritage there. He is named Surtr who sits there on the border to guard the Land, he has a flaming sword, and at the end of the world will he fare forth and herry and overcome all the Gods, and burn all the world with fire; so it is said in Völuspá.
|5. Upphaf Ymis ok hrímþursa|
Gangleri mælti: "Hversu skipaðist, áðr en
ættirnar yrði eða aukaðist mannfólkit?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Ár þær, er kallaðar eru Élivágar, þá er þær váru svá langt komnar frá uppsprettum, at eitrkvika sú, er þar fylgði, harðnaði svá sem sindr þat, er renn ór eldinum, þá varð þat íss. Ok þá er sá íss gaf staðar ok rann eigi, þá hélði yfir þannig, en úr þat, er af stóð eitrinu, fraus at hrími, ok jók hrímit hvert yfir annat allt í Ginnungagap."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Ginnungagap, þat er vissi til norðrættar, fylltist með þunga ok höfugleik íss ok hríms ok inn í frá úr ok gustr, en inn syðri hlutr Ginnungagaps léttist mót gneistum ok síum þeim, er flugu ór Múspellsheimi."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Svá sem kalt stóð af Niflheimi ok allir hlutir grimmir, svá var allt þat, er vissi námunda Múspelli, heitt ok ljóst, en Ginnungagap var svá hlætt sem loft vindlaust. Ok þá er mættist hrímin ok blær hitans, svá at bráðnaði ok draup, ok af þeim kvikudropum kviknaði með krafti þess, er til sendi hitann, ok varð manns líkandi, ok var sá nefndr Ymir, en hrímþursar kalla hann Aurgelmi, ok eru þaðan komnar ættir hrímþursa, svá sem segir í Völuspá inni skömmu:
7. Eru völur allar
En hér segir svá Vafþrúðnir jötunn:
8a. hvaðan Aurgelmir kom
8b. Ór Élivágum
5. Gangleri said; What was the shape of things ere the races
were yet mingled, and the folk of men grew? Then said Hár: Those rivers that are
called Elivàigar, when they were come so far from their springhead that the
quick venom which flowed with them hardened, as dross that runs out of the fire,
then became that ice; and when the ice stood still and ran not, then gathered
over it that damp which arose from the venom and froze to rime; and the rime
waxed, each (layer) over the other, all into Ginnúnga-gap. Then spake Jafnhár:
Ginnúnga-gap which looked toward the north parts was filled with thick and heavy
ice and rime, and everywhere within were fogs and gusts, but the south side of
Ginnúnga-gap was lightened by the sparks and gledes that flew out of Muspellheim. Then spake Þriði: As cold
arose out of Niflheim and all things grim, so was that part that looked towards
Muspell hot and bright but Ginnnúga-gap was as light as windless air and when
of heat met the rime, so that it melted and dropped and quickened from those lifedrops, by the might of him who sends the heat there was shaped the likeness of a man, and he was named Ymir, but the Hrímþursar call him Avrgelmir, and thence are sprung the stock of the Hrímþursar, as is said in Völuspá the short.
But as to this thus says Vafþrúðnir the Giant when Gagnradr asked
The two stanzas are divided into three, as in the Rasmus Rask edition of 1818.
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvernig óxu ættir þaðan
eða skapaðist svá, at fleiri menn urðu, eða trúir þú þann guð, er nú
sagðir þú frá?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Fyr engan mun játum vér hann guð. Hann er illr ok allir hans ættmenn. Þá köllum vér hrímþursa. En svá er sagt, at þá er hann svaf, fekk hann sveita. Þá óx undir vinstri hendi honum maðr ok kona, ok annarr fótr hans gat son við öðrum, en þaðan af kómu ættir. Þat eru hrímþursar. Inn gamli hrímþurs, hann köllum vér Ymi."
Then said Gangleri; How waited the races together from him, or what was
done so that more men came? or trowest thou him God whom thou now
Then answers Hár: By no means may we believe him to be God he was bad and all his kind, them call we Hrímþursar: and so it is said; when he slept he fell into a sweat; then waxed under his left hand a man and a woman, and one of his feet gat a son with the other; and thence cometh that race, those are the Hrímþursar; the old Hrímþurs him call we Ymir.
|6. Frá Auðhumlu ok upphafi Óðins|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvar byggði Ymir, eða við hvat lifði hann?"
Hárr svarar: "Næst var þat, þá er hrímit draup, at þar varð af kýr sú, er Auðhumla hét, en fjórar mjólkár runnu ór spenum hennar, ok fæddi hon Ymi."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Við hvat fæddist kýrin?"
Hárr svarar: "Hon sleikði hrímsteinana, er saltir váru, ok inn fyrsta dag, er hon sleikði steinana, kom ór steininum at kveldi manns hár, annan dag manns höfuð, þriðja dag var þar allr maðr. Sá er nefndr Búri. Hann var fagr álitum, mikill ok máttugr. Hann gat son þann, er Borr hét, hann fekk þeirar konu, er Bestla hét, dóttir Bölþorns jötuns, ok fengu þau þrjá sonu. Hét einn Óðinn, annarr Vili, þriði Vé, ok þat er mín trúa, at sá Óðinn ok hans bræðr munu vera stýrandi himins ok jarðar. Þat ætlum vér, at hann myni svá heita. Svá heitir sá maðr, er vér vitum mestan ok ágæztan, ok vel meguð þér hann láta svá heita."
|6. Then said Gangleri; Where abode Ymir? or on what lived he? The next thing when the rime dropped was that the cow hight Audhumla was made of it, but four milk-rivers ran out of her teats and she fed Ymir; then said Gangleri. On what did the cow feed? Hár says; She licked rime-stones which were salt, and the first day that she licked the stones, there came at even out of the stones a man's hair, the second day a man's head, the third day all the man was there; He is named Buri, he was fair of face, great and mighty; he gat a son hight Börr. He took (to him) the woman hight Besla, daughter of Bölþorn the Giant, and they had three sons, the first hight Odin, the second Vili, the third Ve: and I trow this Odin and his brethren must be the steerers of heaven and earth, and we think that he must be so called, so hight the man whom we know to be greatest and lordliest; and well may they (men) give him this name.|
|7. Dráp Ymis ok frá Bergelmi||The Death of Ymir and about Bergelmir|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat varð þá um þeira
sætt, eða hvárir váru ríkari?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Synir Bors drápu Ymi jötun, en er hann féll, þá hljóp svá mikit blóð ór sárum hans, at með því drekkðu þeir allri ætt hrímþursa, nema einn komst undan með sínu hýski. Hann kalla jötnar Bergelmi. Hann fór upp á lúðr sinn ok kona hans ok helzt þar, ok eru af þeim komnar hrímþursa ættir, svá sem hér segir:
9. Örófi vetra
7. Then said Gangleri. What atonement was there between them, or which were the stronger? Then answers Hár; Bör's sons slew Ymir the Giant; but when he fell there ran so much blood out of his wounds, that with that they drowned all the kind of the Hrímþursar, save one who got away with his household ; him the giants call Bergelmir, he went on board his boat*, and (with him) his wife, and held him there; and of them are come the race of Hrímþursar, as is here said.
"Winters past counting
*[This stanza is Vafthrúðnismál 35. The word translated as 'boat' and 'skiff' here is lúðr. In the prose, the text reads "He went up on his lúðr." In the stanza, the line reads "and was laid on lúðr." In all other occurrances, lúðr means "mill-box", and often indicates the mill itself. The original sense seems to be that Bergelmir was laid upon a mill, most likely to be ground up into rocks and soil, as his grandfather Ymir was. Of this verse, the Cleasby-Vigfusson Dictionary states: þat ek fyrst of man er sá inn fróði jötunn | á var lúðr of lagiðr, Vþm. 35 (referring to some ancient lost myth)]
|8. Borssynir skópu jörð ok himinn||Borr's sons create earth and heaven.|
Þá segir Gangleri: "Hvat höfðust þá at Bors
synir, ef þú trúir at þeir sé goð?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi er þar lítit af at segja. Þeir tóku Ymi ok fluttu í mitt Ginnungagap ok gerðu af honum jörðina, af blóði hans sæinn ok vötnin. Jörðin var ger af holdinu, en björgin af beinunum. Grjót ok urðir gerðu þeir af tönnum ok jöxlum ok af þeim beinum, er brotin váru."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Af því blóði, er ór sárum rann ok laust fór, þar af gerðu þeir sjá, þann er þeir gerðu ok festu saman jörðina ok lögðu þann sjá í hring útan um hana, ok mun þat flestum manni ófæra þykkja at komast þar yfir."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Tóku þeir ok haus hans ok gerðu þar af himin ok settu hann upp yfir jörðina með fjórum skautum, ok undir hvert horn settu þeir dverg. Þeir heita svá: Austri, Vestri, Norðri, Suðri. Þá tóku þeir síur ok gneista þá, er lausir fóru ok kastat hafði ór Múspellsheimi, ok settu á mitt Ginnungap á himin bæði ofan ok neðan til at lýsa himin ok jörð. Þeir gáfu staðar öllum eldingum, sumum á himni, sumar fóru lausar undir himni, ok settu þó þeim stað ok skipuðu göngu þeim. Svá er sagt í fornum vísendum, at þaðan af váru dægr greind ok áratal. Svá sem segir í Völuspá:
10. Sól þat né vissi,
Svá var áðr en þetta
8. Then answers Gangleri; What was done then by Bör's sons, if
thou trowest that they be Gods?
Hár says; Thereof is not little to say. They took Ymir and bore (him) into the midst of Ginnunga- gap and made of him the earth: of his blood seas and waters, of his flesh earth was made; but of his bones the rocks; stones and pebbles made they of his teeth and jaws and of the bones that were broken.
Then said Jafnhár. Of that blood which ran out of the wounds and flowed free, they made the (great) sea, and anon set the earth fast and laid that sea round about it in a ring without; and it must seem to most men beyond their strength to come over it.
Then said Þriði: They took also his skull and made thereof heaven and set it up over the earth with four sides, and under each corner they set dwarves: they hight thus Austri, Vestri, Norþri, Suþri. Then took they the sparks and gledes that went loose and had been cast out of Muspelheim, and set (them) in heaven, both above and below, to give light to heaven and earth; (and) they gave resting-places to all fires and set some in Heaven; some fared free under heaven and they gave them a place and shaped their goings: So it is said in old songs, that from that time were days and years marked out; as is said in Völuspá.
'Sun that wist not
So was it ere this shape of earth was.
Then said Gangleri. Great tidings are these I now hear, a wondrous mickle smithying is that, and deftly done. How was the earth fashioned?
Then answers Hár: It is round without and there beyond round about it, lieth the deep sea; and on that sea-strand gave they land for an abode to the kind of Giants, but within on the earth made they a burg round the world, against restless giants, and for this burg reared they the brows of Ymir the giant, and called the burg Midgard: they took also his brain and cast (it) aloft, and made thereof the clouds as is here said.
11. Ór Ymis holdi
11. "Of Ymir's flesh
|9. Borssynir skópu Ask ok Emblu||Borr's sons create Ask and Embla|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Mikit þótti mér þeir hafa þá snúit til
leiðar, er jörð ok himinn var gert ok sól ok himintungl váru sett ok
skipt dægrum, ok hvaðan kómu mennirnir, þeir er heim byggja?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Þá er þeir gengu með sævarströndu Borssynir, fundu þeir tré tvau ok tóku upp trén ok sköpuðu af menn. Gaf inn fyrsti önd ok líf, annarr vit ok hræring, þriði ásjónu, mál ok heyrn ok sjón, gáfu þeim klæði ok nöfn. Hét karlmaðrinn Askr, en konan Embla, ok ólst þaðan af mannkindin, sú er byggðin var gefinn undir Miðgarði. Þar næst gerðu þeir sér borg í miðjum heimi, er kölluð er Ásgarðr. Þat köllum vér Trója. Þar byggðu goðin ok ættir þeira, ok gerðust þaðan af mörg tíðendi ok greinir bæði á jörðu ok í lofti. Þar er einn staðr, er Hliðskjálf heitir, ok þá er Óðinn settist þar í hásæti, þá sá hann of alla heima ok hvers manns athæfi ok vissi alla hluti, þá er hann sá. Kona hans hét Frigg Fjörgvinsdóttir, ok af þeira ætt er sú kynslóð komin, er vér köllum ása ættir, er byggt hafa Ásgarð inn forna ok þau ríki, er þar liggja til, ok er þat allt goðkunnug ætt. Ok fyrir því má hann heita Alföðr, at hann er faðir allra goðanna ok manna ok alls þess, er af honum ok hans krafti var fullgert. Jörðin var dóttir hans ok kona hans. Af henni gerði hann inn fyrsta soninn, en þat er Ása-Þórr. Honum fylgði afl ok sterkleikr. Þar af sigrar hann öll kvikvendi.
9. Then said Gángleri; Methought they had then brought much
about, when Heaven and earth were made, and Sun and moon were set, and
days marked out; but whence came the men that dwell in the world?
Then answers Hár: As Bör’s sons went long the sea-strand they found two stocks, (and) shaped out of them men. The first gave soul and life, the second wit and will to move, the third face, speech, hearing, and eyesight; (they) gave them clothing and names; the man hight Ask, but the woman Embla; and thence was the kind of man begotten, to whom an abode was given under Midgard. Then next they, (Bör’s sons) made them a burg in the midst of the world, that is called Asgard: [that call we TroyJ there abode the Gods and their kind, and wrought thence many tidings and feats both on earth and in the sky. There is one place hight Hliðskialf, and when Odin sat there in his highseat, then saw he over the whole world and each man's behaviour, and knew all things that he saw. His wife hight Frigg Fiorgvin's daughter, and from their offspring is the kindred come that we call the Asa stock, who dwelt in Asgard the old and the realms which lie about it; and all that stock are known to be Gods. And for this may he hight Allfadir, that he is father of all the Gods and men, and of all that was wrought out by him and his strength; Earth was his daughter and wife, and of her got he the first son, and that was Asa-Þórr: him followed strength and sturdiness, thereby quelleth he all things quick.
|10. Tilkváma Dags ok Nætr||Day and Night's Arrival|
|Nörfi eða Narfi hét jötunn, er byggði í Jötunheimum. Hann átti dóttur, er Nótt hét. Hon var svört ok dökk, sem hon átti ætt til. Hon var gift þeim manni, er Naglfari hét. Þeira sonr hét Auðr. Því næst var hon gift þeim, er Ánarr hét. Jörð hét þeira dóttir. Síðast átti hana Dellingr, ok var hann ása ættar. Var þeira sonr Dagr. Var hann ljóss ok fagr eftir faðerni sínu. Þá tók Alföðr Nótt ok Dag, son hennar, ok gaf þeim tvá hesta ok tvær kerrur ok sendi þau upp á himin, at þau skulu ríða á hverjum tveim dægrum umhverfis jörðina. Ríðr Nótt fyrri þeim hesti, er kallaðr er Hrímfaxi, ok at morgni hverjum döggvir hann jörðina af méldropum sínum. Sá hestr, er Dagr á, heitir Skinfaxi, ok lýsir allt loft ok jörðina af faxi hans."||10. Nörvi or Narfi hight a giant who abode in Jotunheim; he had a daughter hight Nótt, she was swart and dark like the stock she belonged to; she was given to the man hight Naglfari, their son hight Auðr, next was she given to him hight Annarr, Jörð hight their daughter; last Dellíngr had her, he was of the Asa-stock, their son was Dagr, light and fair was he after his father. Then took Allfadur Nótt and Dagr her son, and gave them two horses and two cars, and set them up in heaven that they should drive round the earth each in twelve hours by turns: Nótt rides first on the horse that is called Hrímfaxi, and every morn he bedews the earth with the foam from his bit. The horse that Dagr has hight Skinfaxi, and all the sky and earth glistens from his mane.|
|11. Frá Sól ok Mána.||Of Sol and Mani|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hversu stýrir hann gang sólar eða tungls?"
Hárr segir: "Sá maðr er nefndr Mundilfari, er átti tvau börn. Þau váru svá fögr ok fríð, at hann kallaði son sinn Mána, en dóttur sína Sól ok gifti hana þeim manni, er Glenr hét. En goðin reiddust þessu ofdrambi ok tóku þau systkin ok settu upp á himin, létu Sól keyra þá hesta, er drógu kerru sólarinnar, þeirar er goðin höfðu skapat til at lýsa heimana af þeiri síu, er flaug ór Múspellsheimi. Þeir hestar heita svá, Árvakr ok Alsviðr, en undir bógum hestanna settu goðin tvá vindbelgi at kæla þá, en í sumum fræðum er þat kallat ísarnkol. Máni stýrir göngu tungls ok ræðr nýjum ok niðum. Hann tók tvau börn af jörðunni, er svá heita, Bil ok Hjúki, er þau gengu frá brunni þeim er, Byrgir heitir, ok báru á öxlum sér sá, er heitir Sægr, en stöngin Simul. Viðfinnr er nefndr faðir þeira. Þessi börn fylgja Mána, svá sem sjá má af jörðu."
|11. Then said Gángleri; How steereth he the going of the Sun and Moon? Hár says. The man who is named Mundilföri had two children, they were so fair and free that he called one of them (the son) Máni(Moon), but his daughter Sól (Sun), and gave her to the man hight Glenr: but the Gods were wrath at his pride, and took that kin- dred and set (them) up in Heaven; (and) let Sól drive the horses that drew the car of the Sun, which the Gods had made to give light to the world out of those sparks .that flew out from Muspelheim, those horses hight thus Arvakr, and Alsviðr: and under the withers of the horses the Gods set two wind-bags to cool them ; but in some songs that is called ísarncol (iron, and ice cooling). Máni steers the going of the moon, and sways his rise and wane; he took two children from earth hight thus, Bil and Hiúki, and they went from the spring hight Byrgir, and bare on their shoulders the bucket that Sægr hight, and the pole Simul; Viðfinnr is named their father; these children follow Máni as may be seen from earth.|
|12. Frá úlfakreppu Sólar|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Skjótt ferr sólin ok nær
svá sem hon sé hrædd, ok eigi myndi hon þá meir hvata göngunni, at hon hræddist
13. Austr býr in aldna
12. Then said Gángleri; Swift fares the Sun and near as if
she were afraid, nor could she make more speed on her way an she dreaded her
Then answers Hár; Not wonderful is it that she fares amain; near cometh he that seeketh her, and no way to escape hath she save to run before him.
Then said Gángleri; Who is he that maketh her this toil?
Hár says: It is two wolves and he that fares after her hight Sköll; him she fears, and he must overtake her: but he that hight Hati Hroðvitnir's son bounds before her, and he wills to catch the moon, and so must it be.
Then said Gángleri; What is the stock of these wolves?
Hár answers: "A hag dwells eastward of Midgard in the wood hight Járnviðr; in that wood abide those witches hight Járnviðiur, the old hag brought forth many giant sons, and all in wolf's likeness; and thence sprung these wolves; and so it is said, of that stock will arise one the mightiest, who is edified Mánagarm; he will be filled with the lifeblood of all those men that die; and he will swallow the moon, and stain with blood heaven and all the sky; thence loses the sun his sheen, and the winds are then wild, and roar hither and thither; as is said in Völuspá:
Eastward sits the old (hag)
|13. Um Bifröst||About Bifrost|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hver er leið til himins af jörðu?"
Þá svarar Hárr ok hló við: "Eigi er nú fróðliga spurt. Er þér eigi sagt þat, er goðin gerðu brú af jörðu til himins, er heitir Bifröst? Hana muntu sét hafa. Kann vera, at þat kallir þú regnboga. Hon er með þrimr litum ok mjök sterk ok ger með list ok kunnáttu meiri en aðrar smíðir. En svá sterk sem hon er, þá mun hon brotna, þá er Múspellsmegir fara ok ríða hana, ok svima hestar þeira yfir stórar ár. Svá koma þeir fram."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Eigi þótti mér goðin gera af trúnaði brúna, ef hon skal brotna mega, er þau megu þó gera sem þau vilja."
Þá mælti Hárr: "Eigi eru goðin hallmælis verð af þessi smíð. Góð brú er Bifröst, en enginn hlutr er sá í þessum heimi er sér megi treystast, þá er Múspellssynir herja."
13. Then said Gángleri; What is the path from earth to heaven?
Then answers Hár and laughed at (the same time). Not wisely is it now asked, hath it not been told thee how the Gods made a bridge from earth to heaven, and called it Bif-raust; that must thou have seen, it may be thou callest it rainbow. It is of three hues and very strong and wrought with craft and cunning more than other smithyings: but though it be so strong, yet must it break when the children of Muspell fare to ride over it, and swim their horses over great rivers, so come they on.
Then said Gángleri; Methinks the Gods could not have built the bridge in earnest, if it shall be able to break, they who can make what they will. Then said Hár: The Gods are not worthy of blame for this smithying; a good bridge is Bifraust, but no thing is there in this world that may trust in itself when the sons of Mupell come on to the fight.
|14. Um bústaði goða ok upphaf dverga|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafðist Alföðr þá
at, er gerr var Ásgarðr?"
Hárr mælti: "Í upphafi setti hann stjórnarmenn í sæti ok beiddi þá at dæma með sér örlög manna ok ráða um skipun borgarinnar. Þat var þar, sem heitir Iðavöllur í miðri borginni. Var þat hið fyrsta þeira verk at gera hof þat, er sæti þeira tólf standa í önnur en hásætit, þat er Alföðr á. Þat hús er bezt gert á jörðu ok mest. Allt er þat útan ok innan svá sem gull eitt. Í þeim stað kalla menn Glaðsheim. Annan sal gerðu þeir. Þat var hörgr, er gyðjurnar áttu, ok var hann allfagr. Þat hús kalla menn Vingólf. Þar næst gerðu þeir hús, er þeir lögðu afla í, ok þar til gerðu þeir hamar ok töng ok steðja ok þaðan af öll tól önnur. Ok því næst smíðuðu þeir málm ok stein ok tré ok svá gnógliga þann málm, er gull heitir, at öll búsgögn ok öll reiðigögn höfðu þeir af gulli, ok er sú öld kölluð gullaldr, áðr en spilltist af tilkvámu kvinnanna. Þær kómu ór Jötunheimum. Þar næst settust goðin upp í sæti sín ok réttu dóma sína ok minntust, hvaðan dvergar höfðu kviknat í moldinni ok niðri í jörðunni, svá sem maðkar í holdi. Dvergarnir höfðu skipazt fyrst ok tekit kviknun í holdi Ymis ok váru þá maðkar, en af atkvæðum goðanna urðu þeir vitandi mannvits ok höfðu manns líki ok búa þó í jörðu ok í steinum. Móðsognir var æðstr ok annarr Durinn. Svá segir í Völuspá:
15. Þá gengu regin öll
Ok þessi segir hon nöfn þeira dverganna:
17. Nýi, Niði,
En þessir eru ok dvergar ok búa í steinum, en inir fyrri í moldu:
19. Draupnir, Dolgþvari,
En þessir kómu frá Svarinshaugi til Aurvanga á Jöruvöllu, ok er kominn þaðan Lofarr. Þessi eru nöfn þeira:
20. Skirfir, Virfir,
14. Then said Gángleri: What did Allfadir after Asgard was made? Hár said: In the beginning he set rulers, and bade them doom with him the weirds of man, and rede of the shape of the burg; that was in the place hight IÞavöllr in the midst of the burg. Their first work was to make a court which their seats stand in, twelve others beside the highseat that Allfadir hath; that house is the best made on earth and the biggest, it is all within and without as it were one gold, in the place men call Gladsheim. Another hall made they there, where the Goddesses had their Holyplace, and it was very fair; that house call men Vingólf. The next thing they did was to lay down a forge, and for it they wrought hammer tongs and stithy, and by help of these all other tools; and next to that they smithied ore and stone and tree, and so plentifully that ore hight gold, that all their housestuff had they of it; and that age is called gold-age but it was afterward spoilt by the coming thither of the women that came out of Jötunheim. Then next sat the Gods upon their seats, and held a doom and bethought them how the Dwarves bad quickened in the mould and beneath in the earth, like to maggots in flesh: the Dwarves had first been shaped and taken quickness in Ymir's flesh, and were then maggots; but at the will of the Gods they became wise with the wit of men, and were in the likeness of men; allbeit they abide in earth and stones: Moðsognir was one dwarf; and Durinn another; so it is said in Völuspá.
"Then went the powers all
These also are Dwarves and abide in stones,
but the first in mould;
Draupnir , Dölgþvari ,
But these come from Svarin's cairn to Aurvanga
on Joruvalla, and from them are the Lovarr sprung; these are their names:
|15. Frá askinum, Urðarbrunni ok nornum||
ON THE WONDERFUL THINGS IN HEAVEN.
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvar er höfuðstaðrinn eða
21. Allt veit ek, Óðinn,
Þriðja rót asksins stendr á himni, ok undir þeiri rót er brunnr sá, er mjök er heilagr, er heitir Urðarbrunnr. Þar eiga goðin dómstað sinn. Hvern dag ríða æsir þangat upp um Bifröst. Hon heitir ok ásbrú. Hestar ásanna heita svá: Sleipnir er baztr, hann á Óðinn. Hann hefir átta fætr. Annar er Glaðr, þriði Gyllir, fjórði Glenr, fimmti Skeiðbrimir, sétti Silfrintoppr, sjaundi Sinir, átti Gísl, níundi Falhófnir, tíundi Gulltoppr, ellifti Léttfeti. Baldrs hestr var brenndr með honum, en Þórr gengr til dómsins ok veðr ár þær, er svá heita:
22. Körmt ok Örmt
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Brenn eldr yfir Bifröst?"
23. Sundrbornar mjök
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Ef nornir ráða örlögum
manna, þá skipta þær geysi ójafnt, er sumir hafa gott líf ok ríkuligt,
en sumir hafa lítit lén eða lof, sumir langt líf, sumir skammt."
15. Then said Ganglere: Where is the chief or most holy place of the
gods? Har answered: That is by the ash Ygdrasil. There the gods meet in
council every day. Said Ganglere: What is said about this place?
Answered Jafnhar: This ash is the best and greatest of all trees; its
branches spread over all the world, and reach up above heaven. Three
roots sustain the tree and stand wide apart; one root is with the asas
and another with the frost-giants, where Ginungagap formerly was; the
third reaches into Niflheim; under it is Hvergelmer, where Nidhug gnaws
the root from below. But under the second root, which extends to the
frost-giants, is the well of Mimer, wherein knowledge and wisdom are
concealed. The owner of the well hight Mimer. He is full of wisdom, for
he drinks from the well with the Gjallar-horn. Alfather once came there
and asked for a drink from the well, but he did not get it before he
left one of his eyes as a pledge. So it is said in the Vala’s Prophecy:
Well know I, Odin,
The third root of the ash is in heaven, and beneath it is the most sacred fountain of Urd. Here the gods have their doomstead. The asas ride hither every day over Bifrost, which is also called Asa-bridge. The following are the names of the horses of the gods: Sleipner is the best one; he belongs to Odin, and he has eight feet. The second is Glad, the third Gyller, the fourth Gler, the fifth Skeidbrimer, the sixth Silfertop, the seventh Siner, the eighth Gisl, the ninth Falhofner, the tenth Gulltop, the eleventh Letfet. Balder’s horse was burned with him. Thor goes on foot to the doomstead, and wades the following rivers:
Kormt and Ormt
Then asked Ganglere: Does fire burn over Bifrost? Har answered: The red which you see in the rainbow is burning fire. The frost-giants and the mountain-giants would go up to heaven if Bifrost were passable for all who desired to go there. Many fair places there are in heaven, and they are all protected by a divine defense. There stands a beautiful hall near the fountain beneath the ash. Out of it come three maids, whose names are Urd, Verdande and Skuld. These maids shape the lives of men, and we call them norns. There are yet more norns, namely those who come to every man when he is born, to shape his life, and these are known to be of the race of gods; others, on the other hand, are of the race of elves, and yet others are of the race of dwarfs. As is here said:
Far asunder, I think,
Then said Ganglere: If the norns rule the fortunes of men, then they deal them out exceedingly unevenly. Some live a good life and are rich; some get neither wealth nor praise. Some have a long, others a short life. Har answered: Good norns and of good descent shape good lives, and when some men are weighed down with misfortune, the evil norns are the cause of it.23. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 24.
24. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 29.
25. Elder Edda: Fafner’s Lay, 13.
|16. Enn frá askinum|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat er fleira at segja
stórmerkja frá askinum?"
Hárr segir: "Margt er þar af at segja. Örn einn sitr í limum asksins, ok er hann margs vitandi, en í milli augna honum sitr haukr, sá er heitir Veðrfölnir. Íkorni sá, er heitir Ratatoskr, renn upp ok niðr eftir askinum ok berr öfundarorð milli arnarins ok Níðhöggs, en fjórir hirtir renna í limum asksins ok bíta barr. Þeir heita svá: Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Duraþrór. En svá margir ormar eru í Hvergelmi með Níðhögg, at engi tunga má telja. Svá segir hér:
24. Askr Yggdrasils
25. Ormar fleiri liggja
Enn er þat sagt, at nornir þær, er byggja við
Urðarbrunn, taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum ok með aurinn þann, er liggr
um brunninn, ok ausa upp yfir askinn, til þess at eigi skuli limar hans
tréna eða fúna. En þat vatn er svá heilagt, at allir hlutir, þeir er þar
koma í brunninn, verða svá hvítir sem hinna sú, er skjall heitir, er
innan liggr við eggskurn, svá sem hér segir:
26. Ask veit ek ausinn,
Sú dögg, er þaðan af fellr á jörðina, þat kalla menn hunangfall, ok þar af fæðast býflugur. Fuglar tveir fæðast í Urðarbrunni. Þeir heita svanir, ok af þeim fuglum hefir komit þat fuglakyn, er svá heitir."
16. Then said Ganglere: What other remarkable things are there to be
said about the ash? Har answered: Much is to be said about it. On one of the
boughs of the ash sits an eagle, who knows many things. Between his eyes sits a
hawk that is called Vedfolner. A squirrel, by name Ratatosk, springs up and down
the tree, and carries words of envy between the eagle and Nidhug. Four stags
leap about in the branches of the ash and bite the leaves.26
Their names are: Dain, Dvalin, Duney and Durathro. In Hvergelmer with Nidhug are
more serpents than tongue can tell. As is here said:
The ash Ygdrasil
More serpents lie
Again, it is said that the norns, that dwell in the fountain of Urd, every day take water from the fountain and take the clay that lies around the fountain and sprinkle therewith the ash, in order that its branches may not wither or decay. This water is so holy that all things that are put into the fountain become as white as the film of an egg-shell As is here said:
An ash I know
The dew which falls on the earth from this tree men call honey-fall, and it is the food of bees. Two birds are fed in Urd’s fountain; they are called swans, and they are the parents of the race of swans.26. The Icelandic barr. See Vigfusson, sub voce.
27. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 35, 34.
28. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 22.
|17. Höfuðstaðir goðanna|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Mikil tíðendi kannt þú at
segja af himninum. Hvat er þar fleira höfuðstaða en at Urðarbrunni?"
27. Sal veit ek standa
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat gætir þess staðar,
þá er Surtalogi brennir himin ok jörð?"
17. Then said Ganglere: Great tidings you are able to tell of the heavens. Are there other remarkable places than the one by Urd’s fountain? Answered Har: There are many magnificent dwellings. One is there called Alfheim. There dwell the folk that are called light-elves; but the dark-elves dwell down in the earth, and they are unlike the light-elves in appearance, but much more so in deeds. The light-elves are fairer than the sun to look upon, but the dark-elves are blacker than pitch. Another place is called Breidablik, and no place is fairer. There is also a mansion called Glitner, of which the walls and pillars and posts are of red gold, and the roof is of silver. Furthermore, there is a dwelling, by name Himinbjorg, which stands at the end of heaven, where the Bifrost-bridge is united with heaven. And there is a great dwelling called Valaskjalf, which belongs to Odin. The gods made it and thatched it with, sheer silver. In this hall is the high-seat, which is called Hlidskjalf, and when Alfather sits in this seat, he sees over all the world. In the southern end of the world is the palace, which is the fairest of all, and brighter than the sun; its name is Gimle. It shall stand when both heaven and earth shall have passed away. In this hall the good and the righteous shall dwell through all ages. Thus says the Prophecy of the Vala:
A hall I know, standing
Then said Ganglere: Who guards this palace when Surt’s fire burns up heaven and earth? Har answered: It is said that to the south and above this heaven is another heaven, which is called Andlang. But there is a third, which is above these, and is called Vidblain, and in this heaven we believe this mansion (Gimle) to be situated; but we deem that the light-elves alone dwell in it now.
29. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 70.
|18. Um uppruna vindsins|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvaðan kemr vindr? Hann
er sterkr, svá at hann hrærir stór höf, ok hann æsir eld. En svá sterkr sem hann
er, þá má eigi sjá hann, því er hann undarliga skapaðr."
28. Hræsvelgr heitir,
18. Then said Ganglere: Whence comes the wind? It is so strong that it moves great seas, and fans fires to flame, and yet, strong as it is, it cannot be seen. Therefore it is wonderfully made. Then answered Har: That I can tell you well. At the northern end of heaven sits a giant, who hight Hrasvelg. He is clad in eagles’ plumes, and when he spreads his wings for flight, the winds arise from under them. Thus is it here said:
Hrasvelg hight he
|19. Um mismun Sumars ok Vetrar|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hví skilr svá mikit, at sumar skal vera
heitt, en vetr kaldr?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi mundi svá fróðr maðr spyrja, því at þetta vitu allir at segja. En ef þú einn ert orðinn svá fávíss, at eigi hefir þetta heyrt, þá vil ek þó þat vel virða, at heldr spyrir þú eitt sinn ófróðliga en þú gangir lengr duliðr þess, er skylt er at vita. Svásuðr heitir sá, er faðir Sumars er, ok er hann svá sællífr, svá at af hans heiti er þat kallat svásligt, er blítt er.
En faðir Vetrar er ýmist kallaðr Vindlóni eða Vindsvalr. Hann er Vásaðar son, ok váru þeir áttungar grimmir ok svalbrjóstaðir, ok hefir Vetr þeira skaplyndi."
|19. Then said Ganglere: How comes it that summer is so hot, but the winter so cold? Har answered: A wise man would not ask such a question, for all are able to tell this; but if you alone have become so stupid that you have not heard of it, then I would rather forgive you for asking unwisely once than that you should go any longer in ignorance of what you ought to know. Svasud is the name of him who is father of summer, and he lives such a life of enjoyment, that everything that is mild is from him called sweet (svasligt). But the father of winter has two names, Vindlone and Vindsval. He is the son of Vasad, and all that race are grim and of icy breath, and winter is like them.|
|20. Frá Óðni ok nöfnum hans|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverjir eru æsir, þeir er
mönnum er skylt at trúa á?"
29. Ærr ertu, Loki,
Óðinn heitir Alföðr, því at hann er faðir allra goða. Hann heitir ok Valföðr, því at hans óskasynir eru allir þeir, er í val falla. Þeim skipar hann Valhöll ok Vingólf, ok heita þeir þá Einherjar. Hann heitir ok Hangaguð ok Haftaguð, Farmaguð, ok enn hefir hann nefnzt á fleiri vega, þá er hann var kominn til Geirröðar konungs:
30. Hétumk Grímr
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Geysimörg heiti hafit þér
gefit honum, ok þat veit trúa mín, at þat mun vera mikill fróðleikr, sá
er hér kann skyn ok dæmi, hverir atburðir hafa orðit sér til hvers þessa
20. Then asked Ganglere: Which are the asas, in whom men are bound to believe? Har answered him: Twelve are the divine asas. Jafnhar said: No less holy are the asynjes (goddesses), nor is their power less. Then added Thride: Odin is the highest and oldest of the asas. He rules all things, but the other gods, each according to his might, serve him as children a father. Frigg is his wife, and she knows the fate of men, although she tells not thereof, as it is related that Odin himself said to Asa-Loke:
Odin is called Alfather, for he is the father of all the gods; he is also called Valfather, for all who fall in fight are his chosen sons. For them he prepares Valhal and Vingolf, where they are called einherjes (heroes). He is also called Hangagod, Haptagod, Farmagod; and he gave himself still more names when he came to King Geirrod:
Grim is my name,
Then said Ganglere: A very great number of names you have given him; and this I know, forsooth, that he must be a very wise man who is able to understand and decide what chances are the causes of all these names. Har answered: Much knowledge is needed to explain it all rightly, but still it is shortest to tell you that most of these names have been given him for the reason that, as there are many tongues in the world, so all peoples thought they ought to turn his name into their tongue, in order that they might be able to worship him and pray to him each in its own language. Other causes of these names must be sought in his journeys, which are told of in old sagas; and you can lay no claim to being called a wise man if you are not able to tell of these wonderful adventures.31. Elder Edda. Loke’s Quarrel, 29, 47.
32. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 46-50.
|21. Frá Ása-Þór|
Þá mælti Gangleri:
"Hver eru nöfn annarra ásanna, eða hvat hafast þeir at, eða hvat hafa þeir gert
33. Fimm hundruð golfa
Þórr á hafra tvá, er svá heita: Tanngnjóstr ok Tanngrisnir, ok reið þá, er hann ekr, en hafrarnir draga reiðna. Því er hann kallaðr Öku-Þórr. Hann á ok þrjá kostgripi. Einn þeira er hamarrinn Mjöllnir, er hrímþursar ok bergrisar kenna, þá er hann kemr á loft, ok er þat eigi undarligt. Hann hefir lamit margan haus á feðrum eða frændum þeira. Annan grip á hann beztan, megingjarðar, ok er hann spennir þeim um sik, þá vex honum ásmegin hálfu. Inn þriðja hlut á hann, þann er mikill gripr er í. Þat eru járnglófar. Þeira má hann eigi missa við hamarskaftit. En engi er svá fróðr, at telja kunni öll stórvirki hans, en segja kann ek þér svá mörg tíðendi frá honum, at dveljast munu stundirnar, áðr en sagt er allt, þat er ek veit."
21. Then said Ganglere: What are the names of the other asas? What is their occupation, and what works have they wrought? Har answered: Thor is the foremost of them. He is called Asa-Thor, or Oku-Thor.33 He is the strongest of all gods and men, and rules over the realm which is called Thrudvang. His hall is called Bilskirner. Therein are five hundred and forty floors, and it is the largest house that men have made. Thus it is said in Grimner’s Lay:
Five hundred floors
Thor has two goats, by name Tangnjost and Tangrisner, and a chariot, wherein he drives. The goats draw the chariot; wherefore he is called Oku-Thor.35 He possesses three valuable treasures. One of them is the hammer Mjolner, which the frost-giants and mountain-giants well know when it is raised; and this is not to be wondered at, for with it he has split many a skull of their fathers or friends. The second treasure he possesses is Megingjarder (belt of strength); when he girds himself with it his strength is doubled. His third treasure that is of so great value is his iron gloves; these he cannot do without when he lays hold of the hammer’s haft. No one is so wise that he can tell all his great works; but I can tell you so many tidings of him that it will grow late before all is told that I know.
33. Oku is derived from the Finnish thunder-god, Ukko.
34. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 24.
35. The author of the Younger Edda is here mistaken. See note on page 82. [Footnote #33 above, and it is Anderson who is mistaken.]
|22. Frá Baldri|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Spyrja vil ek tíðenda af
34. Breiðablik heita,
22. Thereupon said Ganglere: I wish to ask tidings of more of the asas. Har gave him answer: Odin’s second son is Balder, and of him good things are to be told. He is the best, and all praise him. He is so fair of face and so bright that rays of light issue from him; and there is a plant so white that it is likened unto Balder’s brow, and it is the whitest of all plants. From this you can judge of the beauty both of his hair and of his body. He is the wisest, mildest and
Breidablik it is called,
36. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 12.
|23. Frá Nirði ok Skaða|
Inn þriði áss er sá, er kallaðr er Njörðr. Hann býr á himni, þar sem heitir Nóatún. Hann ræðr fyrir göngu vinds ok stillir sjá ok eld. Á hann skal heita til sæfara ok til veiða. Hann er svá auðigr ok fésæll, at hann má gefa þeim auð landa eða lausafjár. Á hann skal til þess heita. Eigi er Njörðr ása ættar. Hann var upp fæddr í Vanaheimi, en Vanir gísluðu hann goðunum ok tóku í mót at gíslingu þann, er Hænir heitir. Hann varð at sætt með goðum ok Vönum. Njörðr á þá konu, er Skaði heitir, dóttir Þjaza jötuns. Skaði vill hafa bústað þann, er átt hafði faðir hennar, þat er á fjöllum nökkurum, þar sem heitir Þrymheimr, en Njörðr vill vera nær sæ. Þau sættust á þat, at þau skyldu vera níu nætr í Þrymheimi, en þá aðrar níu at Nóatúnum. En er Njörðr kom aftr til Nóatúna af fjallinu, þá kvað hann þetta:
35. Leið erumk fjöll,
Þá kvað Skaði þetta:
36. Sofa ek né máttak
Þá fór Skaði upp á fjall ok byggði í Þrymheimi, ok ferr hon mjök á skíðum ok með boga ok skýtr dýr. Hon heitir öndurgoð eða öndurdís. Svá er sagt:
37. Þrymheimr heitir,
23. The third asa is he who is called Njord. He dwells in Noatun, which is in heaven. He rules the course of the wind and checks the fury of the sea and of fire. He is invoked by seafarers and by fishermen. He is so rich and wealthy that he can give broad lands and abundance to those who call on him for them. He was fostered in Vanaheim, but the vans37 gave him as a hostage to the gods, and received in his stead as an asa-hostage the god whose name is Honer. He established peace between the gods and vans. Njord took to wife Skade, a daughter of the giant Thjasse. She wished to live where her father had dwelt, that is, on the mountains in Thrymheim; Njord, on the other hand, preferred to be near the sea. They therefore agreed to pass nine nights in Thrymheim and three in Noatun. But when Njord came back from the mountains to Noatun he sang this:
Weary am I of the mountains,
Skade then sang this:
Sleep I could not
Then went Skade up on the mountain, and dwelt in Thrymheim. She often goes on skees (snow-shoes), with her bow, and shoots wild beasts. She is called skee-goddess or skee-dis. Thus it is said:
Thrymheim it is called
37. Compare Vainamoinen, the son of Ukko, in the Finnish epic Kalevala.
38. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 11.
|24. Frá Frey ok Freyju|
Njörðr í Nóatúnum gat síðan tvau börn. Hét annat Freyr, en dóttir Freyja. Þau váru fögr álitum ok máttug. Freyr er inn ágætasti af ásum. Hann ræðr fyrir regni ok skini sólar ok þar með ávexti jarðar, ok á hann er gott at heita til árs ok friðar. Hann ræðr ok fésælu manna. En Freyja er ágætust af ásynjum. Hon á þann bæ á himni, er Fólkvangr heitir. Ok hvar sem hon ríðr til vígs, þá á hon hálfan val, en hálfan Óðinn, svá sem hér segir:
38. Folkvangr heitir,
Salr hennar Sessrúmnir, hann er mikill ok fagr. En er hon ferr, þá ekr hon köttum tveim ok sitr í reið. Hon er nákvæmust mönnum til á at heita, ok af hennar nafni er þat tignarnafn, er ríkiskonur eru kallaðar fróvur. Henni líkaði vel mansöngr. Á hana er gott at heita til ásta."
24. Njord, in Noatun, afterward begat two children: a son, by name Frey, and a daughter, by name Freyja. They were fair of face, and mighty. Frey is the most famous of the asas. He rules over rain and sunshine, and over the fruits of the earth. It is good to call on him for harvests and peace. He also sways the wealth of men. Freyja is the most famous of the goddesses. She has in heaven a dwelling which is called Folkvang, and when she rides to the battle, one half of the slain belong to her, and the other half to Odin. As is here said:
Folkvang it is called,
Her hall is Sesrynmer, and it is large and beautiful. When she goes abroad, she drives in a car drawn by two cats. She lends a favorable ear to men who call upon her, and it is from her name the title has come that women of birth and wealth are called frur.40 She is fond of love ditties, and it is good to call on her in love affairs.
39. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 14.
40. Icelandic frú (Ger. frau; Dan. frue), pl. frúr, means a lady. It is used of the wives of men of rank or title. It is derived from Freyja.
|25. Frá Tý|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Miklir þykkja mér þessir fyrir sér æsirnir,
ok eigi er undarligt, at mikill kraftr fylgi yðr, er þér skuluð kunna
skyn goðanna ok vita, hvert biðja skal hverrar bænarinnar. Eða eru
fleiri enn goðin?"
Hárr segir: "Sá er enn áss, er Týr heitir. Hann er djarfastr ok bezt hugaðr, ok hann ræðr mjök sigri í orrostum. Á hann er gott at heita hreystimönnum. Þat er orðtak, at sá er týhraustr, er um fram er aðra menn ok ekki sést fyrir. Hann var ok vitr, svá at þat er ok mælt, at sá er týspakr, er vitrastr er. Þat er eitt mark um djarfleik hans, þá er æsir lokkuðu Fenrisúlf til þess at leggja fjöturinn á hann, Gleipni, þá trúði hann þeim eigi, at þeir mundu leysa hann, fyrr en þeir lögðu honum at veði hönd Týs í munn hans, en þá er æsir vildu eigi leysa hann, þá beit hann höndina af, þar er nú heitir úlfliðr, ok er hann einhendr ok ekki kallaðr sættir manna.
25. Then said Ganglere: Of great importance these asas seem to me to be, and it is not wonderful that you have great power, since you have such excellent knowledge of the gods, and know to which of them to address your prayers on each occasion. But what other gods are there? Har answered: There is yet an asa, whose name is Tyr. He is very daring and stout-hearted. He sways victory in war, wherefore warriors should call on him. There is a saw, that he who surpasses others in bravery, and never yields, is Tyr-strong. He is also so wise, that it is said of anyone who is specially intelligent, that he is Tyr-learned. A proof of his daring is, that when the asas induced the wolf Fenrer to let himself be bound with the chain Gleipner, he would not believe that they would loose him again until Tyr put his hand in his mouth as a pledge. But when the asas would not loose the Fenris-wolf, he bit Tyr’s hand off at the place of the wolf’s joint (the wrist; Icel. úlfliðr41). From that time Tyr is one-handed, and he is now called a peacemaker among men.
41. This etymology is, however, erroneous, for the word is derived from oln or öln, and the true form of the word is ölnliðr = the ell-joint (wrist); thus we have ölnboge—the elbow; öln = alin (Gr. φδινη; Latin ulna; cp. Anglo-Saxon el-boga; English elbow) is the arm from the elbow to the end of the middle finger, hence an ell in long measure.
|26. Frá Braga ok Iðunni|
Bragi heitir einn. Hann er ágætr at speki ok
mest at málsnilld ok orðfimi. Hann kann mest af skáldskap, ok af honum er bragr
kallaðr skáldskapr, ok af hans nafni er sá kallaðr bragr karla eða bragr kvinna,
er orðsnilld hefir framar en aðrir, kona eða karlmaðr. Kona hans er Iðunn. Hon
varðveitir í eski sínu epli þau, er goðin skulu á bíta, þá er þau eldast, ok
verða þá allir ungir, ok svá mun vera allt til ragnarökrs."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmikit þykkir mér goðin eiga undir gæzlu eða trúnaði Iðunnar."
Þá mælti Hárr ok hló við: "Nær lagði þat ófæru einu sinni. Kunna mun ek þar af at segja, en þú skalt nú fyrst heyra fleiri nöfn ásanna.
26. Brage is the name of another of the asas. He is famous for his wisdom, eloquence and flowing speech. He is a master-skald, and from him song-craft is called brag (poetry), and such men or women as distinguish themselves by their eloquence are called brag-men42 and brag-women. His wife is Idun. She keeps in a box those apples of which the gods eat when they grow old, and then they become young again, and so it will be until Ragnarok (the twilight of the gods). Then said Ganglere: Of great importance to the gods it must be, it seems to me, that Idun preserves these apples with care and honesty. Har answered, and laughed: They ran a great risk on one occasion, whereof I might tell you more, but you shall first hear the names of more asas.
42. Compare the Anglo-Saxon brego = princeps, chief.
|27. Frá Heimdalli|
Heimdallr heitir einn. Hann er kallaðr hvíti áss. Hann er mikill ok heilagr. Hann báru at syni meyjar níu ok allar systr. Hann heitir ok Hallinskíði ok Gullintanni. Tennr hans váru af gulli. Hestr hans heitir Gulltoppr. Hann býr þar, er heita Himinbjörg við Bifröst. Hann er vörðr goða ok sitr þar við himins enda at gæta brúarinnar fyrir bergrisum. Hann þarf minna svefn en fugl. Hann sér jafnt nótt sem dag hundrað rasta frá sér. Hann heyrir ok þat, er gras vex á jörðu eða ull á sauðum, ok allt þat er hæra lætr. Hann hefir lúðr þann, er Gjallarhorn heitir, ok heyrir blástr hans í alla heima. Heimdallar sverð er kallat höfuð manns. Hér er svá sagt:
39. Himinbjörg heita,
Ok enn segir hann sjálfr í Heimdallargaldri:
40. Níu em ek mæðra mögr,
27. Heimdal is the name of one. He is also called the
white-asa. He is great and holy; born of nine maidens, all of whom were sisters.
He hight also Hallinskide and Gullintanne, for his teeth were of gold. His horse
hight Gulltop (Gold-top). He dwells in a place called Himinbjorg, near Bifrost.
He is the ward of the gods, and sits at the end of heaven, guarding the bridge
against the mountain-giants. He needs less sleep than a bird; sees an hundred
miles around him, and as well by night as by day. He hears the grass grow and
the wool on the backs of the sheep, and of course all things that sound louder
than these. He has a trumpet called the Gjallarhorn, and when he blows it it can
be heard in all the worlds. The head is called Heimdal’s sword. Thus it is here
Himinbjorg it is called,43
And again, in Heimdal’s Song, he says himself:
Son I am of maidens nine,
43. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 13.
|28. Frá Heði|
|Höðr heitir einn ásinn. Hann er blindr. Ærit er hann sterkr, en vilja mundu goðin, at þenna ás þyrfti eigi at nefna, því at hans handaverk munu lengi vera höfð at minnum með goðum ok mönnum.||28. Hoder hight one of the asas, who is blind, but exceedingly strong; and the gods would wish that this asa never needed to be named, for the work of his hand will long be kept in memory both by gods and men.|
|29. Frá Víðari|
|Víðarr heitir einn, inn þögli áss. Hann hefir skó þjokkvan. Hann er sterkr, næst því sem Þórr. Af honum hafa goðin mikit traust í allar þrautir.||29. Vidar is the name of the silent asa. He has a very thick shoe, and he is the strongest next after Thor. From him the gods have much help in all hard tasks.|
|30. Frá Vála|
|Áli eða Váli heitir einn, sonr Óðins ok Rindar. Hann er djarfr í orrostum ok mjök happskeytr.||30. Ale, or Vale, is the son of Odin and Rind. He is daring in combat, and a good shot.|
|31. Frá Ulli|
|Ullr heitir einn, sonr Sifjar, stúpsonr Þórs. Hann er bogmaðr svá góðr ok skíðfærr svá, at engi má við hann keppast. Hann er ok fagr álitum ok hefir hermanns atgervi. Á hann er ok gott at heita í einvígi.||31. Uller is the name of one, who is a son of Sif, and a step-son of Thor. He is so good an archer, and so fast on his skees, that no one can contend with him. He is fair of face, and possesses every quality of a warrior. Men should invoke him in single combat.|
|32. Frá Forseta.|
Forseti heitir sonr Baldrs ok Nönnu Nepsdóttur. Hann á þann sal á himni, er Glitnir heitir. En allir, er til hans koma með sakarvandræði, þá fara allir sáttir á braut. Sá er dómstaðr beztr með goðum ok mönnum. Svá segir hér:
41. Glitnir heitir salr,
32. Forsete is a son of Balder and Nanna, Nep’s daughter. He has in heaven the hall which hight Glitner. All who come to him with disputes go away perfectly reconciled. No better tribunal is to be found among gods and men. Thus it is here said:
44. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 15.
|33. Frá Loka Laufeyjarsyni.||
LOKE AND HIS OFFSPRING.
|Sá er enn talðr með ásum, er sumir kalla rógbera ásanna ok frumkveða flærðanna ok vömm allra goða ok manna. Sá er nefndr Loki eða Loftr, sonr Fárbauta jötuns. Móðir hans heitir Laufey eða Nál. Bræðr hans eru þeir Býleistr ok Helblindi. Loki er fríðr ok fagr sýnum, illr í skaplyndi, mjök fjölbreytinn at háttum. Hann hafði þá speki um fram aðra menn, er slægð heitir, ok vélar til allra hluta. Hann kom ásum jafnan í fullt vandræði, ok oft leysti hann þá með vélræðum. Kona hans heitir Sigyn, sonr þeira Nari eða Narfi.||33. There is yet one who is numbered among the asas, but whom some call the backbiter of the asas. He is the originator of deceit, and the disgrace of all gods and men. His name is Loke, or Lopt. His father is the giant Farbaute, but his mother’s name is Laufey, or Nal. His brothers are Byleist and Helblinde. Loke is fair and beautiful of face, but evil in disposition, and very fickle-minded. He surpasses other men in the craft called cunning, and cheats in all things. He has often brought the asas into great trouble, and often helped them out again, with his cunning contrivances. His wife hight Sygin, and their son, Nare, or Narfe.|
|34. Frá börnum Loka ok bundinn Fenrisúlfr.|
Enn átti Loki fleiri börn. Angrboða hét gýgr í Jötunheimum. Við
henni gat Loki þrjú börn. Eitt var Fenrisúlfr, annat Jörmungandr, þat er
Miðgarðsormr, þriðja er Hel. En er goðin vissu til, at þessi þrjú
systkin fæddust upp í Jötunheimum, ok goðin rökðu til spádóma, at af
systkinum þessum myndi þeim mikit mein ok óhapp standa, ok þótti öllum
mikils ills af væni, fyrst af móðerni ok enn verra af faðerni, þá sendi
Alföðr til goðin at taka börnin ok færa sér. Ok er þau kómu til hans, þá
kastaði hann orminum í inn djúpa sæ, er liggr um öll lönd, ok óx sá ormr
svá, at hann liggr í miðju hafinu of öll lönd ok bítr í sporð sér.
Hel kastaði hann í Niflheim ok gaf henni vald yfir níu heimum, at hon skyldi skipta öllum vistum með þeim, er til hennar váru sendir, en þat eru sóttdauðir menn ok ellidauðir. Hon á þar mikla bólstaði, ok eru garðar hennar forkunnarhávir ok grindr stórar. Éljúðnir heitir salr hennar, Hungr diskr hennar, Sultr knífr hennar, Ganglati þrællinn, Ganglöt ambátt, Fallandaforað þresköldr hennar, er inn gengr, Kör sæing, Blíkjandaböl ársali hennar. Hon er blá hálf, en hálf með hörundarlit. Því er hon auðkennd ok heldr gnúpleit ok grimmlig.
34. Loke had yet more children. A giantess in Jotunheim, hight Angerboda. With her he begat three children. The first was the Fenris-wolf; the second, Jormungand, that is, the Midgard-serpent, and the third, Hel. When the gods knew that these three children were being fostered in Jotunheim, and were aware of the prophecies that much woe and misfortune would thence come to them, and considering that much evil might be looked for from them on their mother’s side, and still more on their father’s, Alfather sent some of the gods to take the children and bring them to him. When they came to him he threw the serpent into the deep sea which surrounds all lands. There waxed the serpent so that he lies in the midst of the ocean, surrounds all the earth, and bites his own tail. Hel he cast into Niflheim, and gave her power over nine worlds,45 that she should appoint abodes to them that are sent to her, namely, those who die from sickness or old age. She has there a great mansion, and the walls around it are of strange height, and the gates are huge. Eljudner is the name of her hall. Her table hight famine; her knife, starvation. Her man-servant’s name is Ganglate; her maid-servant’s, Ganglot.46 Her threshold is called stumbling-block; her bed, care; the precious hangings of her bed, gleaming bale. One-half of her is blue, and the other half is of the hue of flesh; hence she is easily known. Her looks are very stern and grim.45. Possibly this ought to read the ninth world, which would correspond with what we read on page 72 [Gylfaginning 15], and in the Vala’s Prophecy. See also notes. It may be a mistake of the transcriber.
46. Both these words mean sloth.
Úlfinn fæddu æsir heima, ok hafði Týr einn djarfleik at ganga til at ok
gefa honum mat. En er goðin sá, hversu mikit hann óx hvern dag, ok allar
spár sögðu, at hann myndi vera lagðr til skaða þeim, þá fengu æsirnir
þat ráð, at þeir gerðu fjötur allsterkan, er þeir kölluðu Læðing, ok
báru hann til úlfsins ok báðu hann reyna afl sitt við fjöturinn, en
úlfinum þótti sér þat ekki ofrefli ok lét þá fara með sem þeir vildu. En
it fyrsta sinn, er úlfrinn spyrnði við, brotnaði sá fjöturr. Svá
leystist hann ór Læðingi. Því næst gerðu æsirnar annan fjötr hálfu
sterkara, er þeir kölluðu Dróma, ok báðu enn úlfinn reyna þann fjötur ok
tölðu hann verða mundu ágætan mjök at afli, ef slík stórsmíði mætti eigi
halda honum. En úlfrinn hugsaði, at þessi fjöturr var sterkr mjök, ok
þat með, at honum hafði afl vaxit, síðan er hann braut Læðing - kom þat
í hug, at hann myndi verða at leggja sik í hættu, ef hann skyldi frægr
verða, ok lét leggja á sik fjöturinn. Ok er æsir tölðust búnir, þá
hristi úlfrinn sik ok laust fjötrinum á jörðina ok knúðist fast at,
spyrnði við, braut fjöturinn, svá at fjarri flugu brotin. Svá drap hann
sik ór Dróma. Þat er síðan haft fyrir orðtak, at leysi ór Læðingi eða
drepi ór Dróma, þá er einhver hlutr er ákafliga sóttr.
Eftir þat óttuðust æsirnar, at þeir myndi eigi fá bundit úlfinn. Þá sendi Alföðr þann, er Skírnir er nefndr, sendimaðr Freys, ofan í Svartálfaheim til dverga nökkurra ok lét gera fjötur þann, er Gleipnir heitir. Hann var gerr af sex hlutum: af dyn kattarins ok af skeggi konunnar ok af rótum bjargsins ok af sinum bjarnarins ok af anda fisksins ok af fugls hráka.
Ok þóttú vitir eigi áðr þessi tíðendi, þá máttu nú finna skjótt hér sönn dæmi, at eigi er logit at þér. Sét munt þú hafa, at konan hefir ekki skegg ok engi dynr verðr af hlaupi kattarins ok eigi eru rætr undir bjarginu. Ok þat veit trúa mín, at jafnsatt er þat allt, er ek hef sagt þér, þótt þeir sé sumir hlutir, er þú mátt eigi reyna."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þetta má ek at vísu skilja, at satt er. Þessa hluti má ek sjá, er þú hefir nú til dæma tekit. En hvernig varð fjöturrinn smíðaðr?"
Hárr segir: "Þat kann ek þér vel segja. Fjöturrinn varð sléttr ok blautr sem silkiræma, en svá traustr ok sterkr sem nú skaltu heyra. Þá er fjöturrinn var færðr ásunum, þökkuðu þeir vel sendimanni sitt erindi. Þá fóru æsirnir út í vatn þat, er Ámsvartnir heitir, í hólm þann, er Lyngvi er kallaðr, ok kölluðu með sér úlfinn, sýndu honum silkibandit ok báðu hann slíta ok kváðu vera nökkuru traustara en líkendi þætti á fyrir digrleiks sakir, ok seldi hverr öðrum ok treysti með handafli, ok slitnaði eigi, en þó kváðu þeir úlfinn slíta mundu.
Þá svarar úlfrinn: "Svá lízt mér á þenna dregil sem enga frægð munak af hljóta, þótt ek slíta í sundr svá mjótt band. En ef þat er gert með list ok vél, þótt þat sýnist lítit, þá kemr þat band eigi á mína fætr."
Þá sögðu æsirnir, at hann myndi skjótt sundr slíta mjótt silkiband, er hann hafði fyrr brotit stóra járnfjötra, - "en ef þú fær eigi þetta band slitit, þá muntu ekki hræða mega goðin. Skulum vér þá leysa þik."
Úlfrinn segir: "Ef þér bindið mik, svá at ek fæk eigi leyst mik, þá skollið þér svá, at mér mun seint verða at taka af yðr hjálp. Ófúss em ek at láta þetta band á mik leggja, en heldr en þér frýið mér hugar, þá leggi einn hverr yðarr hönd sína í munn mér at veði, at þetta sé falslaust gert."
En hverr ásanna sá til annars ok þótti nú vera tvau vandræði, ok vildi engi sína hönd fram selja, fyrr en Týr lét fram hönd sína hægri ok leggr í munn úlfinum. En er úlfrinn spyrnir, þá harðnaði bandit, ok því harðara er hann brauzt um, því skarpara var bandit. Þá hlógu allir nema Týr. Hann lét hönd sína. Þá er æsirnir sá, at úlfrinn var bundinn at fullu, þá tóku þeir festina, er ór var fjötrinum, er Gelgja heitir, ok drógu hana gegnum hellu mikla, - sú heitir Gjöll, - ok festu helluna langt í jörð niðr. Þá tóku þeir mikinn stein ok skutu enn lengra í jörðina, - sá heitir Þviti, - ok höfðu þann stein fyrir festarhælinn. Úlfrinn gapði ákafliga ok fekksk um mjök ok vildi bíta þá. Þeir skutu í munn honum sverði nökkuru. Nema hjöltin við neðra gómi, en efra gómi blóðrefillinn. Þat er gómsparri hans. Hann grenjar illiliga, ok slefa renn ór munni hans. Þat er á sú, er Ván heitir. Þar liggr hann til ragnarökrs."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Furðu illa barna eign gat Loki, en öll þessi systkin eru mikil fyrir sér. En fyrir hví drápu æsir eigi úlfinn, er þeim er ills ván af honum?"
Hárr svarar: "Svá mikils virðu goðin vé sín ok griðastaði, at eigi vildu þau saurga þá með blóði úlfsins, þótt svá segi spárnar, at hann myni verða at bana Óðni."
|35. The wolf was fostered by the asas at home, and Tyr was the only one who had the courage to go to him and give him food. When the gods saw how much he grew every day, and all prophecies declared that he was predestined to become fatal to them, they resolved to make a very strong fetter, which they called Lading. They brought it to the wolf, and bade him try his strength on the fetter. The wolf, who did not think it would be too strong for him, let them do therewith as they pleased. But as soon as he spurned against it the fetter burst asunder, and he was free from Lading. Then the asas made another fetter, by one-half stronger, and this they called Drome. They wanted the wolf to try this also, saying to him that he would become very famous for his strength, if so strong a chain was not able to hold him. The wolf thought that this fetter was indeed very strong, but also that his strength had increased since he broke Lading. He also took into consideration that it was necessary to expose one’s self to some danger if he desired to become famous; so he let them put the fetter on him. When the asas said they were ready, the wolf shook himself, spurned against and dashed the fetter on the ground, so that the broken pieces flew a long distance. Thus he broke loose out of Drome. Since then it has been held as a proverb, “to get loose out of Lading” or “to dash out of Drome,” whenever anything is extraordinarily hard. The asas now began to fear that they would not get the wolf bound. So Alfather sent the youth, who is called Skirner, and is Frey’s messenger, to some dwarfs in Svartalfaheim, and had them make the fetter which is called Gleipner. It was made of six things: of the footfall of cats, of the beard of woman, of the roots of the mountain, of the sinews of the bear, of the breath of the fish, and of the spittle of the birds. If you have not known this before, you can easily find out that it is true and that there is no lie about it, since you must have observed that a woman has no beard, that a cat’s footfall cannot be heard, and that mountains have no roots; and I know, forsooth, that what I have told you is perfectly true, although there are some things that you do not understand. Then said Ganglere: This I must surely understand to be true. I can see these things which you have taken as proof. But how was the fetter smithied? Answered Har: That I can well explain to you. It was smooth and soft as a silken string. How strong and trusty it was you shall now hear. When the fetter was brought to the asas, they thanked the messenger for doing his errand so well. Then they went out into the lake called Amsvartner, to the holm (rocky island) called Lyngve, and called the wolf to go with them. They showed him the silken band and bade him break it, saying that it was somewhat stronger than its thinness would lead one to suppose. Then they handed it from one to the other and tried its strength with their hands, but it did not break. Still they said the wolf would be able to snap it. The wolf answered: It seems to me that I will get no fame though I break asunder so slender a thread as this is. But if it is made with craft and guile, then, little though it may look, that band will never come on my feet. Then said the asas that he would easily be able to break a slim silken band, since he had already burst large iron fetters asunder. But even if you are unable to break this band, you have nothing to fear from the gods, for we will immediately loose you again. The wolf answered: If you get me bound so fast that I am not able to loose myself again, you will skulk away, and it will be long before I get any help from you, wherefore I am loth to let this band be laid on me; but in order that you may not accuse me of cowardice, let some one of you lay his hand in my mouth as a pledge that this is done without deceit. The one asa looked at the other, and thought there now was a choice of two evils, and no one would offer his hand, before Tyr held out his right hand and laid it in the wolf’s mouth. But when the wolf now began to spurn against it the band grew stiffer, and the more he strained the tighter it got. They all laughed except Tyr; he lost his hand. When the asas saw that the wolf was sufficiently well bound, they took the chain which was fixed to the fetter, and which was called Gelgja, and drew it through a large rock which is called Gjol, and fastened this rock deep down in the earth. Then they took a large stone, which is called Tvite, and drove it still deeper into the ground, and used this stone for a fastening-pin. The wolf opened his mouth terribly wide, raged and twisted himself with all his might, and wanted to bite them; but they put a sword in his mouth, in such a manner that the hilt stood in his lower jaw and the point in the upper, that is his gag. He howls terribly, and the saliva which runs from his mouth forms a river called Von. There he will lie until Ragnarok. Then said Ganglere: Very bad are these children of Loke, but they are strong and mighty. But why did not the asas kill the wolf when they have evil to expect from him? Har answered: So great respect have the gods for their holiness and peace-stead, that they would not stain them with the blood of the wolf, though prophecies foretell that he must become the bane of Odin.|
THE GODDESSES (ASYNJES).
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverjar eru ásynjurnar?"
42. "Hvat þar flýgr,
43. "Né ek flýg,
Af Gnár nafni er svá kallat, at þat gnæfar,
er hátt ferr.
36. Ganglere asked: Which are the goddesses? Har answered: Frigg is the first; she possesses the right lordly dwelling which is called Fensaler. The second is Saga, who dwells in Sokvabek, and this is a large dwelling. The third is Eir, who is the best leech. The fourth is Gefjun, who is a may, and those who die maids become her hand-maidens. The fifth is Fulla, who is also a may, she wears her hair flowing and has a golden ribbon about her head; she carries Frigg’s chest, takes care of her shoes and knows her secrets. The sixth is Freyja, who is ranked with Frigg. She is wedded to the man whose name is Oder; their daughter’s name is Hnos, and she is so fair that all things fair and precious are called, from her name, Hnos. Oder went far away. Freyja weeps for him, but her tears are red gold. Freyja has many names, and the reason therefor is that she changed her name among the various nations to which she came in search of Oder. She is called Mardol, Horn, Gefn, and Syr. She has the necklace Brising, and she is called Vanadis. The seventh is Sjofn, who is fond of turning men’s and women’s hearts to love, and it is from her name that love is called Sjafne. The eighth is Lofn, who is kind and good to those who call upon her, and she has permission from Alfather or Frigg to bring together men and women, no matter what difficulties may stand in the way; therefore “love” is so called from her name, and also that which is much loved by men. The ninth is Var. She hears the oaths and troths that men and women plight to each other. Hence such vows are called vars, and she takes vengeance on those who break their promises. The tenth is Vor, who is so wise and searching that nothing can be concealed from her. It is a saying that a woman becomes vor (ware) of what she becomes wise. The eleventh is Syn, who guards the door of the hall, and closes it against those who are not to enter. In trials she guards those suits in which anyone tries to make use of falsehood. Hence is the saying that “syn is set against it,” when anyone tries to deny ought. The twelfth is Hlin, who guards those men whom Frigg wants to protect from any danger. Hence is the saying that he hlins who is forewarned. The thirteenth is Snotra, who is wise and courtly. After her, men and women who are wise are called Snotras. The fourteenth is Gna, whom Frigg sends on her errands into various worlds. She rides upon a horse called Hofvarpner, that runs through the air and over the sea. Once, when she was riding, some vans saw her faring through the air. Then said one of them:
What flies there?
I fly not,
47. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 36
48. See page 66. [Gylfaginning 12]
|36. Frá valkyrjum|
Enn eru þær aðrar, er þjóna skulu í Valhöll, bera drykkju ok gæta borðbúnaðar ok ölgagna. Svá eru þær nefndar í Grímnismálum:
44. Hrist ok Mist,
Þessar heita valkyrjur. Þær sendir Óðinn til hverrar orrustu. Þær kjósa feigð á menn ok ráða sigri. Guðr ok Róta ok norn in yngsta, er Skuld heitir, ríða jafnan at kjósa val ok ráða vígum. Jörð, móðir Þórs, ok Rindr, móðir Vála, eru talðar með ásynjum.
37. There are still others who are to serve in Valhal, bear the drink around, wait upon the table and pass the ale-horns. Thus they are named in Grimner’s Lay:
Hrist and Mist
49. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 36.
|37. Freyr fekk Gerðar Gymisdóttir.||
THE GIANTESS GERD AND
Gymir hét maðr, en kona hans Aurboða. Hon var bergrisa ættar. Dóttir þeira er Gerðr, er allra kvinna var fegrst. Þat var einn dag, at Freyr hafði gengit í Hliðskjálf ok sá of heima alla. En er hann leit í norðrætt, þá sá hann á einum bæ mikit hús ok fagrt, ok til þess húss gekk kona, ok er hon tók upp höndum ok lauk hurð fyrir sér, þá lýsti af höndum hennar bæði í loft ok á lög, ok allir heimar birtust af henni. Ok svá hefnði honum þat mikla mikillæti, er hann hafði setzt í þat it helga sæti, at hann gekk í braut fullr af harmi. Ok er hann kom heim, mælti hann ekki. Ekki svaf hann, ekki drakk hann. Engi þorði ok at krefja hann orða.
Þá lét Njörðr kalla til sín Skírni, skósvein Freys, ok bað hann ganga til Freys ok beiða hann orða ok spyrja, hverjum hann væri svá reiðr, at hann mælti ekki við menn. En Skírnir lézt ganga mundu ok eigi fúss ok kvað illra svara vera ván af honum. En er hann kom til Freys, þá spurði hann, hví Freyr var svá hnipinn ok mælti ekki við menn.
Þá svarar Freyr ok sagði, at hann hefði sét konu fagra ok fyrir hennar sakir var hann svá harmfullr, at eigi myndi hann lengi lifa, ef hann skyldi eigi ná henni - "ok nú skaltu fara ok biðja hennar mér til handa ok hafa hana heim hingat, hvárt er faðir hennar vill eða eigi, ok skal ek þat vel launa þér."
Þá svarar Skírnir, sagði svá, at hann skal fara sendiferð, en Freyr skal fá honum sverð sitt. Þat var svá gott sverð, at sjálft vást. En Freyr lét eigi þat til skorta ok gaf honum sverðit. Þá fór Skírnir ok bað honum konunnar ok fekk heit hennar, ok níu nóttum síðar skyldi hon þar koma, er Barrey heitir, ok ganga þá at brullaupinu með Frey. En er Skírnir sagði Frey sitt erindi, þá kvað hann þetta:
45. Löng er nótt,
en sjá half hýnótt.
Þessi sök er til þess, er Freyr var svá
vápnlauss, er hann barðist við Belja ok drap hann með hjartarhorni."
38. Gymer hight a man whose wife was Orboda, of the race of the mountain giants. Their daughter was Gerd, the fairest of all women. One day when Frey had gone into Hlidskjalf, and was looking out upon all the worlds, he saw toward the north a hamlet wherein was a large and beautiful house. To this house went a woman, and when she raised her hands to open the door, both the sky and the sea glistened therefrom, and she made all the world bright. As a punishment for his audacity in seating himself in that holy seat, Frey went away full of grief. When he came home, he neither spake, slept, nor drank, and no one dared speak to him. Then Njord sent for Skirner, Frey’s servant, bade him go to Frey and ask him with whom he was so angry, since he would speak to nobody. Skirner said that he would go, though he was loth to do so, as it was probable that he would get evil words in reply. When he came to Frey and asked him why he was so sad that he would not talk, Frey answered that he had seen a beautiful woman, and for her sake he had become so filled with grief, that he could not live any longer if he could not get her. And now you must go, he added, and ask her hand for me and bring her home to me, whether it be with or without the consent of her father. I will reward you well for your trouble. Skirner answered saying that he would go on this errand, but Frey must give him his sword, that was so excellent that it wielded itself in fight. Frey made no objection to this and gave him the sword. Skirner went on his journey, courted Gerd for him, and got the promise of her that she nine nights thereafter should come to Bar-Isle and there have her wedding with Frey. When Skirner came back and gave an account of his journey, Frey said:
50. This is the Niblung story in a nut-shell.
51. Elder Edda: Skirner’s Journey, 42
|38. Frá vist Einherja ok Óðins||
LIFE IN VALHAL.
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þat segir þú, at allir þeir menn, er í orrustu
hafa fallit frá upphafi heims eru nú komnir til Óðins í Valhöll. Hvat hefir hann
at fá þeim at vistum? Ek hugða, at þar skyldi vera allmikit fjölmenni."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvárt hefir Óðinn þat sama borðhald sem
47. Gera ok Freka
Hrafnar tveir sitja á öxlum honum ok segja í eyru honum öll tíðendi, þau er þeir sjá eða heyra. Þeir heita svá, Huginn ok Muninn. Þá sendir hann í dagan at fljúga um heim allan, ok koma þeir aftr at dögurðarmáli. Þar af verðr hann margra tíðenda víss. Því kalla menn hann Hrafnaguð, svá sem sagt er:
48. Huginn ok Muninn
39. Then said Ganglere: You say that all men who since the beginning of the world have fallen in battle have come to Odin in Valhal. What does he have to give them to eat? It seems to me there must be a great throng of people. Har answered: It is true, as you remark, that there is a great throng; many more are yet to come there, and still they will be thought too few when the wolf52 comes. But however great may be the throng in Valhal, they will get plenty of flesh of the boar Sahrimner. He is boiled every day and is whole again in the evening. But as to the question you just asked, it seems to me there are but few men so wise that they are able to answer it correctly. The cook’s name is Andhrimner, and the kettle is called Eldhrimner as is here said:
Ganglere asked: Does Odin have the same kind of food as the einherjes? Har answered: The food that is placed on his table he gives to his two wolves, which hight Gere and Freke. He needs no food himself. Wine is to him both food and drink, as is here said:
Gere and Freke
Two ravens sit on Odin’s shoulders, and bring to his ears all that they hear and see. Their names are Hugin and Munin. At dawn he sends them out to fly over the whole world, and they come back at breakfast time. Thus he gets information about many things, and hence he is called Rafnagud (raven-god). As is here said:
Hugin and Munin
53. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 18.
54. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 19.
55. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 20.
|39. Frá drykk Einherja.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafa einherjar at
drykk, þat er þeim endist jafngnógliga sem vistin, eða er þar vatn drukkit?"
Þá segir Hárr: "Undarliga spyrr þú nú, at Alföðr mun bjóða til sín konungum eða jörlum eða öðrum ríkismönnum ok myni gefa þeim vatn at drekka. Ok þat veit trúa mín, at margr kemr sá til Valhallar, er dýrt mundi þykkjast kaupa vatnsdrykkinn, ef eigi væri betra fagnaðar þangat at vitja, sá er áðr þolir sár ok sviða til banans. Annat kann ek þér þaðan segja. Geit sú, er Heiðrún heitir, stendr uppi á Valhöll ok bítr barr af limum trés þess, er mjök er nafnfrægt, er Læraðr heitir, en ór spenum hennar rennr mjöðr sá, er hon fyllir skapker hvern dag. Þat er svá mikit, at allir Einherjar verða fulldrukknir af."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þat er þeim geysihaglig geit. Forkunnargóðr viðr mun þat vera, er hon bítr af."
Þá mælti Hárr: "Enn er meira mark at of hjörtinn Eikþyrni, er stendr á Valhöll ok bítr af limum þess trés, en af hornum hans verðr svá mikill dropi, at niðr kemr í Hvergelmi, ok þaðan af falla þær ár, er svá heita: Síð, Víð, Sækin, Ekin, Svöl, Gunnþró, Fjörm, Fimbulþul, Gípul, Göpul, Gömul, Geirvimul. Þessar falla um ása byggðir. Þessar eru enn nefndar: Þyn, Vín, Þöll, Höll, Gráð, Gunnþráin, Nyt, Nöt, Nönn, Hrönn, Vína, Vegsvinn, Þjóðnuma."
|40. Then asked Ganglere: What do the einherjes have to drink that is furnished them as bountifully as the food? Or do they drink water? Har answered: That is a wonderful question. Do you suppose that Alfather invites kings, jarls, or other great men, and gives them water to drink? This I know, forsooth, that many a one comes to Valhal who would think he was paying a big price for his water-drink, if there were no better reception to be found there,—persons, namely, who have died from wounds and pain. But I can tell you other tidings. A she-goat, by name Heidrun, stands up in Valhal and bites the leaves off the branches of that famous tree called Lerad. From her teats runs so much mead that she fills every day a vessel in the hall from which the horns are filled, and which is so large that all the einherjes get all the drink they want out of it. Then said Ganglere: That is a most useful goat, and a right excellent tree that must be that she feeds upon. Then said Har: Still more remarkable is the hart Eikthyrner, which stands over Valhal and bites the branches of the same tree. From his horns fall so many drops down into Hvergelmer, that thence flow the rivers that are called Sid, Vid, Sekin, Ekin, Svol, Gunthro, Fjorm, Fimbulthul, Gipul, Gopul, Gomul and Geirvimul, all of which fall about the abodes of the asas. The following are also named: Thyn, Vin, Thol, Bol, Grad, Gunthrain, Nyt, Not, Non, Hron, Vina, Vegsvin, Thjodnuma.|
|40. Um stærð Valhallar.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þetta eru undarlig tíðendi, er nú sagðir þú. Geysimikit hús mun Valhöll vera. Allþröngt mun þar oft vera fyrir durum."
Þá svarar Hárr: "Hví spyrr þú eigi þess, hversu margar dyrr eru á höllinni eða hversu stórar? Ef þú heyrir þat sagt, þá muntu segja, at hitt er undarligt, ef eigi má ganga út ok inn hverr, er vill. En þat er með sönnu at segja, at eigi er þröngra at skipa hana en ganga í hana. Hér máttu heyra í Grímnismálum:
49. Fimm hundrað dura
41. Then said Ganglere: That was a wonderful tiding that you now told me. A mighty house must Valhal be, and a great crowd there must often be at the door. Then answered Har: Why do you not ask how many doors there are in Valhal, and how large they are? When you find that out, you will confess that it would rather be wonderful if everybody could not easily go in and out. It is also a fact that it is no more difficult to find room within than to get in. Of this you may hear what the Lay of Grimner says:
56. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 23
|41. Frá skemmtan Einherja.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmikill mannfjölði er í Valhöll. Svá njóta trú
minnar, at allmikill höfðingi er Óðinn, er hann stýrir svá miklum her. Eða hvat
er skemmtun Einherja, þá er þeir drekka eigi?"
50. Allir Einherjar
En satt er þat, er þú sagðir. Mikill er Óðinn fyrir sér. Mörg dæmi finnast til þess. Svá er hér sagt í orðum sjálfra ásanna:
51. Askr Yggdrasils,
42. Then said Ganglere: A mighty band of men there is in Valhal, and, forsooth, I know that Odin is a very great chief, since he commands so mighty a host. But what is the pastime of the einherjes when they do not drink? Har answered: Every morning, when they have dressed themselves, they take their weapons and go out into the court and fight and slay each other. That is their play. Toward breakfast-time they ride home to Valhal and sit down to drink. As is here said:
All the einherjes
But true it is, as you said, that Odin is a great chief. There are many proofs of that. Thus it is said in the very words of the asas themselves:
57. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 41.
58. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 44.
|42. Æsir rufu eiða sína á borgarsmiðnum.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverr á þann hest, Sleipni, eða hvat er frá honum at segja?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi kanntu deili á Sleipni, ok eigi veiztu atburði, af hverju hann kom, en þat mun þér þykkja frásagnar vert. Þat var snimma í öndverða byggð goðanna, þá er goðin höfðu sett Miðgarð ok gert Valhöll, þá kom þar smiðr nökkurr ok bauð at gera þeim borg á þrim misserum svá góða, at trú ok örugg væri fyrir bergrisum ok hrímþursum, þótt þeir kæmi inn um Miðgarð, en hann mælti sér þat til kaups, at hann skyldi eignast Freyju, ok hafa vildi hann sól ok mána. Þá gengu æsirnir á tal ok réðu ráðum sínum, ok var þat kaup gert við smiðinn, at hann skyldi eignast þat, er hann mælti til, ef hann fengi gert borgina á einum vetri, en inn fyrsta sumarsdag, ef nökkurr hlutr væri ógerr at borginni, þá skyldi hann af kaupinu. Skyldi hann af engum manni lið þiggja til verksins. Ok er þeir sögðu honum þessa kosti, þá beiddist hann, at þeir skyldu lofa, at hann hefði lið af hesti sínum, er Svaðilfari hét, en því réð Loki, er þat var til lagt við hann.
Hann tók til inn fyrsta vetrardag at gera borgina, en of nætr dró hann til grjót á hestinum. En þat þótti ásunum mikit undr, hversu stór björg sá hestr dró, ok hálfu meira þrekvirki gerði hestrinn en smiðrinn. En at kaupi þeira váru sterk vitni ok mörg særi, fyrir því at jötnum þótti ekki tryggt at vera með ásum griðalaust, ef Þórr kæmi heim, en þá var hann farinn í austrveg at berja tröll. En er á leið vetrinn, þá sóttist mjök borgargerðin, ok var hon svá há ok sterk, at eigi mátti á þat leita.
En þá er þrír dagar váru til sumars, þá var komit mjök at borghliði. Þá settust goðin á dómstóla sína ok leituðu ráða ok spurði hverr annan, hverr því hefði ráðit at gifta Freyju í Jötunheima eða spilla loftinu ok himninum svá, at taka þaðan sól ok tungl ok gefa jötnum. En þat kom ásamt með öllum, at þessu myndi ráðit hafa sá, er flestu illu ræðr, Loki Laufeyjarson, ok kváðu hann verðan ills dauða, ef eigi hitti hann ráð til, at smiðrinn væri af kaupinu, ok veittu Loka atgöngu. En er hann varð hræddr, þá svarði hann eiða, at hann skyldi svá til haga, at smiðrinn væri af kaupinu, hvat sem hann kostaði til.
Ok it sama kveld, er smiðrinn ók út eftir grjótinu með hestinn Svaðilfara, þá hljóp ór skógi nökkurum merr ok at hestinum ok hrein við. En er hestrinn kenndi, hvat hrossi þetta var, þá æddist hann ok sleit sundr reipin ok hljóp til merarinnar, en hon undan til skógar ok smiðrinn eftir ok vill taka hestinn, en þessi hross hlaupa alla nótt, ok dvelst smíðin þá nótt, ok eftir um daginn varð ekki svá smíðat sem fyrr hafði orðit. Ok þá er smiðrinn sér, at eigi mun lokit verða verkinu, þá færist smiðrinn í jötunmóð. En er æsirnir sá þat til víss, at þar var bergrisi kominn, þá varð eigi þyrmt eiðunum, ok kölluðu þeir á Þór, ok jafnskjótt kom hann, ok því næst fór á loft hamarinn Mjöllnir. Galt hann þá smíðarkaupit ok eigi sól eða tungl, heldr synjaði hann honum at byggva í Jötunheimum ok laust þat it fyrsta högg, er haussinn brotnaði í smán mola, ok sendi hann niðr undir Niflheim.
En Loki hafði þá ferð haft til Svaðilfara, at nökkuru síðar bar hann fyl. Þat var grátt ok hafði átta fætr, ok er sá hestr beztr með goðum ok mönnum. Svá segir í Völuspá:
52. Þá gengu regin öll
er á meðal fóru;
Þórr einn þar vá
hann sjaldan sitr,
er hann slíkt of fregn."
43. Ganglere asked: Whose is that horse Sleipner, and what is there to
say about it? Har answered: You have no knowledge of Sleipner, nor do you
know the circumstances attending his birth; but it must seem to you worth
the telling. In the beginning, when the town of the gods was building, when
the gods had established Midgard and made Valhal, there came a certain
builder and offered to make them a burg, in three half years, so excellent
that it should be perfectly safe against the mountain-giants and
frost-giants, even though they should get within Midgard. But he demanded as
his reward, that he should have Freyja, and he wanted the sun and moon
besides. Then the asas came together and held counsel, and the bargain was
made with the builder that he should get what he demanded if he could get
the burg done in one winter; but if on the first day of summer any part of
the burg was unfinished, then the contract should be void. It was also
agreed that no man should help him with the work. When they told him these
terms, he requested that they should allow him to have the help of his
horse, called Svadilfare, and at the suggestion of Loke this was granted
On the first day of winter he began to build the burg, but by night he hauled stone for it with his horse. But it seemed a great wonder to the asas what great rocks that horse drew, and the horse did one half more of the mighty task than the builder. The bargain was firmly established with witnesses and oaths, for the giant did not deem it safe to be among the asas without truce if Thor should come home, who now was on a journey to the east fighting trolls. Toward the end of winter the burg was far built, and it was so high and strong that it could in nowise be taken. When there were three days left before summer, the work was all completed excepting the burg gate. Then went the gods to their judgment-seats and held counsel, and asked each other who could have advised to give Freyja in marriage in Jotunheim, or to plunge the air and the heavens in darkness by taking away the sun and the moon and giving them to the giant; and all agreed that this must have been advised by him who gives the most bad counsels, namely, Loke, son of Laufey, and they threatened him with a cruel death if he could not contrive some way of preventing the builder from fulfilling his part of the bargain, and they proceeded to lay hands on Loke. He in his fright then promised with an oath that he should so manage that the builder should lose his wages, let it cost him what it would. And the same evening, when the builder drove out after stone with his horse Svadilfare, a mare suddenly ran out of the woods to the horse and began to neigh at him. The steed, knowing what sort of horse this was, grew excited, burst the reins asunder and ran after the mare, but she ran from him into the woods. The builder hurried after them with all his might, and wanted to catch the steed, but these horses kept running all night, and thus the time was lost, and at dawn the work had not made the usual progress. When the builder saw that his work was not going to be completed, he resumed his giant form. When the asas thus became sure that it was really a mountain-giant that had come among them, they did not heed their oaths, but called on Thor. He came straightway, swung his hammer, Mjolner, and paid the workman his wages,—not with the sun and moon, but rather by preventing him from dwelling in Jotunheim; and this was easily done with the first blow of the hammer, which broke his skull into small pieces and sent him down to Niflhel. But Loke had run such a race with Svadilfare that he some time after bore a foal. It was gray, and had eight feet, and this is the best horse among gods and men. Thus it is said in the Vala’s Prophecy:
Then went the gods.
59. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 29, 30
|43. Frá Skíðblaðni.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat er at segja frá
Skíðblaðni, er hann er beztr skipa, hvárt er ekki skip jafnmikit sem hann?"
Hárr segir: "Skíðblaðnir er beztr skipanna ok með mestum hagleik gerr, en Naglfar er mest skip. Þat á Múspell. Dvergar nökkurir, synir Ívalda, gerðu Skíðblaðni ok gáfu Frey skipit. Hann er svá mikill, at allir æsir megu skipa hann með vápnum ok herbúnaði, ok hefir hann byr, þegar er segl er dregit, hvert er fara skal, en þá er eigi skal fara með hann á sæ, þá er hann gerr af svá mörgum hlutum ok með svá mikilli list, at hann má vefja saman sem dúk ok hafa í pungi sínum.
|44. Then asked Ganglere: What is there to be said of Skidbladner, which you say is the best of ships? Is there no ship equally good, or equally great? Made answer Har: Skidbladner is the best of ships, and is made with the finest workmanship; but Naglfare, which is in Muspel, is the largest. Some dwarfs, the sons of Ivalde, made Skidbladner and gave it to Frey. It is so large that all the asas, with their weapons and war-gear, can find room on board it, and as soon as the sails are hoisted it has fair wind, no matter whither it is going. When it is not wanted for a voyage, it is made of so many pieces and with so much skill, that Frey can fold it together like a napkin and carry it in his pocket.|
|44. Þórr hóf för sína til Útgarða-Loka.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Gott skip er Skíðblaðnir, en allmikil
fjölkynngi mun vera við höfð, áðr svá fái gert. Hvárt hefir Þórr hvergi
svá farit, at hann hafi hitt fyrir sér svá ríkt eða rammt, at honum hafi
ofrefli verit fyrir afls sakar eða fjölkynngi?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Fár maðr, vættir mik, at frá því kunni at segja, en margt hefir honum harðfært þótt. En þótt svá hafi verit, at nökkurr hlutr hafi svá verit rammr eða sterkr, at Þórr hafi eigi sigr fengit á unnit, þá er eigi skylt at segja frá, fyrir því at mörg dæmi eru til þess ok því eru allir skyldir at trúa, at Þórr er máttkastr."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Svá lízt mér sem þess hlutar mynda ek yðr spurt hafa, er engi er til færr at segja."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Heyrt höfum vér sagt frá þeim atburðum, er oss þykkja ótrúligir, at sannir myni vera. En hér mun sá sitja nær, er vita mun sönn tíðendi af at segja, ok muntu því trúa, at hann mun eigi ljúga nú it fyrsta sinn, er aldri laug fyrr."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hér mun ek standa ok hlýða, ef nökkur órlausn fæst þessa máls, en at öðrum kosti kalla ek yðr vera yfir komna, ef þér kunnuð eigi at segja, þat er ek spyr."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Auðsýnt er nú, at hann vill þessi tíðendi vita, þótt oss þykki eigi fagrt at segja.
Þat er upphaf þessa máls, at Öku-Þórr fór með hafra sína ok reið ok með honum sá áss, er Loki er heitir. Koma þeir at kveldi til eins búanda ok fá þar náttstað. En um kveldit tók Þórr hafra sína ok skar báða. Eftir þat váru þeir flegnir ok bornir til ketils. En er soðit var, þá settist Þórr til náttverðar ok þeir lagsmenn. Þórr bauð til matar með sér búandanum ok konu hans ok börnum þeira. Sonr búanda hét Þjálfi, en Röskva dóttir. Þá lagði Þórr hafrstökurnar útar frá eldinum ok mælti, at búandi ok heimamenn hans skyldu kasta á hafrstökurnar beinunum. Þjálfi, sonr búanda, hélt á lærlegg hafrsins ok spretti á knífi sínum ok braut til mergjar. Þórr dvalðist þar of nóttina. En í óttu fyrir dag stóð hann upp ok klæddi sik, tók hamarinn Mjöllni ok brá upp ok vígði hafrstökurnar. Stóðu þá upp hafrarnir, ok var þá annarr haltr eftra fæti. Þat fann Þórr ok talði, at búandinn eða hans hjón myndu eigi skynsamliga hafa farit með beinum hafrsins. Kennir hann, at brotinn var lærleggrinn. Eigi þarf langt frá því at segja. Vita mega þat allir, hversu hræddr búandinn mundi vera, er hann sá, at Þórr lét síga brýnnar ofan fyrir augun, en þat er hann sá augnanna, þá hugðist hann falla mundu fyrir sjónum hans einum saman. Hann herði hendrnar at hamarskaftinu, svá at hvítnuðu knúarnir. En búandinn gerði sem ván var ok öll hjúnin, kölluðu ákafliga, báðu sér friðar, buðu at yfirbótum allt þat, er þau áttu. En er hann sá hræðslu þeira, þá gekk af honum móðrinn, ok sefaðist hann ok tók af þeim í sætt börn þeira, Þjálfa ok Röskvu, ok gerðust þau þá skyldir þjónustumenn hans, ok fylgja þau honum jafnan síðan.
|Then said Ganglere: A good ship is Skidbladner, but much black art must have been resorted to ere it was so fashioned. Has Thor never come where he has found anything so strong and mighty that it has been superior to him either in strength or in the black art? Har answered: Few men, I know, are able to tell thereof, but still he has often been in difficult straits. But though there have been things so mighty and strong that Thor has not been able to gain the victory, they are such as ought not to be spoken of; for there are many proofs which all must accept that Thor is the mightiest. Then said Ganglere: It seems to me that I have now asked about something that no one can answer. Said Jafnhar: We have heard tell of adventures that seem to us incredible, but here sits one near who is able to tell true tidings thereof, and you may believe that he will not lie for the first time now, who never told a lie before. Then said Ganglere: I will stand here and listen, to see if any answer is to be had to this question. But if you cannot answer my question I declare you to be defeated. Then answered Thride: It is evident that he now is bound to know, though it does not seem proper for us to speak thereof. The beginning of this adventure is that Oku-Thor went on a journey with his goats and chariot, and with him went the asa who is called Loke. In the evening they came to a bonde60 and got there lodgings for the night. In the evening Thor took his goats and killed them both, whereupon he had them flayed and borne into a kettle. When the flesh was boiled, Thor and his companion sat down to supper. Thor invited the bonde, his wife and their children, a son by name Thjalfe, and a daughter by name Roskva, to eat with them. Then Thor laid the goat-skins away from the fire-place, and requested the bonde and his household to cast the bones onto the skins. Thjalfe, the bonde’s son, had the thigh of one of the goats, which he broke asunder with his knife, in order to get at the marrow, Thor remained there over night. In the morning, just before daybreak, he arose, dressed himself, took the hammer Mjolner, lifted it and hallowed the goat-skins. Then the goats arose, but one of them limped on one of its hind legs. When Thor saw this he said that either the bonde or one of his folk had not dealt skillfully with the goat’s bones, for he noticed that the thigh was broken. It is not necessary to dwell on this part of the story. All can understand how frightened the bonde became when he saw that Thor let his brows sink down over his eyes. When he saw his eyes he thought he must fall down at the sight of them alone. Thor took hold of the handle of his hammer so hard that his knuckles grew white. As might be expected, the bonde and all his household cried aloud and sued for peace, offering him as an atonement all that they possessed. When he saw their fear, his wrath left him. He was appeased, and took as a ransom the bonders children, Thjalfe and Roskva. They became his servants, and have always accompanied him since that time.|
|45. Frá skiptum Þórs ok Skrýmis.|
Lét hann þar eftir hafra ok byrjaði ferðina austr í Jötunheima
ok allt til hafsins, ok þá fór hann út yfir hafit þat it djúpa. En er
hann kom til lands, þá gekk hann upp ok með honum Loki ok Þjálfi ok
Röskva. Þá er þau höfðu litla hríð gengit, varð fyrir þeim mörk stór.
Gengu þau þann dag allan til myrkurs. Þjálfi var allra manna
fóthvatastr. Hann bar kýl Þórs, en til vista var eigi gott.
Þá er myrkt var orðit, leituðu þeir sér náttstaðar ok fundu fyrir sér skála nokkurn mjök mikinn. Váru dyrr á enda ok jafnbreiðar skálanum. Þar leituðu þeir sér náttbóls. En of miðja nótt varð landskjálfti mikill. Gekk jörðin undir þeim skykkjum, ok skalf húsit. Þá stóð Þórr upp ok hét á lagsmenn sína, ok leituðust fyrir ok fundu afhús til hægri handar í miðjum skálanum ok gengu þannig. Settist Þórr í dyrrnar, en önnur þau váru innar frá honum, ok váru þau hrædd, en Þórr helt hamarskaftinu ok hugði at verja sik. Þá heyrðu þau ym mikinn ok gný.
En er kom at dagan, þá gekk Þórr út ok sér mann, hvar lá skammt frá honum í skóginum, ok var sá eigi lítill. Hann svaf ok hraut sterkliga. Þá þóttist Þórr skilja, hvat látum verit hafði of nóttina. Hann spennir sik megingjörðum, ok óx honum ásmegin. Ok í því bili vaknar sá maðr ok stóð skjótt upp, en þá er sagt, at Þór varð bilt einu sinni at slá hann með hamrinum ok spurði hann at nafni.
En sá nefndist Skrýmir, - "en eigi þarf ek", sagði hann, "at spyrja þik at nafni. Kenni ek, at þú ert Ása-þórr. En hvárt hefir þú dregit á braut hanzka minn?"
Seildist þá Skrýmir til ok tók upp hanzkann. Sér Þórr þá, at þat hafði hann haft of nóttina fyrir skála, en afhúsit, þat var þumlungrinn hanzkans.
Skrýmir spurði, ef Þórr vildi hafa föruneyti hans, en Þórr játti því. Þá tók Skrýmir ok leysti nestbagga sinn ok bjóst til at eta dögurð, en Þórr í öðrum stað ok hans félagar. Skrýmir bauð þá, at þeir legðu mötuneyti sitt, en Þórr játti því. Þá batt Skrýmir nest þeira allt í einn bagga ok lagði á bak sér. Hann gekk fyrir of daginn ok steig heldr stórum, en síð at kveldi leitaði Skrýmir þeim náttstaðar undir eik nökkurri mikilli.
Þá mælti Skrýmir til Þórs, at hann vill leggjast niðr at sofa, - "en þér takið nestbaggan ok búið til nótturðar yðr."
Því næst sofnar Skrýmir ok hraut fast, en Þórr tók nestbaggann ok skal leysa, en svá er at segja, sem ótrúligt mun þykkja, at engi knút fekk hann leyst ok engi álarendann hreyft, svá at þá væri lausari en áðr. Ok er hann sér, at þetta verk má eigi nýtast, þá varð hann reiðr, greip þá hamarinn Mjöllni tveim höndum ok steig fram öðrum fæti at þar, er Skrýmir lá, ok lýstr í höfuð honum, en Skrýmir vaknar ok spyrr, hvárt laufsblað nakkvat felli í höfuð honum eða hvárt þeir hafi þá matazt ok sé búnir til rekkna.
Þórr segir, at þeir munu þá sofa ganga. Ganga þau þá undir aðra eik. Er þat þér satt at segja, at ekki var þá óttalaust at sofa.
En at miðri nótt, þá heyrir Þórr, at Skrýmir hrýtr ok sefr fast, svá at dunar í skóginum. Þá stendr hann upp ok gengr til hans, reiðir hamarinn títt ok hart ok lýstr ofan í miðjan hvirfil honum. Hann kennir, at hamarsmuðrinn sökkr djúpt í höfuðit.
En í því bili vaknar Skrýmir ok mælti: "Hvat er nú? Fell akarn nökkut í höfuð mér, eða hvat er títt um þik, Þórr?"
En Þórr gekk aftr skyndiliga ok svarar, at hann var þá nývaknaðr, sagði, at þá var mið nótt ok enn væri mál at sofa. Þá hugsaði Þórr þat, ef hann kæmi svá í færi at slá hann it þriðja högg, at aldri skyldi hann sjá sik síðan, liggr nú ok gætir, ef Skrýmir sofnaði enn fast. En litlu fyrir dagan þá heyrir hann, at Skrýmir mun sofnat hafa, stendr þá upp ok hleypr at honum, reiðir þá hamarinn af öllu afli ok lýstr á þunnvangann, þann er upp vissi. Sökkr þá hamarrinn upp at skaftinu.
En Skrýmir settist upp ok strauk of vangann ok mælti: "Hvárt munu fuglar nökkurir sitja í trénu yfir mér? Mik grunaði, er ek vaknaða, at tros nökkut af kvistunum felli í höfuð mér. Hvárt vakir þú, Þórr? Mál mun vera upp at standa ok klæðast, en ekki eiguð þér nú langa leið fram til borgarinnar, er kölluð er Útgarðr. Heyrt hefi ek, at þér hafit kvisat í milli yðvar, at ek væra ekki lítill maðr vexti, en sjá skuluð þér þar stærri menn, ef þér komit í Útgarð. Nú mun ek ráða yðr heilræði. Látið þér eigi stórliga yfir yðr. Ekki munu hirðmenn Útgarða-Loka vel þola þvílíkum kögursveinum köpuryrði. En at öðrum kosti hverfið aftr, ok þann ætla ek yðr betra af at taka. En ef þér vilið fram fara, þá stefnið þér í austr, en ek á nú norðr leið til fjalla þessa, er þér meguð nú sjá."
Tekr Skrýmir nestbaggann ok kastar á bak sér ok snýr þvers á braut í skóginn frá þeim, ok er þess eigi getit, at æsirnir bæði þá heila hittast.
|46. He left his goats there and went on his way east into Jotunheim, clear to the sea, and then he went on across the deep ocean, and went ashore on the other side, together with Loke and Thjalfe and Roskva. When they had proceeded a short distance, there stood before them a great wood, through which they kept going the whole day until dark. Thjalfe, who was of all men the fleetest of foot, bore Thor’s bag, but the wood was no good place for provisions. When it had become dark, they sought a place for their night lodging, and found a very large hall. At the end of it was a door as wide as the hall. Here they remained through the night. About midnight there was a great earthquake; the ground trembled beneath them, and the house shook. Then Thor stood up and called his companions. They looked about them and found an adjoining room to the right, in the midst of the hall, and there they went in. Thor seated himself in the door; the others went farther in and were very much frightened. Thor held his hammer by the handle, ready to defend himself. Then they heard a great groaning and roaring. When it began to dawn, Thor went out and saw a man lying not far from him in the wood. He was very large, lay sleeping, and snored loudly. Then Thor thought he had found out what noise it was that they had heard in the night. He girded himself with his Megingjarder, whereby his asa-might increased. Meanwhile the man woke, and immediately arose. It is said that Thor this once forbore to strike him with the hammer, and asked him for his name. He called himself Skrymer; but, said he, I do not need to ask you what your name is,—I know that you are Asa-Thor. But what have you done with my glove? He stretched out his hand and picked up his glove. Then Thor saw that the glove was the hall in which he had spent the night, and that the adjoining room was the thumb of the glove. Skrymer asked whether they would accept of his company. Thor said yes. Skrymer took and loosed his provision-sack and began to eat his breakfast; but Thor and his fellows did the same in another place. Skrymer proposed that they should lay their store of provisions together, to which Thor consented. Then Skrymer bound all their provisions into one bag, laid it on his back, and led the way all the day, taking gigantic strides. Late in the evening he sought out a place for their night quarters under a large oak. Then Skrymer said to Thor that he wanted to lie down to sleep; they might take the provision-sack and make ready their supper. Then Skrymer fell asleep and snored tremendously. When Thor took the provision-sack and was to open it, then happened what seems incredible, but still it must be told,—that he could not get one knot loosened, nor could he stir a single end of the strings so that it was looser than before. When he saw that all his efforts were in vain he became wroth, seized his hammer Mjolner with both his hands, stepped with one foot forward to where Skrymer was lying and dashed the hammer at his head. Skrymer awoke and asked whether some leaf had fallen upon his head; whether they had taken their supper, and were ready to go to sleep. Thor answered that they were just going to sleep. Then they went under another oak. But the truth must be told, that there was no fearless sleeping. About midnight Thor heard that Skrymer was snoring and sleeping so fast that it thundered in the wood. He arose and went over to him, clutched the hammer tight and hard, and gave him a blow in the middle of the crown, so that he knew that the head of the hammer sank deep into his head. But just then Skrymer awoke and asked: What is that? Did an acorn fall onto my head? How is it with you, Thor? Thor hastened back, answered that he had just waked up, and said that it was midnight and still time to sleep. Then Thor made up his mind that if he could get a chance to give him the third blow, he should never see him again, and he now lay watching for Skrymer to sleep fast. Shortly before daybreak he heard that Skrymer had fallen asleep. So he arose and ran over to him. He clutched the hammer with all his might and dashed it at his temples, which he saw uppermost. The hammer sank up to the handle. Skrymer sat up, stroked his temples, and said: Are there any birds sitting in the tree above me? Methought, as I awoke, that some moss from the branches fell on my head. What! are you awake, Thor? It is now time to get up and dress; but you have not far left to the burg that is called Utgard. I have heard that you have been whispering among yourselves that I am not small of stature, but you will see greater men when you come to Utgard. Now I will give you wholesome advice. Do not brag too much of yourselves, for Utgard-Loke’s thanes will not brook the boasting of such insignificant little fellows as you are; otherwise turn back, and that is, in fact, the best thing for you to do. But if you are bound to continue your journey, then keep straight on eastward; my way lies to the north, to those mountains that you there see. Skrymer then took the provision-sack and threw it on his back, and, leaving them, turned into the wood, and it has not been learned whether the asas wished to meet him again in health.|
|46. Frá íþróttum Þórs ok félaga hans.|
Þórr snýr fram á leið ok þeir félagar ok
gengr framan til miðs dags. Þá sá þeir borg standa á völlum nökkurum ok settu
hnakkann á bak sér aftr, áðr þeir fengu séð yfir upp, ganga til borgarinnar, ok
var grind fyrir borghliðinu ok lokin aftr. Þórr gekk á grindina ok fekk eigi upp
lokit, en er þeir þreyttu at komast í borgina, þá smugu þeir milli spalanna ok
kómu svá inn, sá þá höll mikla ok gengu þannig. Var hurðin opin. Þá gengu þeir
inn ok sá þar marga menn á tvá bekki ok flesta ærit stóra.
Því næst koma þeir fyrir konunginn Útgarða-Loka ok kvöddu hann, en hann leit seint til þeira ok glotti við tönn ok mælti: "Seint er um langan veg at spyrja tíðenda, eða er annan veg en ek hygg, er þessi sveinstauli orðinn Öku-Þórr? En meiri muntu vera en mér lízt þú, eða hvat íþrótta er þat, er þér félagar þykkizt vera við búnir? Engi skal hér vera með oss, sá er eigi kunni nökkurs konar list eða kunnandi um fram flesta menn."
Þá segir sá, er síðast gekk, er Loki heitir: "Kann ek þá íþrótt, er ek em albúinn at reyna, at engi er hér sá inni, er skjótara skal eta mat sinn en ek."
Þá svarar Útgarða-Loki: "Íþrótt er þat, ef þú efnir, ok freista skal þá þessar íþróttar." - kallaði útar á bekkinn, at sá, er Logi heitir, skal ganga á gólf fram ok freista sín í móti Loka.
Þá var tekit trog eitt ok borit inn á hallargólfit ok fyllt af slátri. Settist Loki at öðrum enda, en Logi at öðrum, ok át hvárrtveggi sem tíðast ok mættust í miðju troginu. Hafði þá Loki etið slátr allt af beinum, en Logi hafði ok etit slátr allt ok beinin með ok svá trogit, ok sýndist nú öllum sem Loki hefði látit leikinn.
Þá spyrr Útgarða-Loki, hvat sá inn ungi maðr kunni leika, en Þjálfi segir, at hann mun freista at renna skeið nökkur við einhvern þann, er Útgarða-Loki fær til. Þá segir Útgarða-Loki, at þetta er góð íþrótt, ok kallar þess meiri ván, at hann sé vel at sér búinn of skjótleikinn, ef hann skal þessa íþrótt inna, en þó lætr hann skjótt þessa skulu freista. Stendr þá upp Útgarða-Loki ok gengr út, ok var þar gott skeið at renna eftir sléttum velli. Þá kallar Útgarða-Loki til sín sveinstaula nökkurn, er nefndr er Hugi, ok bað hann renna í köpp við Þjálfa. Þá taka þeir it fyrsta skeið, ok er Hugi því framar, at hann snýst aftr í móti honum at skeiðsenda.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Þurfa muntu, Þjálfi, at leggja þik meir fram, ef þú skalt vinna leikinn, en þó er þat satt, at ekki hafa hér komit þeir menn, er mér þykkja fóthvatari en svá."
Þá taka þeir aftr annat skeið, ok þá er Hugi er kemr til skeiðsenda ok hann snýst aftr, þá var langt kólfskot til Þjálfa.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Vel þykkir mér Þjálfi renna skeiðit, en eigi trúi ek honum nú, at hann vinni leikinn, en nú mun reyna, er þeir renna it þriðja skeiðit."
Þá taka þeir enn skeið, en er Hugi er kominn til skeiðsenda ok snýst aftr, ok er Þjálfi eigi þá kominn á mitt skeið. Þá segja allir, at reynt er um þenna leik.
Þá spyrr Útgarða-Loki Þór, hvat þeira íþrótta mun vera, er hann myni vilja birta fyrir þeim, svá miklar sögur sem menn hafa gert um stórvirki hans. Þá mælti Þórr, at helzt vill hann þat taka til at þreyta drykkju við einhvern mann. Útgarða-Loki segir, at þat má vel vera, ok gengr inn í höllina ok kallar skutilsvein sinn, biðr, at hann taki vítishorn þat, er hirðmenn eru vanir at drekka af. Því næst kemr fram skutilsveinn með horninu ok fær Þór í hönd.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Af horni þessu þykkir þá vel drukkit, ef í einum drykk gengr af, en sumir menn drekka af í tveim drykkjum, en engi er svá lítill drykkjumaðr, at eigi gangi af í þrimr."
Þórr lítr á hornit ok sýnist ekki mikit ok er þó heldr langt, en hann er mjök þyrstr, tekr at drekka ok svelgr allstórum ok hyggr, at eigi skal hann þurfa at lúta oftar í hornit. En er hann þraut örendit ok hann laut ór horninu ok sér, hvat leið drykkinum, ok lízt honum svá sem alllítill munr mun vera, at nú sé lægra í horninu en áðr.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Vel er drukkit ok eigi til mikit. Eigi myndak trúa, ef mér væri sagt frá, at Ása-Þórr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka, en þó veit ek, at þú munt vilja drekka af í öðrum drykk."
Þórr svarar engu, setr hornit á munn sér ok hyggr nú, at hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok þreytir á drykkjuna, sem honum vannst til örendi, ok enn sér hann, at stikillinn hornsins vill ekki upp svá mjök sem honum líkar. Ok er hann tók hornið af munni sér ok sér í, lízt honum nú svá sem minna hafi þorrit men í inu fyrra sinni. Er nú gott beranda borð á horninu.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Hvat er nú, Þórr, muntu nú eigi sparast til eins drykkjar meira en þér mun hagr á vera? Svá lízt mér, ef þú skalt nú drekka af horninu inn þriðja drykkinn, sem þessi mun mestr ætlaðr. En ekki muntu mega hér með oss heita svá mikill maðr sem æsir kalla þik, ef þú gerir eigi meira af þér um aðra leika en mér lízt, at um þenna mun vera."
Þá varð Þórr reiðr, setr hornit á munn sér ok drekkr sem ákafligast má hann ok þreytur sem mest á drykkinn. En er hann sá í hornit, þá hafði helst nú nökkut munr á fengizt, ok þá býðr hann upp hornit ok vill eigi drekka meira.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Auðsætt er nú, at máttr þinn er ekki svá mikill sem vér hugðum, en viltu freista um fleiri leika? Sjá má nú, at ekki nýtir þú hér af."
Þórr svarar: "Freista má ek enn of nökkura leika, en undarliga myndi mér þykkja, þá er ek var heima með ásum, ef þvílíkir drykkir væri svá litlir kallaðir. En hvat leik vilið þér nú bjóða mér?"
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Þat gera hér ungir sveinar, er lítit mark mun at þykkja, at hefja upp af jörðu kött minn, en eigi myndak kunna at mæla þvílíkt við Ása-Þór, ef ek hefða eigi sét fyrr, at þú er miklu minni fyrir þér en ek hugða."
Því næst hljóp fram köttr einn grár á hallargólfit ok heldr mikill, en Þórr gekk til ok tók hendi sinni niðr undir miðjan kviðinn ok lyfti upp, en kötttrinn beygði kenginn, svá sem Þórr rétti upp höndina. En er Þórr seildist svá langt upp sem hann mátti lengst, þá létti kötturinn einum fæti, ok fekk Þórr eigi framit þenna leik meir.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Svá fór þessi leikr sem mik varði. Köttrinn er heldr mikill, en Þórr er lágr ok lítill hjá stórmenni því, sem hér er með oss."
Þá mælti Þórr: "Svá lítinn sem þér kallið mik, þá gangi nú til einn hverr ok fáist við mik! Nú em ek reiðr."
Þá svarar Útgarða-Loki ok litast um á bekkina ok mælti: "Eigi sé ek þann mann hér inni, er eigi mun lítilræði í þykkja at fást við þik."
Ok enn mælti hann: "Sjám fyrst, kalli mér hingat kerlinguna fóstru mína, Elli, ok fáist Þórr við hana, ef hann vill. Fellt hefir hon þá menn, er mér hafa litizt eigi ósterkligri en Þórr er."
Því næst gekk í höllina kerling ein gömul. Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki, at hon skal taka fang við Ása-þór. Ekki er langt um að gera. Svá fór fang þat, at því harðara er Þórr knúðist at fanginu, því fastara stóð hon. Þá tók kerling at leita til bragða, ok varð Þórr þá lauss á fótum, ok váru þær sviptingar allharðar ok eigi lengi, áðr en Þórr féll á kné öðrum fæti. Þá gekk til Útgarða-Loki ok bað þau hætta fanginu ok sagði svá, at Þórr myndi eigi þurfa at bjóða fleirum mönnum fang í hans hirð. Var þá ok liðit at nótt. Vísaði Útgarða-Loki Þór ok þeim félögum til sætis, ok dveljast þar náttlangt í góðum fagnaði.
|47. Thor and his companions went their way and continued their journey until noon. Then they saw a burg standing on a plain, and it was so high that they had to bend their necks clear back before they could look over it. They drew nearer and came to the burg-gate, which was closed. Thor finding himself unable to open it, and being anxious to get within the burg, they crept between the bars and so came in. They discovered a large hall and went to it. Finding the door open they entered, and saw there many men, the most of whom were immensely large, sitting on two benches. Thereupon they approached the king, Utgard-Loke, and greeted him. He scarcely deigned to look at them, smiled scornfully and showed his teeth, saying: It is late to ask for tidings of a long journey, but if I am not mistaken this stripling is Oku-Thor, is it not? It may be, however, that you are really bigger than you look For what feats are you and your companions prepared? No one can stay with us here, unless he is skilled in some craft or accomplishment beyond the most of men. Then answered he who came in last, namely Loke: I know the feat of which I am prepared to give proof, that there is no one present who can eat his food faster than I. Then said Utgard-Loke: That is a feat, indeed, if you can keep your word, and you shall try it immediately. He then summoned from the bench a man by name Loge, and requested him to come out on the floor and try his strength against Loke. They took a trough full of meat and set it on the floor, whereupon Loke seated himself at one end and Loge at the other. Both ate as fast as they could, and met at the middle of the trough. Loke had eaten all the flesh off from the bones, but Loge had consumed both the flesh and the bones, and the trough too. All agreed that Loke had lost the wager. Then Utgard-Loke asked what game that young man knew? Thjalfe answered that he would try to run a race with anyone that Utgard-Loke might designate. Utgard-Loke said this was a good feat, and added that it was to be hoped that he excelled in swiftness if he expected to win in this game, but he would soon have the matter decided. He arose and went out. There was an excellent race-course along the flat plain. Utgard-Loke then summoned a young man, whose name was Huge, and bade him run a race with Thjalfe. Then they took the first heat, and Huge was so much ahead that when he turned at the goal he met Thjalfe. Said Utgard-Loke: You must lay yourself more forward, Thjalfe, if you want to win the race; but this I confess, that there has never before come anyone hither who was swifter of foot than you. Then they took a second heat, and when Huge came to the goal and turned, there was a long bolt-shot to Thjalfe. Then said Utgard-Loke: Thjalfe seems to me to run well; still I scarcely think he will win the race, but this will be proven when they run the third heat. Then they took one more heat. Huge ran to the goal and turned back, but Thjalfe had not yet gotten to the middle of the course. Then all said that this game had been tried sufficiently. Utgard-Loke now asked Thor what feats there were that he would be willing to exhibit before them, corresponding to the tales that men tell of his great works. Thor replied that he preferred to compete with someone in drinking. Utgard-Loke said there would be no objection to this. He went into the hall, called his cup-bearer, and requested him to take the sconce-horn that his thanes were wont to drink from. The cup-bearer immediately brought forward the horn and handed it to Thor. Said Utgard-Loke: From this horn it is thought to be well drunk if it is emptied in one draught, some men empty it in two draughts, but there is no drinker so wretched that he cannot exhaust it in three. Thor looked at the horn and did not think it was very large, though it seemed pretty long, but he was very thirsty. He put it to his lips and swallowed with all his might, thinking that he should not have to bend over the horn a second time. But when his breath gave out, and he looked into the horn to see how it had gone with his drinking, it seemed to him difficult to determine whether there was less in it than before. Then said Utgard-Loke: That is well drunk, still it is not very much. I could never have believed it, if anyone had told me, that Asa-Thor could not drink more, but I know you will be able to empty it in a second draught. Thor did not answer, but set the horn to his lips, thinking that he would now take a larger draught. He drank as long as he could and drank deep, as he was wont, but still he could not make the tip of the horn come up as much as he would like. And when he set the horn away and looked into it, it seemed to him that he had drunk less than the first time; but the horn could now be borne without spilling. Then said Utgard-Loke: How now, Thor! Are you not leaving more for the third draught than befits your skill? It seems to me that if you are to empty the horn with the third draught, then this will be the greatest. You will not be deemed so great a man here among us as the asas call you, if you do not distinguish yourself more in other feats than you seem to me to have done in this. Then Thor became wroth, set the horn to his mouth and drank with all his might and kept on as long as he could, and when he looked into it its contents had indeed visibly diminished, but he gave back the horn and would not drink any more. Said Utgard-Loke: It is clear that your might is not so great as we thought. Would you like to try other games? It is evident that you gained nothing by the first. Answered Thor: I should like to try other games, but I should be surprised if such a drink at home among the asas would be called small. What game will you now offer me? Answered Utgard-Loke: Young lads here think it nothing but play to lift my cat up from the ground, and I should never have dared to offer such a thing to Asa-Thor had I not already seen that you are much less of a man than I thought. Then there sprang forth on the floor a gray cat, and it was rather large. Thor went over to it, put his hand under the middle of its body and tried to lift it up, but the cat bent its back in the same degree as Thor raised his hands; and when he had stretched them up as far as he was able the cat lifted one foot, and Thor did not carry the game any further. Then said Utgard-Loke: This game ended as I expected. The cat is rather large, and Thor is small, and little compared with the great men that are here with us. Said Thor: Little as you call me, let anyone who likes come hither and wrestle with me, for now I am wroth. Answered Utgard-Loke, looking about him on the benches: I do not see anyone here who would not think it a trifle to wrestle with you. And again he said: Let me see first! Call hither that old woman, Elle, my foster-mother, and let Thor wrestle with her if he wants to. She has thrown to the ground men who have seemed to me no less strong than Thor. Then there came into the hall an old woman. Utgard-Loke bade her take a wrestle with Asa-Thor. The tale is not long. The result of the grapple was, that the more Thor tightened his grasp, the firmer she stood. Then the woman began to bestir herself, and Thor lost his footing. They had some very hard tussles, and before long Thor was brought down on one knee. Then Utgard-Loke stepped forward, bade them cease the wrestling, and added that Thor did not need to challenge anybody else to wrestle with him in his hall, besides it was now getting late. He showed Thor and his companions to seats, and they spent the night there enjoying the best of hospitality.|
|47. Skilnaðr Þórs ok Útgarða-Loka.|
En at morgni, þegar dagaði, stendr Þórr upp ok þeir félagar,
klæða sik ok eru búnir braut at ganga. Þá kom þar Útgarða-Loki ok lét
setja þeim borð. Skorti þá eigi góðan fagnað, mat ok drykk. En er þeir
hafa matazt, þá snúast þeir til ferðar.
Útgarða-Loki fylgir þeim út, gengr með þeim braut ór borginni, en at skilnaði þá mælti Útgarða-Loki til Þórs ok spyrr, hvernig honum þykkir ferð sín orðin, eða hvárt hann hefir hitt ríkara mann nökkurn en sik.
Þórr segir, at eigi mun hann þat segja, at eigi hafi hann mikla ósæmð farit í þeira viðskiptum, - "en þó veit ek, at þér munuð kalla mik lítinn mann fyrir mér, ok uni ek því illa."
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Nú skal segja þér it sanna, er þú ert út kominn ór borginni, at ef ek lifi ok megak ráða, þá skaltu aldri oftar í hana koma. Ok þat veit trúa mín, at aldri hefðir þú í hana komit, ef ek hefða vitat áðr, at þú hefðir svá mikinn kraft með þér ok þú hafðir svá nær haft oss mikilli ófæru. En sjónhverfingar hef ek gert þér, svá at fyrsta sinn á skóginum kom ek til fundar við yðr, ok þá er þú skyldir leysa nestbaggann, þá hafðak bundit hann með grésjárni, en þú fannt eigi, hvar upp skyldi lúka. En því næst laust þú mik með hamrinum þrjú högg, ok var it fyrsta minnst ok var þó svá mikit, at mér mundi endast til bana, ef á hefði komit. En þar er þú sátt hjá höll minni setberg ok þar sáttu ofan í þrjá dali ferskeytta ok einn djúpastan, þar váru hamarspor þín. Setberginu brá ek fyrir höggin, en eigi sást þú þat. Svá var ok of leikana, er þér þreyttuð við hirðmenn mína, þá var þat it fyrsta er, Loki gerði. Hann var mjök soltinn ok át títt, en sá er Logi hét, þat var villieldr, ok brenndi hann eigi seinna trogið en slátrit. En er Þjálfi þreytti rásina við þann, er Hugi hét, þat var hugr minn, ok var Þjálfa eigi vænt at þreyta skjótfæri við hann. En er þú drakkt af horninu ok þótti þér seint líða, en þat veit trúa mín, at þá varð þat undr, er ek mynda eigi trúa, at vera mætti. Annarr endir hornsins var úti í hafi, en þat sáttu eigi, en nú, er þú kemr til sjávarins, þá muntu sjá mega, hvern þurrð þú hefir drukkit á sænum. Þat eru nú fjörur kallaðar."
Ok enn mælti hann: "Eigi þótti mér hitt minna vera vert, er þú lyftir upp kettinum, ok þér satt at segja, þá hræddust allir þeir, er sá, er þú lyftir af jörðu einum fætinum. En sá köttr var eigi sem þér sýndist. Þat var Miðgarðsormr, er liggr um öll lönd, ok vannst honum varliga lengð til, at jörðina tæki sporðr ok höfuð, svá langt seildist þú upp, at skammt var þá til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er þú stótt svá lengi við ok fellt eigi meir en á kné öðrum fæti, er þú fékkst við Elli, fyrir því at engi hefir sá orðit ok engi mun verða, ef svá gamall verðr, at elli bíðr, at eigi komi ellin öllum til falls. Ok er nú þat satt at segja, at vér munum skiljast, ok mun þá betr hvárratveggju handar, at þér komit eigi oftar mik at hitta. Ek mun enn annat sinn verja borg mína með þvílíkum vélum eða öðrum, svá at ekki vald munuð þér á mér fá."
En er Þórr heyrði þessa tölu, greip hann til hamarsins ok bregðr á loft, en er hann skal fram reiða, þá sér hann þar hvergi Útgarða-Loka. Ok þá snýst hann aftr til borgarinnar ok ætlast þá fyrir at brjóta borgina. Þá sér hann þar völlu víða ok fagra, en enga borg. Snýst hann þá aftr ok ferr leið sína, til þess er hann kom aftr í Þrúðvanga. En þat er satt at segja, at þá hafi hann ráðit fyrir sér at leita til, ef saman mætti bera fundi þeira Miðgarðsorms, sem síðar varð. Nú ætla ek engan kunna þér sannara at segja frá þessi ferð Þórs."
|48. At daybreak the next day Thor and his companions arose, dressed themselves and were ready to depart. Then came Utgard-Loke and had the table spread for them, and there was no lack of feasting both in food and in drink. When they had breakfasted, they immediately departed from the burg. Utgard-Loke went with them out of the burg, but at parting he spoke to Thor and asked him how he thought his journey had turned out, or whether he had ever met a mightier man than himself. Thor answered that he could not deny that he had been greatly disgraced in this meeting; and this I know, he added, that you will call me a man of little account, whereat I am much mortified. Then said Utgard-Loke: Now I will tell you the truth, since you have come out of the burg, that if I live, and may have my way, you shall never enter it again; and this I know, forsooth, that you should never have come into it had I before known that you were so strong, and that you had come so near bringing us into great misfortune. Know, then, that I have deceived you with illusions. When I first found you in the woods I came to meet you, and when you were to loose the provision-sack I had bound it with iron threads, but you did not find where it was to be untied. In the next place, you struck me three times with the hammer. The first blow was the least, and still it was so severe that it would have been my death if it had hit me. You saw near my burg a mountain cloven at the top into three square dales, of which one was the deepest,—these were the dints made by your hammer. The mountain I brought before the blows without your seeing it. In like manner I deceived you in your contests with my courtiers. In regard to the first, in which Loke took part, the facts were as follows: He was very hungry and ate fast; but he whose name was Loge was wildfire, and he burned the trough no less rapidly than the meat. When Thjalfe ran a race with him whose name was Huge, that was my thought, and it was impossible for him to keep pace with its swiftness. When you drank from the horn, and thought that it diminished so little, then, by my troth, it was a great wonder, which I never could have deemed possible.. One end of the horn stood in the sea, but that you did not see. When you come to the sea-shore you will discover how much the sea has sunk by your drinking; that is now called the ebb. Furthermore he said: Nor did it seem less wonderful to me that you lifted up the cat; and, to tell you the truth, all who saw it were frightened when they saw that you raised one of its feet from the ground, for it was not such a cat as you thought. It was in reality the Midgard-serpent, which surrounds all lands. It was scarcely long enough to touch the earth with its tail and head, and you raised it so high that your hand nearly reached to heaven. It was also a most astonishing feat when you wrestled with Elle, for none has ever been, and none shall ever be, that Elle (eld, old age) will not get the better of him, though he gets to be old enough to abide her coming. And now the truth is that we must part; and it will be better for us both that you do not visit me again. I will again defend my burg with similar or other delusions, so that you will get no power over me. When Thor heard this tale he seized his hammer and lifted it into the air, but when he was about to strike he saw Utgard-Loke nowhere; and when he turned back to the burg and was going to dash that to pieces, he saw a beautiful and large plain, but no burg. So he turned and went his way back to Thrudvang. But it is truthfully asserted that he then resolved in his own mind to seek that meeting with the Midgard-serpent, which afterward took place. And now I think that no one can tell you truer tidings of this journey of Thor.|
|48. Þórr reri á sæ með Hymi.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmikill er fyrir sér
Útgarða-Loki, en með vélum ok fjölkynngi ferr hann mjök, en þat má sjá, at hann
er mikill fyrir sér, at hann átti hirðmenn þá, er mikinn mátt hafa, eða hvárt
hefir Þórr ekki þessa hefnt?"
Hárr svarar: "Eigi er þat ókunnigt, þótt eigi sé fræðimenn, at Þórr leiðrétti þessa ferðina, er nú var frá sagt, ok dvalðist ekki lengi heima, áðr hann bjóst svá skyndiliga til ferðarinnar, at hann hafði eigi reið ok eigi hafrana ok ekki föruneyti. Gekk hann út of Miðgarð svá sem ungr drengr ok kom einn aftan at kveldi til jötuns nökkurs. Sá er Hymir nefndr. Þórr dvalðist þar at gistingu of nóttina.
En í dagan stóð Hymir upp ok klæddist ok bjóst at róa á sæ til fiskjar, en Þórr spratt upp ok varð skjótt búinn ok bað, at Hymir skyldi hann láta róa á sæ með sér, en Hymir segir, at lítil liðsemð myndi at honum vera, er hann var lítill ok ungmenni eitt - "ok mun þik kala, ef ek sit svá lengi ok útarliga sem ek em vanr."
En Þórr sagði, at hann myndi róa mega fyrir því langt frá landi, at eigi var víst, hvárt hann myndi fyrr beiðast at róa útan, ok reiddist Þórr jötninum svá, at þá var búit, at hann myndi þegar láta hamarinn skjalla honum, en hann lét þat við berast, því at hann hugðist þá at reyna afl sitt í öðrum stað. Hann spurði Hymi hvat, þeir skyldu hafa at beitum, en Hymir bað hann fá sér sjálfan beitur.
Þá snerist Þórr á braut þangat, er hann sá öxnaflokk nökkurn, er Hymir átti. Hann tók inn mesta uxann, er Himinhrjóðr hét, ok sleit af höfuðit ok fór með til sjávar. Hafði þá Hymir út skotit nökkvanum. Þórr gekk á skipit ok settist í austrrúm, tók tvær árar ok reri, ok þótti Hymi skriðr verða af róðri hans. Hymir reri í hálsinum fram, ok sóttist skjótt róðrinn. Sagði þá Hymir, at þeir váru komnir á þær vastir, er hann var vanr at sitja ok draga flata fiska, en Þórr kveðst vilja róa miklu lengra, ok tóku þeir enn snertiróðr. Sagði Hymir þá, at þeir váru komnir svá langt út, at hætt var at sitja útar fyrir Miðgarðsormi, en Þórr kveðst myndu róa enn um hríð, ok svá gerði hann, en Hymir var þá allókátr.
En þá er Þórr lagði upp árarnar, greiddi hann til vað heldr sterkjan, ok eigi var öngullinn minni eða óramligri. Þar lét Þórr koma á öngulinn uxahöfuðit ok kastaði fyrir borð, ok fór öngullinn til grunns, ok er þér þat satt at segja, at engu ginnti þá Þórr miðr Miðgarðsorm en Útgarða-Loki hafði spottat Þór, þá er hann hóf orminn upp á hendi sér.
Miðgarðsormr gein yfir uxahöfuðit, en öngullinn vá í góminn orminum. En er ormrinn kenndi þess, brá hann við svá hart, at báðir hnefar Þórs skullu út at borðinu. Þá varð Þórr reiðr ok færðist í ásmegin, spyrnði við fast, svá at hann hljóp báðum fótum gegnum skipit ok spyrnði við grunni, dró þá orminn upp at borði. En þat má segja, at engi hefir sá sét allógurligar sjónir, er eigi mátti þat sjá, er Þórr hvessti augun á orminn, en ormrinn starði neðan í mót ok blés eitrinu. Þá er sagt, at jötunninn Hymir gerðist litverpr, fölnaði ok hræddist, er hann sá orminn ok þat er særinn féll út ok inn of nökkvann. Ok í því bili, er Þórr greip hamarinn ok færði á loft, þá fálmaði jötunninn til agnsaxinu ok hjó vað Þórs á borði, en ormrinn sökkðist í sæinn. En Þórr kastaði hamrinum eftir honum, ok segja menn, at hann lysti af honum höfuðit við hrönnunum, en ek hygg hitt vera þér satt at segja, at Miðgarðsormr lifir enn ok liggr í umsjá. En Þór reiddi til hnefann ok setr við eyra Hymi, svá at hann steypðist fyrir borð, ok sér í iljar honum, en Þórr óð til lands."
|49. Then said Ganglere: A most powerful man is Utgard-Loke, though he deals much with delusions and sorcery. His power is also proven by the fact that he had thanes who were so mighty. But has not Thor avenged himself for this? Made answer Har: It is not unknown, though no wise men tell thereof, how Thor made amends for the journey that has now been spoken of. He did not remain long at home, before he busked himself so suddenly for a new journey, that he took neither chariot, nor goats nor any companions with him. He went out of Midgard in the guise of a young man, and came in the evening to a giant by name Hymer.61 Thor tarried there as a guest through the night. In the morning Hymer arose, dressed himself, and busked himself to row out upon the sea to fish. Thor also sprang up, got ready in a hurry and asked Hymer whether he might row out with him. Hymer answered that he would get but little help from Thor, as he was so small and young; and he added, you will get cold if I row as far out and remain as long as I am wont. Thor said that he might row as far from shore as he pleased, for all that, and it was yet to be seen who would be the first to ask to row back to land. And Thor grew so wroth at the giant that he came near letting the hammer ring on his head straightway, but he restrained himself, for he intended to try his strength elsewhere. He asked Hymer what they were to have for bait, but Hymer replied that he would have to find his own bait. Then Thor turned away to where he saw a herd of oxen, that belonged to Hymer. He took the largest ox, which was called Himinbrjot, twisted his head off and brought it down to the sea-strand. Hymer had then shoved the boat off. Thor went on board and seated himself in the stern; he took two oars and rowed so that Hymer had to confess that the boat sped fast from his rowing. Hymer plied the oars in the bow, and thus the rowing soon ended. Then said Hymer that they had come to the place where he was wont to sit and catch flat-fish, but Thor said he would like to row much farther out, and so they made another swift pull. Then said Hymer that they had come so far out that it was dangerous to stay there, for the Midgard-serpent. Thor said he wished to row a while longer, and so he did; but Hymer was by no means in a happy mood. Thor took in the oars, got ready a very strong line, and the hook was neither less nor weaker. When he had put on the ox-head for bait, he cast it overboard and it sank to the bottom. It must be admitted that Thor now beguiled the Midgard-serpent not a whit less than Utgard-Loke mocked him when he was to lift the serpent with his hand. The Midgard-serpent took the ox-head into his mouth, whereby the hook entered his palate, but when the serpent perceived this he tugged so hard that both Thor’s hands were dashed against the gunwale. Now Thor became angry, assumed his asa-might and spurned so hard that both his feet went through the boat and he stood on the bottom of the sea. He pulled the serpent up to the gunwale; and in truth no one has ever seen a more terrible sight than when Thor whet his eyes on the serpent, and the latter stared at him and spouted venom. It is said that the giant Hymer changed hue and grew pale from fear when he saw the serpent and beheld the water flowing into the boat; but just at the moment when Thor grasped the hammer and lifted it in the air, the giant fumbled for his fishing-knife and cut off Thor’s line at the gunwale, whereby the serpent sank back into the sea. Thor threw the hammer after it, and it is even said that he struck off his head at the bottom, but I think the truth is that the Midgard-serpent still lives and lies in the ocean. Thor clenched his fist and gave the giant a box on the ear so that he fell backward into the sea, and he saw his heels last, but Thor waded ashore.|
|49. Dauði Baldrs ins góða.||
THE DEATH OF BALDER.
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hafa nökkur meiri tíðendi
orðit með ásunum? Allmikit þrekvirki vann Þórr í þessi ferð."
Hárr svarar: "Vera mun at segja frá þeim tíðendum, er meira þótti vert ásunum. En þat er upphaf þeirar sögu, at Baldr inn góða dreymði drauma stóra ok hættliga um líf sitt. En er hann sagði ásunum draumana, þá báru þeir saman ráð sín, ok var þat gert at beiða griða Baldri fyrir allskonar háska, ok Frigg tók svardaga til þess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, járn ok alls konar málmr, steinar, jörðin, viðirnir, sóttirnar, dýrin, fuglarnir, eitrit, ormarnir.
En er þetta var gert ok vitat, þá var þat skemmtun Baldrs ok ásanna, at hann skyldi standa upp á þingum, en allir aðrir skyldu sumir skjóta á hann, sumir höggva til, sumir berja grjóti, en hvat sem at var gert, sakaði hann ekki, ok þótti þetta öllum mikill frami.
En er þetta sá Loki Laufeyjarson, þá líkaði honum illa, er Baldr sakaði ekki. Hann gekk til Fensalar til Friggjar ok brá sér í konu líki. Þá spyrr Frigg, ef sú kona vissi, hvat æsir höfðust at á þinginu. Hon sagði, at allir skutu at Baldri ok þat, at hann sakaði ekki.
Þá mælti Frigg: "Eigi munu vápn eða viðir granda Baldri. Eiða hefi ek þegit af öllum þeim."
Þá spyr konan: "Hafa allir hlutir eiða unnit at eira Baldri?"
Þá svarar Frigg: "Vex viðarteinungr einn fyrir vestan Valhöll. Sá er mistilteinn kallaðr. Sá þótti mér ungr at krefja eiðsins."
Því næst hvarf konan á braut, en Loki tók mistiltein ok sleit upp ok gekk til þings. En Höðr stóð útarliga í mannhringnum, því at hann var blindr.
Þá mælti Loki við hann: "Hví skýtr þú ekki at Baldri?"
Hann svarar: "Því, at ek sé eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok þat annat, at ek em vápnlauss."
Þá mælti Loki: "Gerðu þó í líking annarra manna ok veit Baldri sæmð sem aðrir menn. Ek mun vísa þér til, hvar hann stendr. Skjót at honum vendi þessum."
Höðr tók mistiltein ok skaut at Baldri at tilvísun Loka. Flaug skotit í gegnum Baldr, ok féll hann dauðr til jarðar, ok hefir þat mest óhapp verit unnit með goðum ok mönnum.
Þá er Baldr var fallinn, þá féllust öllum ásum orðtök ok svá hendr at taka til hans, ok sá hverr til annars, ok váru allir með einum hug til þess, er unnit hafði verkit, en engi mátti hefna. Þar var svá mikill griðastaðr. En þá er æsirnir freistuðu at mæla, þá var hitt þó fyrr, at grátrinn kom upp, svá at engi mátti öðrum segja með orðunum frá sínum harmi. En Óðinn bar þeim mun verst þenna skaða sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hversu mikil aftaka ok missa ásunum var í fráfalli Baldrs.
En er goðin vitkuðust, þá mælti Frigg ok spurði, hverr sá væri með ásum, er eignast vildi allar ástir hennar ok hylli ok vili hann ríða á helveg ok freista, ef hann fái fundit Baldr, ok bjóða Helju útlausn, ef hon vill láta fara Baldr heim í Ásgarð. En sá er nefndr Hermóðr inn hvati, sonr Óðins, er til þeirar farar varð. Þá var tekinn Sleipnir, hestr Óðins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig Hermóðr á þann hest ok hleypði braut.
|50. Then asked Ganglere: Have there happened any other remarkable things among the asas? A great deed it was, forsooth, that Thor wrought on this journey. Har answered: Yes, indeed, there are tidings to be told that seemed of far greater importance to the asas. The beginning of this tale is, that Balder dreamed dreams great and dangerous to his life. When he told these dreams to the asas they took counsel together, and it was decided that they should seek peace for Balder against all kinds of harm. So Frigg exacted an oath from fire, water, iron and all kinds of metal, stones, earth, trees, sicknesses, beasts, birds and creeping things, that they should not hurt Balder. When this was done and made known, it became the pastime of Balder and the asas that he should stand up at their meetings while some of them should shoot at him, others should hew at him, while others should throw stones at him; but no matter what they did, no harm came to him, and this seemed to all a great honor. When Loke, Laufey’s son, saw this, it displeased him very much that Balder was not scathed. So he went to Frigg, in Fensal, having taken on himself the likeness of a woman. Frigg asked this woman whether she knew what the asas were doing at their meeting. She answered that all were shooting at Balder, but that he was not scathed thereby. Then said Frigg: Neither weapon nor tree can hurt Balder, I have taken an oath from them all. Then asked the woman: Have all things taken an oath to spare Balder? Frigg answered: West of Valhal there grows a little shrub that is called the mistletoe, that seemed to me too young to exact an oath from. Then the woman suddenly disappeared. Loke went and pulled up the mistletoe and proceeded to the meeting. Hoder stood far to one side in the ring of men, because he was blind. Loke addressed himself to him, and asked: Why do you not shoot at Balder? He answered: Because I do not see where he is, and furthermore I have no weapons. Then said Loke: Do like the others and show honor to Balder; I will show you where he stands; shoot at him with this wand. Hoder took the mistletoe and shot at Balder under the guidance of Loke. The dart pierced him and he fell dead to the ground. This is the greatest misfortune that has ever happened to gods and men. When Balder had fallen, the asas were struck speechless with horror, and their hands failed them to lay hold of the corpse. One looked at the other, and all were of one mind toward him who had done the deed, but being assembled in a holy peace-stead, no one could take vengeance. When the asas at length tried to speak, the wailing so choked their voices that one could not describe to the other his sorrow. Odin took this misfortune most to heart, since he best comprehended how great a loss and injury the fall of Balder was to the asas. When the gods came to their senses, Frigg spoke and asked who there might be among the asas who desired to win all her love and good will by riding the way to Hel and trying to find Balder, and offering Hel a ransom if she would allow Balder to return home again to Asgard. But he is called Hermod, the Nimble, Odin’s swain, who undertook this journey. Odin’s steed, Sleipner, was led forth. Hermod mounted him and galloped away.|
|En æsirnir tóku lík Baldrs ok fluttu til sævar. Hringhorni hét skip Baldrs. Hann var allra skipa mestr. Hann vildu goðin fram setja ok gera þar á bálför Baldrs, en skipit gekk hvergi fram. Þá var sent í Jötunheima eftir gýgi þeiri, er Hyrrokkin hét. En er hon kom ok reið vargi ok hafði höggorm at taumum, þá hljóp hon af hestinum, en Óðinn kallaði til berserki fjóra at gæta hestsins, ok fengu þeir eigi haldit, nema þeir felldi hann. Þá gekk Hyrrokkin á framstafn nökkvans ok hratt fram í fyrsta viðbragði, svá at eldr hraut ór hlunnunum ok lönd öll skulfu. Þá varð Þórr reiðr ok greip hamarinn ok myndi þá brjóta höfuð hennar, áðr en goðin öll báðu henni friðar. Þá var borit út á skipit lík Baldrs, ok er þat sá kona hans, Nanna Nepsdóttir, þá sprakk hon af harmi ok dó. Var hon borin á bálit ok slegit í eldi. Þá stóð Þórr at ok vígði bálit með Mjöllni. En fyrir fótum honum rann dvergr nökkurr; sá er Litr nefndr; en Þórr spyrnði fæti sínum á hann ok hratt honum í eldinn, ok brann hann. En þessa brennu sótti margs konar þjóð, fyrst at segja frá Óðni, at með honum fór Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans, en Freyr ók í kerru með gelti þeim, er Gullinbursti heitir eða Slíðrugtanni, en Heimdallr reið hesti þeim, er Gulltoppr heitir, en Freyja ók köttum sínum. Þar kom ok mikit fólk hrímþursa ok bergrisar. Óðinn lagði á bálit gullhring þann, er Draupnir heitir. Honum fylgði sú náttúra, at ina níundu hverja nótt drupu af honum átta gullhringar jafnhöfgir. Hestr Baldrs var leiddr á bálit með öllu reiði.||51. The asas took the corpse of Balder and brought it to the sea-shore. Hringhorn was the name of Balder’s ship, and it was the largest of all ships. The gods wanted to launch it and make Balder’s bale-fire thereon, but they could not move it. Then they sent to Jotunheim after the giantess whose name is Hyrrokken. She came riding on a wolf, and had twisted serpents for reins. When she alighted, Odin appointed four berserks to take care of her steed, but they were unable to hold him except by throwing him down on the ground. Hyrrokken went to the prow and launched the ship with one single push, but the motion was so violent that fire sprang from the underlaid rollers and all the earth shook. Then Thor became wroth, grasped his hammer, and would forthwith have crushed her skull, had not all the gods asked peace for her. Balder’s corpse was borne out on the ship; and when his wife, Nanna, daughter of Nep, saw this, her heart was broken with grief and she died. She was borne to the funeral-pile and cast on the fire. Thor stood by and hallowed the pile with Mjolner. Before his feet ran a dwarf, whose name is Lit. Him Thor kicked with his foot and dashed him into the fire, and he, too, was burned. But this funeral-pile was attended by many kinds of folk. First of all came Odin, accompanied by Frigg and the valkyries and his ravens. Frey came riding in his chariot drawn by the boar called Gullinburste or Slidrugtanne. Heimdal rode his steed Gulltop, and Freyja drove her cats. There was a large number of frost-giants and mountain-giants. Odin laid on the funeral-pile his gold ring, Draupner, which had the property of producing, every ninth night, eight gold rings of equal weight. Balder’s horse, fully caparisoned, was led to his master’s pile.|
En þat er at segja frá Hermóði, at hann reið níu nætr dökkva dala ok djúpa, svá
at hann sá ekki, fyrr en hann kom til árinnar Gjallar ok reið á Gjallarbrúna.
Hon var þökð lýsigulli.
Móðguðr er nefnd mær sú, er gætir brúarinnar. Hon spurði hann at nafni eða at ætt ok sagði, at inn fyrra dag riðu um brúna fimm fylki dauðra manna - "en eigi dynr brúin minnr undir einum þér, ok eigi hefir þú lit dauðra manna. Hví ríðr þú hér á helveg?"
Hann svarar, at -"ek skal ríða til Heljar at leita Baldrs, eða hvárt hefir þú nakkvat sét Baldr á helvegi?"
En hon sagði, at Baldr hafði þar riðit um Gjallarbrú, "en niðr ok norðr liggr helvegr."
Þá reið Hermóðr, þar til er hann kom at helgrindum. Þá sté hann af hestinum ok gyrði hann fast, steig upp ok keyrði hann sporum, en hestrinn hljóp svá hart ok yfir grindina, at hann kom hvergi nær. Þá reið Hermóðr heim til hallarinnar ok steig af hesti, gekk inn í höllina, sá þar sitja í öndugi, Baldr bróður sinn, ok dvalðist Hermóðr þar um nóttina. En at morgni þá beiddist Hermóðr af Helju, at Baldr skyldi ríða heim með honum, ok sagði, hversu mikill grátr var með ásum.
En Hel sagði, at þat skyldi svá reyna, hvárt Baldr var svá ástsæll - "sem sagt er. Ok ef allir hlutir í heiminum, kykvir ok dauðir, gráta hann, þá skal hann fara til ása aftr, en haldast með Helju, ef nakkvarr mælir við eða vill eigi gráta."
Þá stóð Hermóðr upp, en Baldr leiddi hann út ór höllinni ok tók hringinn Draupni ok sendi Óðni til minja, en Nanna sendi Frigg rifti ok enn fleiri gjafar. Fullu fingrgull. Þá reið Hermóðr aftr leið sína ok kom í Ásgarð ok sagði öll tíðendi, þau er hann hafði séð ok heyrt.
52. But of Hermod it is to be told that he rode nine nights through
deep and dark valleys, and did not see light until he came to the Gjallar-river
and rode on the Gjallar-bridge, which is thatched with shining gold. Modgud is
the name of the may who guards the bridge. She asked him for his name, and of
what kin he was, saying that the day before there rode five fylkes (kingdoms,
bands) of dead men over the bridge; but she added, it does not shake less under
you alone, and you do not have the hue of dead men. Why do you ride the way to
He answered: I am to ride to Hel to find Balder. Have you seen him pass this way?
She answered that Balder had ridden over the Gjallar-bridge; adding: But downward and northward lies the way to Hel.
Then Hermod rode on till he came to Hel’s gate. He alighted from his horse, drew the girths tighter, remounted him, clapped the spurs into him, and the horse leaped over the gate with so much force that he never touched it. Thereupon Hermod proceeded to the hall and alighted from his steed. He went in, and saw there sitting on the foremost seat his brother Balder. He tarried there over night. In the morning he asked Hel whether Balder might ride home with him, and told how great weeping there was among the asas. But Hel replied that it should now be tried whether Balder was so much beloved as was said. If all things, said she, both quick and dead, will weep for him, then he shall go back to the asas, but if anything refuses to shed tears, then he shall remain with Hel. Hermod arose, and Balder accompanied him out of the hall. He took the ring Draupner and sent it as a keepsake to Odin. Nanna sent Frigg a kerchief and other gifts, and to Fulla she sent a ring. Thereupon Hermod rode back and came to Asgard, where he reported the tidings he had seen and heard.
Því næst sendu æsir um allan heim erendreka at biðja, at Baldr
væri grátinn ór helju, en allir gerðu þat, mennirnir ok kykvendin ok
jörðin ok steinarnir ok tré ok allr málmr, svá sem þú munt sét hafa, at
þessir hlutir gráta þá, er þeir koma ór frosti ok í hita. Þá er sendimenn fóru heim ok höfðu vel rekit sín erendi, finna þeir í helli
nökkurum, hvar gýgr sat. Hon nefndist Þökk. Þeir biðja hana gráta Baldr ór
Helju. Hon segir:
54. "Þökk mun gráta
En þess geta menn, at þar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjarson, er flest hefir
illt gert með ásum."
53. Then the asas sent messengers over all the world, praying that
Balder might be wept out of Hel’s power. All things did so,—men and beasts, the
earth, stones, trees and all metals, just as you must have seen that these
things weep when they come out of frost and into heat. When the messengers
returned home and had done their errand well, they found a certain cave wherein
sat a giantess (gygr = ogress) whose name was Thok. They requested her to weep
Balder from Hel; but she answered:
Thok will weep
It is generally believed that this Thok was Loke, Laufey’s son, who has wrought most evil among the asas.
|50. Loki bundin.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmiklu kom Loki á leið,
er hann olli fyrst því, er Baldr var veginn, ok svá því, er hann varð eigi
leystr frá helju. Eða hvárt varð honum þessa nakkvat hefnt?"
Hárr segir: "Goldit var honum þetta, svá at hann mun lengi kennast. Þá er goðin váru orðin honum svá reið sem ván var, hljóp hann á braut ok fal sik á fjalli nökkuru, gerði þar hús ok fjórar dyrr, at hann mátti sjá ór húsinu í allar ættir, en oft um daga, brá hann sér í laxlíki ok falst þá þar, sem heitir Fránangrsfoss. Þá hugsaði hann fyrir sér, hverja vél æsir mundu til finna at taka hann í forsinum. En er hann sat í húsinu, tók hann língarn ok reið á ræksna, svá sem net er síðan gert, en eldr brann fyrir honum. Þá sá hann, at æsir áttu skammt til hans, ok hafði Óðinn sét ór Hliðskjálfinni, hvar hann var. Hann hljóp þegar upp ok út í ána, en kastaði netinu fram á eldinn.
En er æsir koma til hússins, þá gekk sá fyrst inn, er allra var vitrastr, er Kvasir heitir, ok er hann sá á eldinum fölskvann, er netit hafði brunnit, þá skilði hann, at þat myndi vél vera til at taka fiska, ok sagði ásunum. Því næst tóku þeir ok gerðu sér net eftir því, sem þeir sá á fölskvanum, at Loki hafði gert. Ok er búit var netit, þá fara æsir til árinnar ok kasta neti í forsinn. Hélt Þórr öðrum netshálsi, en öðrum héldu allir æsir ok drógu netit, en Loki fór fyrir ok leggst niðr í milli steina tveggja. Drógu þeir netið yfir hann ok kenndu, at kykt var fyrir, ok fara í annat sinn upp til forsins ok kasta út netinu ok binda við svá þungt, at eigi skyli undir mega fara. Ferr þá Loki fyrir netinu. En er hann sér, at skammt var til sævar þá hleypr hann upp yfir þinulinn ok rennir upp í forsinn. Nú sá æsirnir, hvar hann fór, fara enn upp til forsins ok skipta liðinu í tvá staði, en Þórr veðr eftir miðri ánni, ok fara svá út til sævar. En er Loki sér tvá kosti, var þat lífsháski at hlaupa á sæinn, en hinn var annarr at hlaupa enn yfir netit, ok þat gerði hann, hljóp sem snarast yfir netþinulinn. Þórr greip eftir honum ok tók um hann, ok renndi hann í hendi honum, svá at staðar nam höndin við sporðinn, ok er fyrir þá sök laxinn aftrmjór.
Nú var Loki tekinn griðalauss ok farit með hann í helli nökkurn. Þá tóku þeir þrjár hellur ok settu á egg ok lustu rauf á hellunni hverri. Þá váru teknir synir Loka, Váli ok Nari eða Narfi. Brugðu æsir Vála í vargslíki ok reif hann í sundr Narfa, bróður sinn. Þá tóku æsir þarma hans ok bundu Loka með yfir þá þrjá eggsteina. Stendr einn undir herðum, annarr undir lendum, þriði undir knésbótum, ok urðu þau bönd at járni. Þá tók Skaði eitrorm ok festi upp yfir hann, svá at eitrit skyldi drjúpa ór orminum í andlit honum, en Sigyn, kona hans, stendr hjá honum ok heldr mundlaug undir eitrdropa. En þá er full er mundlaugin, þá gengr hon ok slær út eitrinu, en meðan drýpr eitrit í andlit honum. Þá kippist hann svá hart við, at jörð öll skelfr. Þat kallið þér landskjálfta. Þar liggr hann í böndum til ragnarökrs."
54. Then said Ganglere: A very great wrong did Loke perpetrate; first
of all in causing Balder’s death, and next in standing in the way of his being
loosed from Hel. Did he get no punishment for this misdeed?
Har answered: Yes, he was repaid for this in a way that he will long remember. The gods became exceedingly wroth, as might be expected. So he ran away and hid himself in a rock. Here he built a house with four doors, so that he might keep an outlook on all sides. Oftentimes in the daytime he took on him the likeness of a salmon and concealed himself in Frananger Force. Then he thought to himself what stratagems the asas might have recourse to in order to catch him. Now, as he was sitting in his house, he took flax and yarn and worked them into meshes, in the manner that nets have since been made; but a fire was burning before him. Then he saw that the asas were not far distant. Odin had seen from Hlidskjalf where Loke kept himself. Loke immediately sprang up, cast the net on the fire and leaped into the river.
When the asas came to the house, he entered first who was wisest of them all, and whose name was Kvaser; and when he saw in the fire the ashes of the net that had been burned, he understood that this must be a contrivance for catching fish, and this he told to the asas. Thereupon they took flax and made themselves a net after the pattern of that which they saw in the ashes and which Loke had made. When the net was made, the asas went to the river and cast it into the force. Thor held one end of the net, and all the other asas laid hold on the other, thus jointly drawing it along the stream. Loke went before it and laid himself down between two stones, so that they drew the net over him, although they perceived that some living thing touched the meshes. They went up to the force again and cast out the net a second time. This time they hung a great weight to it, making it so heavy that nothing could possibly pass under it. Loke swam before the net, but when he saw that he was near the sea he sprang over the top of the net and hastened back to the force. When the asas saw whither he went they proceeded up to the force, dividing themselves into two bands, but Thor waded in the middle of the stream, and so they dragged the net along to the sea. Loke saw that he now had only two chances of escape,—either to risk his life and swim out to sea, or to leap again over the net. He chose the latter, and made a tremendous leap over the top line of the net. Thor grasped after him and caught him, but he slipped in his hand so that Thor did not get a firm hold before he got to the tail, and this is the reason why the salmon has so slim a tail. Now Loke was taken without truce and was brought to a cave. The gods took three rocks and set them up on edge, and bored a hole through each rock. Then they took Loke’s sons, Vale and Nare or Narfe. Vale they changed into the likeness of a wolf, whereupon he tore his brother Narfe to pieces, with whose intestines the asas bound Loke over the three rocks. One stood under his shoulders, another under his loins, and the third under his hams, and the fetters became iron. Skade took a serpent and fastened up over him, so that the venom should drop from the serpent into his face. But Sigyn, his wife, stands by him, and holds a dish under the venom-drops. Whenever the dish becomes full, she goes and pours away the venom, and meanwhile the venom drops onto Loke’s face. Then he twists his body so violently that the whole earth shakes, and this you call earthquakes. There he will lie bound until Ragnarok.
|51. Frá ragnarökum.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hver tíðendi eru at segja frá um ragnarökr?
Þess hef ek eigi fyrr heyrt getit." Hárr segir: "Mikil tíðendi eru þaðan
at segja ok mörg, þau in fyrstu, at vetr sá kemr, er kallaðr er
fimbulvetr. Þá drífr snær ór öllum áttum. Frost eru þá mikil ok vindar
hvassir. Ekki nýtr sólar. Þeir vetr fara þrír saman ok ekki sumar milli,
en áðr ganga svá aðrir þrír vetr, at þá er um alla veröld orrostur
miklar. Þá drepast bræðr fyrir ágirni sakar, ok engi þyrmir föður eða
syni í manndrápum eða sifjasliti. Svá segir í Völuspá:
55. Bræðr munu berjask
Þá verðr þat, er mikil tíðendi þykkja, at úlfrinn gleypir sólna, ok þykkir mönnum þat mikit mein. Þá tekr annarr úlfrinn tunglit, ok gerir sá ok mikit ógagn. Stjörnurnar hverfa af himninum. Þá er ok þat til tíðenda, at svá skelfr jörð öll ok björg, at viðir losna ór jörðu upp, en björgin hrynja, en fjötrar allir ok bönd brotna ok slitna. Þá verðr Fenrisúlfr lauss. Þá geysist hafit á löndin, fyrir því at þá snýst Miðgarðsormr í jötunmóð ok sækir upp á landit. Þá verðr ok þat, at Naglfar losnar, skip þat, er svá heitir. Þat er gert af nöglum dauðra manna, ok er þat fyrir því varnanar vert, ef maðr deyr með óskornum nöglum, at sá maðr eykr mikit efni til skipsins Naglfars, er goðin ok menn vildi seint, at gert yrði. En í þessum sævargang flýtr Naglfar. Hrymr heitir jötunn, er stýrir Naglfari, en Fenrisúlfr ferr með gapandi munn, ok er inn neðri kjöftr við jörðu, en in efri við himin. Gapa myndi hann meira, ef rúm væri til. Eldar brenna ór augum hans ok nösum. Miðgarðsormr blæss svá eitrinu, at hann dreifir loft öll ok lög, ok er hann allógurligr, ok er hann á aðra hlið úlfinum. Í þessum gný klofnar himinninn, ok ríða þaðan Múspellssynir. Surtr ríðr fyrst ok fyrir honum ok eftir eldr brennandi. Sverð hans er gott mjök. Af því skínn bjartara en af sólu. En er þeir ríða Bifröst, þá brotnar hon, sem fyrr er sagt. Múspellsmegir sækja fram á þann völl, er Vígríðr heitir. Þar kemr ok þá Fenrisúlfr ok Miðgarðsormr. Þar er ok þá Loki kominn ok Hrymr ok með honum allir hrímþursar, en Loka fylgja allir Heljarsinnar. En Múspellssynir hafa einir sér fylking, ok er sú björt mjök. Völlrinn Vígríðr er hundrað rasta víðr á hvern veg.
55. Then said Ganglere: What tidings are to be told of Ragnarok? Of
this I have never heard before. Har answered: Great things are to be said
thereof. First, there is a winter called the Fimbul-winter, when snow drives
from all quarters, the frosts are so severe, the winds so keen and piercing,
that there is no joy in the sun. There are three such winters in succession,
without any intervening summer. But before these there are three other winters,
during which great wars rage over all the world. Brothers slay each other for
the sake of gain, and no one spares his father or mother in that manslaughter
and adultery. Thus says the Vala’s Prophecy:
Brothers will fight together
Then happens what will seem a great miracle, that the wolf64 devours the sun, and this will seem a great loss. The other wolf will devour the moon, and this too will cause great mischief. The stars shall be Hurled from heaven. Then it shall come to pass that the earth and the mountains will shake so violently that trees will be torn up by the roots, the mountains will topple down, and all bonds and fetters will be broken and snapped. The Fenris-wolf gets loose. The sea rushes over the earth, for the Midgard-serpent writhes in giant rage and seeks to gain the land. The ship that is called Naglfar also becomes loose. It is made of the nails of dead men; wherefore it is worth warning that, when a man dies with unpared nails, he supplies a large amount of materials for the building of this ship, which both gods and men wish may be finished as late as possible. But in this flood Naglfar gets afloat. The giant Hrym is its steersman. The Fenris-wolf advances with wide open mouth; the upper jaw reaches to heaven and the lower jaw is on the earth. He would open it still wider had he room. Fire flashes from his eyes and nostrils. The Midgard-serpent vomits forth venom, defiling all the air and the sea; he is very terrible, and places himself by the side of the wolf. In the midst of this clash and din the heavens are rent in twain, and the sons of Muspel come riding through the opening. Surt rides first, and before him and after him flames burning fire. He has a very good sword, which shines brighter than the sun. As they ride over Bifrost it breaks to pieces, as has before been stated. The sons of Muspel direct their course to the plain which is called Vigrid. Thither repair also the Fenris-wolf and the Midgard-serpent. To this place have also come Loke and Hrym, and with him all the frost-giants. In Loke’s company are all the friends of Hel. The sons of Muspel have there effulgent bands alone by themselves. The plain Vigrid is one hundred miles (rasts) on each side.62. Commit adultery.
63. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 48, 49.
En er þessi tíðendi verða, þá stendr upp Heimdallr ok blæss ákafliga í
Gjallarhorn ok vekr upp öll goðin, ok eiga þau þing saman. Þá ríðr Óðinn
til Mímisbrunns ok tekr ráð af Mími fyrir sér ok sínu liði. Þá skelfr
askr Yggdrasils, ok engi hlutr er þá óttalauss á himni eða jörðu. Æsir
hervæða sik ok allir Einherjar ok sækja fram á völluna. Ríðr fyrstr
Óðinn með gullhjálminn ok fagra brynju ok geir sinn, er Gungnir heitir.
Stefnir hann móti Fenrisúlf, en Þórr fram á aðra hlið honum, ok má hann
ekki duga honum, því at hann hefir fullt fang at berjast við
Miðgarðsorm. Freyr berst móti Surti, ok verðr harðr samgangr, áðr Freyr
fellr. Þat verðr hans bani, er hann missir þess ins góða sverðs, er hann
gaf Skírni. Þá er ok lauss orðinn hundrinn Garmr, er bundinn er fyrir
Gnipahelli. Hann er it mesta forað. Hann á víg móti Tý, ok verðr hvárr
öðrum at bana. Þórr berr banaorð af Miðgarðsormi ok stígr þaðan braut
níu fet. Þá fellr hann dauðr til jarðar fyrir eitri því, er ormrinn
blæss á hann. Úlfrinn gleypir Óðin. Verðr þat hans bani. En þegar eftir
snýst fram Víðarr ok stígr öðrum fæti í neðra kjöft úlfsins. Á þeim fæti
hefir hann þann skó, er allan aldr hefir verit til samnat. Þat eru
bjórar þeir, er menn sníða ór skóm sínum fyrir tám eða hæli. Því skal
þeim bjórum braut kasta sá maðr, er at því vill hyggja at koma ásunum at
liði. Annarri hendi tekr hann inn efra kjöft úlfsins ok rífr sundr gin
hans, ok verðr þat úlfsins bani. Loki á orrostu við Heimdall, ok verðr
hvárr annars bani. Því næst slyngr Surtr eldi yfir jörðina ok brennir
allan heim. Svá er sagt í Völuspá:
Hér segir enn svá:
65. Vígríðr heitir völlr,
56. While these things are happening, Heimdal stands up, blows with
all his might in the Gjallar-horn and awakens all the gods, who thereupon hold
counsel. Odin rides to Mimer’s well to ask advice of Mimer for himself and his
folk. Then quivers the ash Ygdrasil, and all things in heaven and earth fear and
tremble. The asas and the einherjes arm themselves and speed forth to the
battle-field. Odin rides first; with his golden helmet, resplendent byrnie, and
his spear Gungner, he advances against the Fenris-wolf. Thor stands by his side,
but can give him no assistance, for he has his hands full in his struggle with
the Midgard-serpent. Frey encounters Surt, and heavy blows are exchanged ere
Frey falls. The cause of his death is that he has not that good sword which he
gave to Skirner. Even the dog Garm, that was bound before the Gnipa-cave, gets
loose. He is the greatest plague. He contends with Tyr, and they kill each
other. Thor gets great renown by slaying the Midgard-serpent, but retreats only
nine paces when he falls to the earth dead, poisoned by the venom that the
serpent blows on him. The wolf swallows Odin, and thus causes his death; but
Vidar immediately turns and rushes at the wolf, placing one foot on his nether
jaw. On this foot he has the shoe for which materials have been gathering
through all ages, namely, the strips of leather which men cut off for the toes
and heels of shoes; wherefore he who wishes to render assistance to the asas
must cast these strips away. With one hand Vidar seizes the upper jaw of the
wolf, and thus rends asunder his mouth. Thus the wolf perishes. Loke fights with
Heimdal, and they kill each other. Thereupon Surt flings fire over the earth and
burns up all the world. Thus it is said in the Vala’s Prophecy:
Loud blows Heimdal
Odin’s son goes
Then goes the famous
The sun grows dark,
And again it is said as follows:
Vigrid is the name of the plain
67. The Fenris-wolf.
69. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 50-52, 54-57, 59, 60, 62, 63.
70. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 18.
|52. Vistarverur eftir ragnarökr.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat verðr þá eftir, er brenndr er heimr allr ok dauð goðin öll ok allir Einherjar ok allt mannfólk? Ok hafið þér áðr sagt, at hverr maðr skal lifa í nökkurum heimi um allar aldir."
Þá svarar Þriði: "Margar eru þá vistir góðar ok margar illar. Bazt er þá at vera á Gimlé á himni, ok allgott er til góðs drykkjar þeim, er þat þykkir gaman, í þeim sal, er Brimir heitir. Hann stendr á Ókólni. Sá er ok góðr salr, er stendr á Niðafjöllum, gerr af rauðu gulli. Sá heitir Sindri. Í þessum sölum skulu byggja góðir menn ok siðlátir. Á Náströndum er mikill salr ok illr, ok horfa norðr dyrr. Hann er ofinn allr ormahryggjum sem vandahús, en ormahöfuð öll vitu inn í húsit ok blása eitri, svá at eftir salnum renna eitrár, ok vaða þær ár eiðrofar ok morðvargar, svá sem hér segir:
66. Sal veit ek standa
En í Hvergelmi er verst:
Þar kvelr Níðhöggr
57. Then asked Ganglere: What happens when heaven and earth and
all the world are consumed in flames, and when all the gods and all the
einherjes and all men are dead? You have already said that all men shall
live in some world through all ages. Har answered: There are many good
and many bad abodes. Best it is to be in Gimle, in heaven. Plenty is
there of good drink for those who deem this a joy in the hall called
Brimer. That is also in heaven. There is also an excellent hall which
stands on the Nida mountains. It is built of red gold, and is called
Sindre. In this hall good and well-minded men shall dwell. Nastrand is a
large and terrible hall, and its doors open to the north. It is built of
serpents wattled together, and all the heads of the serpents turn into
the hall and vomit forth venom that flows in streams along the hall, and
in these streams wade perjurers and murderers. So it is here said:
A hall I know standing
Far from the sun
On the strand of dead bodies.
Drops of venom
Fall through the loop-holes.
Of serpents’ backs
The hall is made.
There shall wade
Through heavy streams
But in Hvergelmer it is worst.
There tortures Nidhug
The bodies of the dead.71
71. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 40, 41
|53. Hverir lifa af ragnarökr|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvárt lifa nökkur goðin þá, eða er þá nökkur jörð eða himinn?"
Hárr segir: "Upp skýtr jörðunni þá ór sænum ok er þá græn ok fögr. Vaxa þá akrar ósánir. Víðarr ok Váli lifa, svá at eigi hefir særinn ok Surtalogi grandat þeim, ok byggja þeir á Iðavelli, þar sem fyrr var Ásgarðr, ok þar koma þá synir Þórs, Móði ok Magni, ok hafa þar Mjöllni. Því næst koma þar Baldr ok Höðr frá Heljar, setjast þá allir samt ok talast við ok minnast á rúnar sínar ok ræða of tíðendi þau, er fyrrum höfðu verit, of Miðgarðsorm ok um Fenrisúlf. Þá finna þeir í grasinu gulltöflur þær, er æsirnir höfðu átt. Svá er sagt:
68. Víðarr ok Váli
En þar, sem heitir Hoddmímisholt leynast menn tveir í surtaloga, er svá heita, Líf ok Leifþrasir, ok hafa morgindöggvar fyrir mat, en af þessum mönnum kemr svá mikil kynslóð, at byggvist heimr allr, svá sem hér segir:
69. Líf ok Leifþrasir,
Ok hitt mun þér undarligt þykkja, er sólin hefir getit dóttur eigi ófegri en hon er, ok ferr sú þá stigu móður sinnar, sem hér segir:
70. Eina dóttur
En ef þú kannt lengra fram at spyrja, þá veit ek eigi, hvaðan þér kemr þat, fyrir því at engan mann heyrða ek lengra segja fram aldarfarit, ok njóttu nú sem þú namt."
58. Then said Ganglere: Do any gods live then? Is there any earth or heaven?
Har answered: The earth rises again from the sea, and is green and fair. The fields unsown produce their harvests. Vidar and Vale live. Neither the sea nor Surfs fire has harmed them, and they dwell on the plains of Ida, where Asgard was before. Thither come also the sons of Thor, Mode and Magne, and they have Mjolner. Then come Balder and Hoder from Hel. They all sit together and talk about the things that happened aforetime,—about the Midgard-serpent and the Fenris-wolf. They find in the grass those golden tables which the asas once had. Thus it is said:
Vidar and Vale
In a place called Hodmimer’s-holt73 are concealed two persons during Surt’s fire, called Lif and Lifthraser. They feed on the morning dew. From these so numerous a race is descended that they fill the whole world with people, as is here said:
Lif and Lifthraser
But what will seem wonderful to you is that the sun has brought forth a daughter not less fair than herself, and she rides in the heavenly course of her mother, as is here said:
And if you now can ask more questions, said Har to Ganglere, I know not whence that power came to you. I have never heard any one tell further the fate of the world. Make now the best use you can of what has been told you.
72. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay,
73. Holt = grove.
74. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 45.
75. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 47.
|54. Frá Ganglera.|
|Því næst heyrði Gangleri dyni mikla hvern veg frá sér ok leit út á hlið sér. Ok þá er hann sést meir um, þá stendr hann úti á sléttum velli, sér þá enga höll ok enga borg. Gengr hann þá leið sína braut ok kemr heim í ríki sitt ok segir þau tíðendi, er hann hefir sét ok heyrt, ok eftir honum sagði hverr maðr öðrum þessar sögur.||59. Then Ganglere heard a terrible noise on all sides, and when he looked about him he stood out-doors on a level plain. He saw neither hall nor burg. He went his way and came back to his kingdom, and told the tidings which he had seen and heard, and ever since those tidings have been handed down from man to man.|
Excerpts from Skáldskaparmál
1. One man is named Ægir or Hlèr, he abode in the isle that is now called Hlèr’s isle, he was very skilled in spells. He went on his way to Asgard, but when the Asa wist of his coming they treated him with good fare, though many things were then wrought with false shows; and at even when they should drink, then let Odin be borne into the hall swords, and they were so bright that it glistened from them, and there was no other light had while they were set down to drink: then go the Asa to their guild, and the twelve Asa who are wont to doom set them on their highseats; and so were they named. Þór, Njörðr, Freyr, Týr, Heimdallr, Bragi, Viþarr, Vali, Ullr, Hænir, Forseti. And likewise the Asynia with them: Frigg, Freya, Gefiun Iþunn, Gerþr, Sigun, Fulla, Nanna. It seemed grand to Ægir to look about him, the pannels of the wall were all tiled with fair shields; there was also swingeing strong mead and they drank deep; next man to Æir sat Bragi, and they had much talk together over their drink: Bragi spake to Ægir of many tidings which had befallen the Asa.
2. He began then with the tale, how three Asa, Odin and Loki and Hænir, fared from home, and fared over fells and heath and were badly off for meat, but as they came down into a certain dale, they see there a flock of oxen, and take one ox and set about seething it; now when they think the flesh shall be sodden, they lift the lid of the broth, and it was not yet sodden; and the second time when they lift the lid, after a little time was gone, and it was not yet sodden, they talk among themselves how this thing could happen. Then hear they a voice in an oak up above them, that said he who sat there sways so that it is not sodden in the seething, they looked thither, and there sat an eagle and no little one: Then said the eagle “An ye are willing to give me my fill of the ox, then shall it be sodden in the seething." To that they said aye: then he let himself sink down out of the tree, and set him to the seething, and snatches up straitway first of all two thighs of the ox and both shoulders: then was Loki wrath and grasped a mickle stock, and swings it with all his might, and smites against the eagle’s body; the eagle shakes him after the blow and flys up, then was the stock fast on the body of the eagle and Loki's hands at the other end: the eagle flys just so high that Loki's feet take hold below on stones and rocks and trees, his hands he thinks will be torn from his shoulderblades: he calls out, and begs the eagle most earnestly for peace, but he says that Loki shall never get loose, unless he takes an oath to him to come along with lþunn and her apples out of Asgard: but Loki is willing to do this, then is he loosed and goes to his fellows, and it is not said farther how they fared before they came home. But at the time spoken of Loki lures Iþunn out of Asgard into a certain wood, and says that he has found some apples which she will think of great price: and begged that she should have with her her apples and put them alongside these. Then comes thither Þiazi the giant in eagleshape, and takes Iþunn and flys away with her, and has her home to his abode; but the Asa were ill at ease for the loss of Iþunn, and became soon gray and old. Then held they a meeting, and ask each other what was last known about Iþunn, and it was last seen that she went out of Asgard with Loki: then was Loki taken and brought to the meeting, and death or strong pain was threatened him, but when he became afraid then he said he would seek after Iþunn in Jotunheim, if Freyia will lend him the falconshape that she hath: and when he gets the falconshape, he flys north into Jötunheim, and comes one day to Þiazi the giant’s, he was rowing on the sea, but Iþunn was alone at home: Loki turned her into the likeness of a nut, and held her in his claws, and flys as fast as he can. But when Þiazi came home and misses Iþunn, he takes his eagleshape and flys after Loki, and the eaglewings gained in the flight. But when the Asa saw that the falcon flew with the nut, and where the eagle flew, then went they out under Asgard, and bare thither bundles of chips for firing (Logaspænir). And when the falcon flew within over the burg and let himself sink down inside the burgwall, then the Asa set fire to the chips, but the eagle could not stop himself when he missed the falcon, and then the fire caught the feathers of the eagle, and took from him his flight: then were the Asa near and slew Þiazi the giant within Asgard’s grates, and that slaughter is all-famous. But Skaþi daughter of Þiazi the giant took helm and byrnie, and all wargear, and comes to Asgard to avenge her father; but they Asa bade her atonement and ransom; and the first thing is, that she shall choose her a man from among the Asa, and choose by the feet and see no more of him: then saw she one man’s feet wondrous fair; and said, “This one choose I, few things will be loathly about Balldr." But it was Njörþr out of Nóatún. She had also this in her deed of atonement, that the Asa should do that which she thought they would not be able, and this was to make her laugh: then did Loki this, he tyed a string to the heard of a goat, and the other end to his own body, and afterward one pulled this way the other that, and both shrieked out loud! then Loki let himself fall on Skaþi’s knees, and then she laughed, and so the atonement with her at the hands of the Asa was brought about: and so it is said that Odin did over and above What she asked, in that he took Þiazi's eyes and cast them up into heaven, and made thereof stars twain. Then spake Ægir; Mickle methinks was Þiazi in himself; but of what kin was he? Bragi answers: Avlvaldi hight his father, and it will seem to the worth marl; if I tell thee of him. He was very rich in gold, but when he died and his sons should share their heritage, they had this measure for the gold which they shared, that each should take his mouthfull in turn, and all even as many. The first of them Was Þiazi, the second lþi, the third Gángr; but we have it now as a saw among us, to all gold the mouthtale of these giants, but in runes or songship we wrap this up so, that we call it the measure, or saw, or tale of these giants. Then said Ægir; methinks that is well hidden in runes.
3. And again said Ægir; Whence have ye that craft that ye
call songship? Bragi answers; It was the beginning to this that the Gods
had a feud with the folk that hight Vanir, but (at last) they held a
meeting about a peace, and settled it in this wise, they went both to a
jar and spat into it their spittle; but at parting then the Gods took
it, because they would not let that mark of peace perish, and shaped out
of it a man, who hight Kvásir: he is so wise that none asks him any
things that he knows not how to answer; and he fared wide about the
world to teach men wisdom, but when he came at their bidding to certain
dwarves, Fialar and Galar, then called they him to speak aside with
them, and slew him, (and) let his blood run into two jars and one
kettle, and this they called Oþrærir, but the jars hight Són and Boðn
they blended honey with the blood, and thereof was made such mead, that
whosoever drinks of it becomes bard or wiseman. The dwarves told the Asa
that Kvásir had choked in his wisdom, For that no one was there so wise
as to be able to ask him about his learning.
4. Then said Ægir; Methinks it is darkly said, to call songship by these names. But how came the Asa to Suttúngrs mead? Bragi answers: The story about this is, that Odin fared from home and came thither where thralls nine were a-mowing hay; he asks if they will that he should whet their scythes; to this they said yea; then takes he a hone from his belt, and whetted them, and their scythes seemed to them to bite much better, and they asked if the bone were for sale; but he put such a price on it, that he who would buy it should give a fair sum for it, now all quoth they were willing (to give it), and (each) bade him sell it to him; but be cast the bone up aloft; and as all wished to lay hands on it, they scrambled so about it that each brought his scythe on the other’s neck. Odin stopped for a night’s lodging at a giant’s that Baugi hight, Suttúngr's brother. Baugi said his housekeeping had gone ill, and told him that his nine thralls had slain each other, but that he had no hope of (other) workmen. Now Odin named himself (when) with him Bavlverkr; he offered to take upon him the work of nine men for Baugi, hut asked for his hire one drink of Suttúngr's mead. Baugi quoth he owned no sway over the mead, (and) said that Suttúngr would have it all alone, but he said he would fare with Bavlverkr and try if they could get the mead. Bavlverkr won during the summer nine men’s work for Baugi, but at winter asked Baugi for his wages. Then fared they both away: Baugi told his brother Suttúngr his bargain-with Bavlverkr; but Suttúngr denied stoutly even a drop of the mead. Then said Bavlverkr to Baugi, that they should try some trick if they might get at the mead, and Baugi was ready enough: then drew forth Bavlverkr the borer hight Bali, and said that Baugi shall bore the rock if the borer will bite; he did so: then says Baugi that the rock is bored through, but Bavlverkr blows into the hole that the borer had made, and the splinters flew up against him; then found he that Baugi would cheat him, and he bade him bore through the rock: Baugi bored again; but when Bavlverkr blows the second time, then the splinters were blown inward. Then Bavlverkr turned him into a worm’s likeness, and crept into the hole made by the, borer, but Baugi stuck after him with the borer and missed him; Bavlverkr fared whither Gunnlavð was, and lay with her three nights, and then she gave him leave to drink of the mead three drinks; the first drink he drank all out of Oþrærir, the second all out of Boðn, the third all out of Són, and so had be all the mead; then turned be him into an eagle’s shape and flew off as fast as he could. But when Suttúngr saw the eagle's flight, he took on him an eagle’s shape and flew after him; but when the Asa saw where Odin flew, they set out in the yard their jars: now when Odin came inside of Asgard he spewed up the mead into the jars, but it than so near befell him that Suttúngr had caught him, that he sent some of the mad after him backwards, and no care was taken of that, he who would might have it, and that we call the share of silly bards; but Suttúngr’s mead gave Odin to the Asa, and to those men who have wit to use it, therefore call we songship Odin’s prey, and find, and his drink, and his gift, and the Asa's drink.
Foreword to the Edda.
1. Almáttigr guð skapaði í upphafi himin ok jörð ok alla þá
hluti, er þeim fylgja, og síðast menn tvá, er ættir eru frá komnar, Adam
ok Evu, ok fjölgaðist þeira kynslóð ok dreifðist um heim allan.
En er fram liðu stundir, þá ójafnaðist mannfólkit. Váru sumir góðir ok
rétttrúaðir, en miklu fleiri snerust eftir girnðum heimsins ok órækðu
guðs boðorð, ok fyrir því drekkði guð heiminum í sjóvargangi ok öllum
kykvendum heimsins nema þeim, er í örkinni váru með Nóa.
Eftir Nóaflóð lifðu átta menn, þeir er heiminn byggðu, ok kómu frá þeim
ættir, ok varð enn sem fyrr, at þá er fjölmenntist ok byggðist veröldin,
þá var þat allr fjölði mannfólksins, er elskaði ágirni fjár ok metnaðar,
en afrækðust guðs hlýðni, ok svá mikit gerðist at því, at þeir vildu
eigi nefna guð. En hverr myndi þá frá segja sonum þeira frá guðs
stórmerkjum? Svá kom, at þeir týndu guðs nafni, ok víðast um veröldina
fannst eigi sá maðr, er deili kunni á skapara sínum. En eigi at síðr
veitti guð þeim jarðligar giftir, fé ok sælu, er þeir skyldu við vera í
Miðlaði hann ok spekðina, svá at þeir skilðu alla jarðliga hluti ok
allar greinar, þær er sjá mátti loftsins ok jarðarinnar. Þat hugsuðu
þeir ok undruðust, hví þat myndi gegna, er jörðin ok dýrin ok fuglarnir
höfðu saman eðli í sumum hlutum ok þó ólík at hætti.
Þat var eitt eðli, að jörðin var grafin í hám fjalltindum ok spratt þar
vatn upp, ok þurfti þar eigi lengra at grafa til vatns en í djúpum
dölum. Svá er ok dýr ok fuglar, at jafnlangt er til blóðs í höfði ok
fótum. Önnur náttúra er sú jarðar, at á hverju ári vex á jörðinni gras
ok blóm, ok á sama ári fellr þat allt ok fölnar, svá ok dýr ok fuglar,
at vex hár ok fjaðrar ok fellr af á hverju ári. Þat er in þriðja náttúra
jarðar, þá er hon er opnuð ok grafin, þá grær gras á þeiri moldu, er
efst er á jörðinni. Björg ok steina þýddu þeir móti tönnum ok beinum
kvikenda. Af þessu skilðu þeir svá, at jörðunni væri kvik ok hefði líf
með nökkurum hætti, ok vissu þeir, at hon furðuliga gömul at aldartali
ok máttug í eðli. Hon fæddi öll kykvendi, ok hon eignaðist allt þat, er
dó. Fyrir þá sök gáfu þeir henni nafn ok tölðu ætt sína til hennar.
Þat sama spurðu þeir af gömlum frændum sínum, at síðan er talið váru mörg hundruð vetra, þá var in sama jörð ok sól ok himintungl, en gangr himintunglanna var ójafn. Áttu sum lengra gang, en sum skemmra. Af þvílíkum hlutum grunaði þá, at nökkurr myndi vera stjórnari himintunglanna, sá er stilla myndi gang þeira at vilja sínum, ok myndi sá vera ríkr mjök ok máttigr. Ok þess væntu þeir, ef hann réði fyrir höfuðskepnunum, at hann myndi ok fyrr verit hafa en himintunglin, ok þat sá þeir, ef hann ræðr gangi himintunglanna, at hann myndi ráða skini sólar ok dögg loftsins ok ávexti jarðarinnar, er því fylgir, ok slíkt sama vindinum loftsins ok þar með stormi sævarins. Þá vissu þeir eigi, hvar ríki hans var, en því trúðu þeir, at hann réð öllum hlutum á jörðu ok í lofti, himins ok himintunglum, sævarins ok veðranna. En til þess at heldr mætti frá segja eða í minni festa, þá gáfu þeir nöfn með sjálfum sér öllum hlutum, ok hefir þessi átrúnaðr á marga lund breytzt, svá sem þjóðirnar skiptust ok tungurnar greindust.
1. Almighty God shaped in the beginning heaven and earth, and all things
that belong to them, and last (of all) men twain, from whom the races
are come, Adam and Eve; and this kindred waxed more and more, and was
spread over all the world. But as the times went by, then became the
folk of man uneven, some were good and right-trowing, but many more
turned then after the lusts of the world, and took no heed of God's
laws: and for this drowned God the world in the flood, and all that was
quick on the world save those who were in the ark with Nóe.
After Nóe’s flood eight men were alive, they who abode in the world, and from them came the stock of men, and it chanced now as before, that when mankind waxed, and the world was dwellt over, then was there a very great throng of men, who loved the greed of gain and power, but went away from listening to God, and did this so much, that at last there was none who would name God; and who was there who could tell his sons of God’s great wonders? And so it came that they tint God's name, and wide over the world there was not found the man who could say truer who shaped him. But not the less did God give them earthly gifts, wealth and happiness, which should be with them in the world; he shared also among them wisdom, so that they skilled to know all earthly things, and all kinds that might be seen in the lift and on earth. This they (men) thought upon and wondered at, how it might happen that the earth and beasts and fowl had the same nature in some things, and yet (were) unlike in shape. It was one mark of this nature, that the earth might be delved into on high fell-peaks and the water sprang up there, and it needed not to dig longer there for water than in deep dales; and just so with beasts and fowl, it is no farther to the blood in the head than in the feet. Another (proof of this) nature of the earth is it, that every year waxes on the earth grass and bloom, and the same year falls that all away and rots; so also on beasts and fowl waxes hair and feathers, and falls off every year. The third nature of the earth is that when it is opened and delved, then groweth grass on the mould which is uppermost on the earth. Rocks and stones they set off against the bones and teeth of things quick. From these things they deemed that the earth must be quick, and that she had life in some manner; and they wist that she was wonder— fully old in the tale of her ages, and mighty in her kind; she fed all things quick and took to herself all that died: for this sake gave they her a name, and told (back) their race to her. This also learned they of their old kinsmen, that after many hundred winters were told back, the goings of the heavenly balls were uneven, some had longer goings than othersome. From suchlike things guessed they, that some one must be the steerer of the heavenly balls, who could stay their going at his own will, and that he must be strong and mighty; and of this one weened they, if he swayed (these) first shapes, that he must have been before the heavenly balls yet were, and they saw that if he ruled the goings of the heavenly halls, he must sway the sun’s shine, and heaven's dew, and earth’s growth, which follow them; and. so also the winds in the lift, and with them the storms of the sea. They knew not where his realm was, but still they trowed that he ruled all things, on earth and in the lift, of heaven and the heavenly balls, of seas, and weather. But for that these things might be better told and kept in mind, then gave they him the same name with themselves, but this belief has been changed in many ways, just as the peoples shifted about, and tongues arose.
Í elli sinni skiptir Nói
heiminum með sonum sínum. Ætlaði hann Cham vestrhálfu, en Japheth norðrhálfu, en
Sem suðrhálfu með þeiri parteran sem síðar greinir í þriðjunga skipti heimsins.
Í þann tíma sem synir þessara manna váru í veröldinni, þá öflgaðisk þegar ágirni
til fjár ok mannmetnaðar af því at þá kendusk þær margar listir sem áðr höfðu
ekki fundnar verit, ok hóf sik hverr eptir sinni íþrótt. Ok svá langt fœrðu þeir
fram sinn metnað at þeir Affricani komnir af Cham herjuðu í þann hluta veraldar
sem bygði afspringr Sems frænda þeira. Ok sem þeir höfðu þá yfir unnit, þótti
þeim sér eigi nægjask heimrinn ok smíðuðu einn stöpul með tigl ok grjót, þann er
þeir ætluðu at vinna skyldi til himins, á þeim velli er kallask Sennaar. Ok þá
er þetta smíði var svá mikit vorðit at þat tók upp ór veðrum, ok eigi höfðu þeir
at minni fýsi til at halda fram smíðinni, ok sem guð sér hversu þeira ofsi
geisar hátt, þá sér hann at hann verðr með einshverju niðr at slá. Ok sá sami
guð, sem alls er voldugr ok allt þeira verk mátti á einu augabragði niðr slá en
þá sjálfa láta verða at dupti, þá vildi hann þó heldr með því eyða þeiri
fyrirætlan at þeir mætti við kennask sinn lítilleik með því at engi þeira skildi
hvat annarr talaði ok því vissi engi þeira hvat hverr bauð öðrum, ok braut þat
annarr niðr sem annarr vildi uppreisa, þar til er þeir stríddusk á sjálfir ok
með því eyddisk öll þeira fyrirætlan í upptekinni stöpulsmíð. Ok sá
||2. In his old age shared Nóe the world with his sons; for Cham he meant the western lands, and for Japhteth the northern lands, but for Sem the southern lands, with those parts that will afterward be marked out in the trithing of the earth. In the time that these men’s sons were in the world, then grew strong forthwith the greed of gain and power; for that they knew then many crafts which beforetime had not been found out, and each was puffed up with his own handywork. And so long forward carried they their pride, that the Africans, sprung from Cham, made war on that lot of the world that Sem’s offspring their kinsmen abode in; and when they had overcome them, it seemed to them that the world was too small for them, and they smithied a tower with tile and stone, which they meant should reach to heaven, on the vales called Senniár. And when this smithying was so far for— ward that it almost stood above the air, and they had not a whit less eagerness to hold on with the work; and when God sees how their pride rages high, then sees he that he must in some way beat it down. And the same God, though he is all-powerful, and might have cast down all their work in the twinkling of an eye, and made themselves become dust, yet willed be rather to set at naught their purpose in this wise, that they might know their own littleness, in that none of them should skill to understand what the other talked, and in that none knew what the other bade him do, but one broke down what another wished to raise up; until that they strove among themselves, and with this their purpose in beginning the smithying of the tower came to naught. And he that was foremost hight Zoroastres, he laughed before he wept when he came into the world, but the master-smiths were two and seventy, and so many tongues have since been spread over the world, after that the giants shifted their seats over the land, and the peoples waxed full. On this same place was made one burg the most famous, and it’s name was taken from the name of the tower, and it was called Babilon. And it was so when the mingling of tongues was, then waxed many the names of men and other things, and that same Zoroastres had many names, and though he understood that his pride was laid low by the said smithying, still bore he on to worldly power, and let himself be chosen kingover many peoples of the Assirians; from him arose the bewildering of false Gods, and after he was worshipped, he was called Baal, whom we call Bel: he had also many other names, but as the names waxed many, then the truth was tint along at the same time, and from this first sin then worshipped every man that came after his foregoers, and beasts and fowl, the lift and heavenly balls, and countless lifeless things; until this bewildering went over the whole world; and so carefully tint they the truth, that none knew his shaper save those men alone who spake the Ebrew tongue, that which passed before the smithying of the tower; albeit they lost not the bodily gifts that were allowed them, and for that they skilled to deem of all things with earthly skill, for wisdom of the soul was not given them, so they deemed that all things were smithied of some one stuff.|
|2. Veröldin var greind í þrjár hálfur, frá suðri í vestr ok inn at Miðjarðarsjó; sá hlutr var kallaðr Affríká. Inn syðri hlutr þeirar deilðar er heitr, svá at þar brennr, af sólu. Annarr hlutr frá vestri til norðrs ok inn til hafsins; er sá kallaðr Evrópá eða Énéá. Inn nyrðri hluti er þar svá kaldr, at eigi vex gras á ok eigi má byggja. Frá norðri ok um austrhálfur allt til suðrs, þat er kallat Asíá. Í þeim hluta veraldar er öll fegrð ok prýði ok eignir jarðar-ávaxtar, gull ok gimsteinar. Þar er ok mið veröldin. Ok svá sem þar er jörðin fegri ok betri öllum kostum en í öðrum stöðum, svá var ok mannfólkit þar mest tignat af öllum giftunum, spekinni ok aflinu, fegrðinni ok alls konar kunnustu.||3. The world was shared into three parts; (one) from the south westward and till the Midland-sea, that lot was called Affrika, but the south side of this share is hot and burnt by the sun. The second lot from the west until the north and up to the sea, that is called Evropa or Enea, the nether side of this is cold, so that grass grows not, nor may it be dwellt in. From the north and round the east country all to the south, that is called Asia, in that lot of the world is all fairness, and pride, and wealth from the fruitfulness of the earth, gold and gemstones: there is also the midworld, and as the earth is there fairer and of better kind than in other steads, so was also the folk of man there most furnished with all gifts, wisdom and strength, fairness and all knowledge.|
|3. Nær miðri veröldinni var gert þat hús ok herbergi, er ágætast hefir verit, er kallat Trjóa, þar sem vér köllum Tyrkland. Þessi staðr var miklu meiri gerr en aðrir ok með meira hagleik á marga lund með kostnaði ok föngum, en þar váru til. Þar váru tólf konungdómar ok einn yfirkonungr, ok lágu mörg þjóðlönd til hvers konungdómsins. Þar váru í borginni tólf höfðingjar. Þessir höfðingjar hafa verit um fram aðra menn, þá er verit hafa í veröldu, um alla manndómliga hluti. Leikr þat sízt á tvímæli hverr frœðimaðr sem frá þeim hefir sagt ok af því at allir formenn norðrhálfunnar telja þangat sínar ættir ok setja þá í guða tölu alla sem formenn váru staðarins, einkanliga svá sem sjálfan Príamum setja þeir fyrir Vóden. Má þat eigi undarligt kalla þvíat Príamus var kominn af Saturno þeim sem norðrhálfan trúði langan tíma sjálfan guð verit hafa.||4. Near the middle of the world was made the house and inn, the most famous ever made, that was called Trója, there in the land we call Tyrkland. This homestead was made much bigger than others, and with more craft in many ways, with cost and riches that were there about. There were twelve kingdoms and one overking, and much folk and land belonged to each kingdom: there were in the burg twelve lords; these lords have been before all men who have been in the world in all manly things. This every storyteller that hath said of these things doth not in the least gainsay, and for this sake, that all great men of the north country tell back their race thither, and set among the tale of the Gods, all who were Lords of the town, just as first of all they set Priamus’ self in Odin’s stead: nor may that be called wonderful, for Priamus was come of Satúrnus, the same whomthe north country longtime trowed to he himself God.|
Þessi Saturnus vóx upp í ey þeiri í Grikklandshafi er Krít heitir. Hann
var meiri ok sterkari
5. This Satúrnus waxed up in that island in Greekland's sea
hight Krít, he was greater and stronger and fairer than other men. So
also was his wisdom before that of all men, like his other natural
gifts; he found also many crafts which before had not been found out; he
was also so mickle in the black art that he knew things about to be; he
found also that red thing in the earth from which he smelted gold, and
from such things as these he became speedily powerful; he foretold also
harvests and many other hidden things, and for this and many other deeds
took they him to be Lord over the isle, and when he had steered it a
little space, then was there soon enough all kinds of plenty. There
passed none other coin save goldpieces, such astore of gold was there;
and though there were hard times in, other lands, no crops ever failed
there, so that men might seek thither for all the things that they
needed to have: and so from these and many other unsearchable gifts of
might that he had, they trowed him to be God, (and from him arose
another bewildering among the Krítmen and Macedonians, just as the first
among the Assirians and Challdeans from Zoroastres) and when Satúrnus
finds how great strength the folk think they have in him, then says he
that he is God, and calls himself the steerer of heaven and all things.
|Einn tíma fór hann skipi til Grikklands, þvíat þar var konungsdóttir sú er hann hafði hug á. Hann fekk með því náð henni at einn dag, sem hon var úti meðr þjónustukonum sínum, þá brá hann á sik líki graðungs eins ok lá fyrir henni í skóginum, ok svá fagr at gulls litr var á hverju hári. Ok sem konungsdóttir sér, þá klappaði hon um granarnar. Hann sprettr upp ok brá af sér graðungs líki ok tók hana í fang sér ok bar hana til skips ok flytr heim í Krít. At þessu finnr Juna kona hans. Hann brá henni í kvígu líki ok sendi hana austr í Elfarkvíslir ok lét hennar geyma þræl þann er Argulus hét. Þar var hon tólf mánaði áðr hann skipaði aptr. Marga hluti gørði hann þessum líka eða undarligri. Hann átti þrjá syni, hét einn Jupiter, annarr Neptunus, þriði Plutus. Þeir váru allir atgervismenn hinir mestu ok var Jupiter langt fyrir þeim. Hann var stríðsmaðr ok vann mörg konunga ríki. Hann var ok listugr sem faðir hans ok brá á sik ýmissa dýra líki ok með því kom hann mörgu fram því sem manndóminum er ómöguligt at gøra, ok af slíku ok öðru hræddusk hann allar þjóðir. Því er Jupiter settr fyrir Þór svá sem allar óvættir hræddusk hann.||
6. Once on a time fared he in a ship to Greekland, for that
there was a king's daughter on whom he had set his mind, he got her love
in this wise, one day as she was out with her handmaidens, then took he
on him the likeness of a bull and lay before her in the wood, and so
fair was he that a golden hue was on every hair: and when the king’s
daughter sees him, then patted she him on the month, he springs up and
threw off the bull’s shape, and took her in his arms and bare her to the
ship, and had her home to Krít. When his wife Júnó finds out this, he
turned her (the king’s daughter) into the likeness of a heifer, and sent
her eastward into the Nile country, and let the thrall hight Argulus
tend her, there was she twelve months ere he changed her shape. Many
things did he like this, or more wondrous. He had three sons, the first
hight Júpiter, the second Neptúnus, the third Plútus. They were all
mighty men, yet was Jupiter long before them, he was a man of war and
won many kingdoms; he was also crafty like his father, and took on him
the likeness of many beasts, and so he wrought out much, that for
mankind is unable to be done: and in this wise and by other things, he
awed all peoples, so that Jupiter is set in Þorr’s stead, since all evil
beings fear him.
Saturnus lét upp gøra í Krít tvær borgir ok sjau tigu, ok sem hann
þykkisk fullkominn í ríki sínu, þá skiptir hann því með sonum sínum sem hann
setti sik fyrir guð ok skipaði hann Jupiter himinríki, en Neptuno jarðríki, en
Pluto helvíti. Ok þótti honum sá hlutr ókjörligastr ok því gaf hann honum hund
sinn þann er hann kallaði Serberum til þess at geyma helvítis. Þenna Serberum
segja Grikkir Erkulum hafa dregit ór helvíti ok á jarðríki, ok þó at Saturnus
hefði skipt Jupiter himinríki, þá girntisk hann eigi at síðr at eignask jarðríki
ok herjar nú upp á ríki föður síns. Ok svá segisk at hann léti taka hann ok
gelda, ok fyrir slík stórvirki segir hann sik guð vera ok þat segja Macedonii at
hann léti taka sköpin ok kasta út á sjóinn, ok því trúðu þeir langa ævi at þar
af hefði vorðit kona. Þá kölluðu þeir Venerem, ok því er Venus alla ævi síðan
kölluð ástargyðja, ok settu hana í guða tölu at þeir trúðu at hon mætti þíða
allra manna hjörtu til ástar karla ok kvenna. Sem Saturnus var geldr af Jupiter
syni sínum, þá flý<ði> hann austan ór Krít ok hingat í Italia. Þa
||7. Satúrnus let be raised up in Krít two and seventy burgs, and when he thought him fastseated in his realm, then shared he it with his sons, whom he had set up with himself as Gods: and to Júpiter gave he the realm of heaven, but to Neptúnus the realm of earth, and to Plútus hell, it seemed to him that lot was the worst, so he gave him his hound, which he called Serberus, that he might guard hell; this Serberus the Greeks say Erkulus dragged out of hell up to earth. And though Satúrnus had shared to Jupiter the realm of heaven, yet was he not less greedy to have for his own earth also, and now makes war on the realm of his father; and so it is said he let take and geld him, and for great works like this he says he is God; and the Macedonians say that he let the parts be taken and cast out into the sea; and longtime trowed they that thereof had been made a woman, whom they called Venus, and set her in the tale of the Gods, and for that hath Venus ever since been called the Goddess of love, for they trowed that she might turn all hearts of men and women to love. When Satúrnus was gelded by Júpiter his son, then fled be from the east out of Krít, and hither into Italy; there abode then such kind of people as worked not, but lived on acorns and grass, and lay in caves or holes in the earth: and when Satúrnus came thither, then changed he his name, and called him Njörþr, for the sake that he thought his son Júpiter might afterward seek him out. He first taught the men there to plough and plant vineyards; there was good land and raw, and there were soon great crops, they took him for their lord, and so got he all the realms there about, and let build there many burgs.|
|Jupiter son hans átti marga syni, þá sem ættir eru frá komnar: hans son var Dardanus, hans son Herikon, hans son Lamedon, faðir Príami höfuðkonungs. Príamus átti marga syni. Einn af þeim var Ektor, er ágætastr hefir verit allra manna í veröldu at afli ok vexti ok atgørvi ok öllum manndómligum listum riddarligrar slektar. Ok þat finnsk skrifat, þá er Grikkir ok allr styrkr norðrhálfu ok austrhálfu börðusk við Trojumenn, þá hefði þeir aldri sigraðir vorðit nema Grikkir hefði heitit á guðin, ok gengu svá fréttir at ekki mannligt eðli mátti þá sigra nema þeir yrði sviknir af sjálfs síns mönnum, sem síðan gerðisk. Ok af þeira frægð gáfu eptirkomandi menn sér þeira virðingarnöfn, ok einkanliga svá sem Rómverjar, er ágætastir menn hafa verit at mörgum hlutum eptir þeira daga, ok svá segisk at þá er Róma var algör at Rómverjar venduðu sínum siðum ok lögmáli sem næst máttu þeir komask eptir því sem Troju menn höfðu haft forfeðr þeira. Ok svá mikill kraptr fylgði þessum mönnum at mörgum öldrum síðar, þá er Pompeius einn höfðingi Rómverja herjaði í austrhálfuna, flýði utan Óðinn ór Asía ok hingat í norðrhálfuna, ok þá gaf hann sér ok sínum mönnum þeira nöfn ok kallaði Príamum hafa heitit Óðin, en dróttning hans Frigg, ok af því tók ríkit síðan nafn ok kallaði Frigía þar sem borgin stóð. Ok hvárt er Óðinn sagði þat til metnaðar við sik, eða þat hafi svá verit með skipti tungnanna, þá hafa þó margir frœðimenn haft þat fyrir sannenda sögn, ok þat var lengi ævi eptir at hverr sem mikill höfðingi var tók sér þar dœmi eptir.||8. Júpiter his son had many sons from whom the races are come; his son was Dardanus, his son Herikon, his son Tros, his son llus, his son Lamedon, father of Priamus the headking. Priamus had many sons, one of them was Ektor, he has been most famous of all men in the world for strength and growth, and grace, and for all manly deeds of knightly rank; and it is found written, that when the Greeks, and all the strength of the north and east country, bore down on the Trójan men, they had never been overcome unless the Greeks had called on the Gods, and so went the answers that no strength of man might overcome them, unless they were broken by their own men, which afterward was done. And from their fame men that came after gave themselves titles, and among the first, just as the Romans have been the most famous men after their days in many things, so it is said that when Rome was built the Romans turned their customs and laws, as near as they could come, after those which the Trójan men their forefathers had. And so mickle might followed these men, that many ages after when Pompeius a leader of the Romans herried in the east country, (and) Odin fled away out of Asia, and hither into the north country, then gave he himself and his men their names, and said Priamus had hight Odin but his queen Frigg, and from this took the realm since it’s name, and there where the burg stood was called Frigia. And whether it be that Odin said that of himself out of boasting, or that it had been so in the mingling of tongues, yet have many wise men held that for a sooth saying, and for a long time after every great lord took for himself a pattern therefrom.|
|Einn konungr í Trjóu er nefndr Múnón eða Mennón. Hann átti dóttur höfuðkonungsins Príamí. Sú hét Tróan. Þau áttu son. Hann hét Trór, er vér köllum Þór. Hann var at uppfæðslu í Trakíá með hertoga þeim, er nefndr er Lóríkús, en er hann var tíu vetra, þá tók hann við vápnum föður síns. Svá var hann fagr álitum, er hann kom með öðrum mönnum, sem þá er fílsbein er grafit í eik. Hár hans er fegra en gull. Þá er hann var tólf vetra, þá hafði hann fullt afl. Þá lyfti hann af jörðu tíu bjarnarstökkum öllum senn, ok þá drap hann Lóríkúm hertoga, fóstra sinn, ok konu hans, Lórá eða Glórá, ok eignaði sér ríkit Trakíá. Þat köllum vér Þrúðheim. Þá fór hann víða um lönd ok kannaði allar heimshálfur ok sigraði einn saman alla berserki ok alla risa ok einn inn mesta dreka ok mörg dýr. Í norðrhálfu heims fann hann spákonu þá, er Síbíl hét, er vér köllum Sif, ok fekk hennar. Engi kann at segja ætt Sifjar. Hon var allra kvinna fegrst. Hár hennar var sem gull. Þeira sonr var Lóriði, er líkr var feðr sínum. Hans sonr var Einriði, hans sonr Vingeþórr, hans sonr Vingener, hans sonr Móda, hans sonr Magi, hans sonr Seskef, hans sonr Beðvig, hans sonr Athra, er vér köllum Annan, hans sonr Ítrmann, hans sonr Heremóð, hans sonr Skjaldun, er vér köllum Skjöld, hans Bjáf, er köllum Bjár, hans sonr Ját, hans sonr Guðólfr, hans sonr Finn, hans sonr Fríallaf, er vér köllum Friðleif. Hann átti þann son, er nefndr er Vóden. Þann köllum vér Óðin. Hann var ágætr maðr af speki ok allri atgervi. Kona hans hét Frígíða, er vér köllum Frigg.||9. A king in Trója hight Munon or Mennon, he had (to wife) a daughter of Priamus the headking, she hight Tréan, they had a son, who hight Tror, (him call we Þórr) he was in fostering in Tracia with the duke who is named LORICUS. Now when he was ten winters old then took he to him his father’s arms; so fair of face was he when he stood by other men as when ivory is set in oak, his hair is fairer than gold. When he was twelve years old he had full strength, then lifted he from earth ten bear's hides at once, and then slew he duke Loricus his fosterfather, and his wife Lora or Glora, and took for his own the realm of Tracia, that call we Þruþheim. Then fared he wide over the land and knew the countries of the world, and quelled then alone all baresarks, and all giants, and one the biggest dragon, and many beasts. In the north of the world found he that spaewife hight Sibil, whom we call Sif, and got her to wife. None can tell Sif’s stock, she was of all women fairest, her hair was as gold, their son was Loride who was like his father, his son was Henrede, his son Vingeþór, his son Vingener, his son Móda, his son Magi, his son Cespheth, his son Bedvig, his son Atra, whom we call Annan, his son Itrman, his son Heremód, his son Skialldunn, whom we call Skiöld, his son Biaf, whom we call Bier, his son Jat, his son Gúþólfr, his son Fiarleif, whom we call Friþleif, he had the son who is named Vóþinn, him call we Satúrnus. He was a famous man for wisdom and all craft, his wife hight Frigiða who we call Frigg.|
|4. Óðinn hafði spádóm ok svá kona hans, ok af þeim vísendum fann hann þat, at nafn hans myndi uppi vera haft í norðrhálfu heims ok tignat um fram alla konunga. Fyrir þá sök fýstist hann at byrja ferð sína af Tyrklandi ok hafði með sér mikinn fjölða liðs, unga menn ok gamla, karla ok konur, ok höfðu með sér marga gersamliga hluti. En hvar sem þeir fóru yfir lönd, þá var ágæti mikit frá þeim sagt, svá at þeir þóttu líkari goðum en mönnum. Ok þeir gefa eigi stað ferðinni, fyrr en þeir koma norðr í þat land, er nú er kallat Saxland. Þar dvalðist Óðinn langar hríðir ok eignaðist víða þat land. Þar setti Óðinn til landsgæzlu þrjá sonu sína. Er einn nefndr Vegdeg. Var hann ríkr konungr ok réð fyrir Austr-Saxlandi. Hans sonr var Vitrgils. Hans synir váru þeir Vitta, faðir Heingests, ok Sigarr, faðir Svebdeg, er vér köllum Svipdag. Annarr sonr Óðins hét Baldeg, er vér köllum Baldr. Hann átti þat land, er nú heitir Vestfál. Hans sonr var Brandr, hans sonr Frjóðigar, er vér köllum Fróða. Hans sonr var Freóvin, hans sonr Uvigg, hans sonr Gevis, er vér köllum Gave. Inn þriði sonr Óðins er nefndr Sigi, hans sonr Rerir. Þeir langfeðr réðu þar fyrir, er nú er kallat Frakland, ok er þaðan sú ætt komin, er kölluð er Völsungar. Frá öllum þeim eru stórar ættir komnar ok margar.||10. Oþin had spaedom, and so also his wife, and from this knowledge found he out that his name Would be held high in the north part of the world, and worshipped beyond all kings; for this sake was he eager to go on his way from Tyrkland, and he had with him very much people, young men and old, churls and wives, and he had with him many costly things. But whithersoever they fared over the land much fame was said of them, so that they were thought to be like Gods than men: and they stayed not their faring till they came northward into that land that is now called Saxland, there dwelt Oþinn longtime, and had that land far and wide for his own. There set Oþinn three of his sons to keep the land. One is named Veggdegg, he was a strong king and ruled over East Saxland, his son was Vitrgils, his sons were these, Ritta father of Heingez, and Sigarr father of Svebdegg, whom we call Svipdag. The second son of Oþinn hight Beldegg, whom we call Balldr, he owned that land now hight Vestfal, his son was Brandr, his son Frioþigar, whom we call Fróþa, his son was Freévit, his son Yvigg, his son Gevis whom we call Gave. The third son of Oþin is named Siggi, his son Verir. These forefathers swayed in the land now called Frankland, and from them is come the race that is called Vavlstingar. From all these are great and many races come.|
Þá byrjaði Óðinn ferð sína norðr ok kom í þat land, er þeir kölluðu
Reiðgotaland, ok eignaðist í því landi allt þat, er hann vildi. Hann
setti þar til landa son sinn, er Skjöldr hét. Hans sonr var Friðleifr.
Þaðan er sú ætt komin, er Skjöldungar heita. Þat eru Danakonungar, ok
þat heitir Jótland, er þá var kallat Reiðgotaland.
5. Eftir þat fór hann norðr, þar sem nú heitir Svíþjóð. Þar var sá konungr, er Gylfi er nefndr. En er hann spyrr til ferðar þeira Ásíamanna, er er æsir váru kallaðir, fór hann í móti þeim ok bauð, at Óðinn skyldi slíkt vald hafa í hans ríki, sem hann vildi sjálfr. Ok sá tími fylgði ferð þeira, at hvar sem þeir dvölðust í löndum, þá var þar ár ok friðr, ok trúðu allir, at þeir væri þess ráðandi, því at þat sá ríkismenn, at þeir váru ólíkir öðrum mönnum, þeim er þeir höfðu sét, at fegrð ok svá at viti. Þar þótti Óðni fagrir vellir ok landskostir góðir ok kaus sér þar borgstað, er nú heita Sigtún. Skipaði hann þar höfðingjum ok í þá líking, sem verit hafði í Trója, setti tólf höfuðmenn í staðinum at dæma landslög, ok svá skipaði hann réttum öllum sem fyrr hafði verit í Trója ok Tyrkir váru vanir.
Eftir þat fór hann norðr, þar til er sjár tók við honum, sá er þeir hugðu, at lægi um öll lönd, ok setti þar son sinn til þess ríkis, er nú heitir Nóregr. Sá er Sæmingr kallaðr, ok telja þar Nóregskonungar sínar ættir til hans ok svá jarlar ok aðrir ríkismenn, svá sem segir í Háleygjatali. En Óðinn hafði með sér þann son sinn, er Yngvi er nefndr, er konungr var í Svíþjóðu eftir hann, ok eru frá honum komnar þær ættir, er Ynglingar eru kallaðir.
Þeir æsir tóku sér kvánföng þar innan lands, en sumir sonum sínum, ok urðu þessar ættir fjölmennar, at umb Saxland ok allt þaðan of norðrhálfur dreifðist svá, at þeira tunga, Ásíamanna, var eigin tunga um öll þessi lönd. Ok þat þykkjast menn skynja mega af því, at rituð eru langfeðganöfn þeira, at þau nöfn hafa fylgt þessi tungu ok þeir æsir hafa haft tunguna norðr hingat í heim, í Nóreg ok í Svíþjóð, í Danmörk ok í Saxland, ok í Englandi eru forn landsheiti eða staðaheiti, þau er skilja má, at af annarri tungu eru gefin en þessi.
11. Then went Oþinn on his way northward, and came into the land
that they called Reiþgotaland, and had for his own in that land all that
he would, he set up there in the land his son that hight Skifilld, his
son hight Friþleif; thence is the race come that hight Skiölldúngar,
those are the Danekings, and that hight now Jótland which was then
After that fared he northward thither t0 the land now hight swims, there was the king who is named Gylfi, but when he learnt the faring of these Asiamen, who were called Asa, he fared to meet them, and bade that Oþinn should have so much power in his realm as he himself willed; and such luck followed their path, that wheresoever they dwellt in the land, then was there plenty and good peace; and all trowed that they swayed these; and this too the mighty men of the land saw, that they were unlike other men whom they had seen in fairness and wit. In that land Oþinn thought there were fair lands, and he choose for himself a stead for a burg, where it is now called Sigtlinir, he set up there lords, in the same likeness as had been in Trója, and set twelve headmen in the stead to doom the law of the land, and he so moulded all rights as had been before in Trója, and as the Tyrks were wont.
After that fared he northward until he fell upon the sea, which they trowed to lie about all lands, and set up there his son over the realm now hight Norway; he is called Sarmingr, and Norway’s kings tell their race up to him, and so also earls and other mighty men, as is said in Haleygiatale: but Oþinn had with him that son of his who is named Yngvi, who was king in Sviþiód, and from him are come the stock who are called Ynglingar.
These Asa took to them wives there within the land, but some for their sons, and these raees waxed full many, so that about Saxland, and all thence about the north country they spread so, that the tongue of these Asiamen was the true tongue over all these lands; and men think they can deem from the way that the names of these forefathers are written, that these names have belonged to this tongue, and (that) the Asa brought the tongue hither into the north country; into Norway and into Sviþiód, into Denmark and into Saxland; but in England there are old names of the land and towns, which one may skill to know that they have been given in another tongue than this.
|Afterword to Gylfi’s Mocking|
|En æsir setjast þá á tal ok ráða ráðum sínum ok minnast á þessar frásagnir allar, er honum váru sagðar, ok gefa nöfn þessi in sömu, er áðr váru nefnd, mönnum ok stöðum þeim, er þar váru, til þess, at þá er langar stundir liði, at menn skyldu ekki ifast í, at allir væru einir þeir æsir, er nú var frá sagt, ok þessir, er þá váru þau sömu nöfn gefin. Þar var þá Þórr kallaðr, ok er sá Ása-Þórr inn gamli. Þórr, sá er Akuþórr, ok honum eru kend þau stórvirki er Ektor gørði í Troju. En þat hyggja menn at Tyrkir hafi sagt frá Ulixes ok hafi þeir hann kallat Loka, þvíat Tyrki<r> váru hans inir mestu óvinir.||
But the Asa set them now to talk, and take their rede and call to mind all these tales that were told him, (Gylfi) and give these very same names, that are named before, to the men and steads that were there; for the sake that when long times pass by, men should not doubt, that those Asa of whom these tales were now told, and these to whom the same names were given, were all one. Then was there (one) called Þórr, and he is AsaÞórr, the old one he is Ökuþórr, and to him are given those great deeds that Ektor wrought in Trója; but men think that the Tyrks have told about Ulyxes, and have called him Loki, because the Tyrks were his greatest foes.
|Afterword to the Edda|
1. But this is now to be said to young bards, to those who are eager to take to them speech meet for song, or fill their store of words with old names, or are willing to skill to understand what is sung darkly; that they must master this book for their learning and passtime: but these sayings are not to be so forgotten or disproved, as to take away from songship names used of yore,. which great bards have been pleased with; yet should not christian men trow on heathen Gods, nor on the truth of these sayings, otherwise than was is found in the beginning of the book, where it is said of the chances which led the folk of man away from the true belief, and next to that of the Tyrks, how the Asiamen, who are called Asa, falsed the tales of the tidings which were done in Trója, for that the landfolk should trow them to be Gods.
|2. Priamus king in Trója was a great lord over all the Tyrkish host, and his sons were most worshipped of all his host; the famous hall, which the Asa called Brímir’s hall or Biórsalr, that was king Priam’s hall; but as for the long story they made of the twilight of the Gods, that is the wars of the Trojan men; that which is said, how Ökuþórr angled with an oxhead, and drew on board Midgardsworm, but the worm kept his life so that he sank into the sea; that is said from this pattern, that Ector slew Volukrontes a famous champion, in the sight of the mighty Akillevs, and so drew him on to him with the head of the slain, which they likened to the head of the ox which Ökuþórr had torn off: but when Akillevs was drawn into this risk through his daring, then was it his life's help that he fled before the baneful stroke of Hector, and as it was wounded: so also it is said that Ector waged the war so mightily, and so mickle was his rage when he saw Akillevs, that no thing was so strong that it might stand before him; and when he missed Akillevs he soothed his wrath in this wise, that he slew the champion hight Roddrus; (and) so say the Asa that when Ökuþórr missed the worm, then slew he Ymir the giant. But in the twilight of the Gods came Midgardsworm unawares upon Þór, and blew on him with venom and struck him to his bane, but the Asa could not make up their minds to say that Ökuþórr had so fared,' that any one stood over him dead, though so it had been, but they hurried over old tales more than was true, when they said that Midgardsworm took there his bane, and they added this, that though Akillevs bore away the fame of Ector's death, yet lay he dead on the same field in the same way; that was the work of Elenus and Alexander, this Elenus call the Asa Ali. They say that he avenged his brother, and he lived when all the Gods were dead and the fire was slaked, when Asgard was burnt and all the goods of the Gods: but Pirrus they likened to Fenriswolf, he slew Odin; but Pirrus might be called a wolf in their belief, for that he spared not holysteads when he slew the king in the shrine before por's altar. That which they call Surtr's fire, is Troja's burning. But Móþi and Magni Ökuþór's sons came to crave land of Ali or Viþarr, he is Eneas, he came away from Troja and wrought afterward great works. So is it also said that Ector's sons came to Frigialand and set themselves up in that realm and drave away Elenus.|
Other Translations of Snorri's Edda
Thomas Percy Translation (1770): [GYLFAGINNING]
Rasmus Anderson Translation (1872): [PROLOGUE][GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
A. Brodeur Translation (1916): [PROLOGUE &GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]