SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL
with enhanced footnotes

[HOME ][PROLOGUE & GYLFAGINNING]

R. Anderson Translation:[GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
Also see the extended version of the
Prologue from Codex Wormianus

 
Snorra Edda The Prose Edda
 
SNORRI STURLUSON
13th Century
Translated by
ARTHUR GILCHRIST BRODEUR
 1916
Skáldskaparmál
Guðni Jónsson edition
The Poesy of the Skalds [1]
1. Usually translated "Poetical Diction."
Chapters divisions are not part of the original text
and therefore do not correspond between editions.
Items highlighted in red are not found in the original text.
1. Ægir sækir heim æsi. Chapter 1

Einn maðr er nefndr Ægir eða Hlér. Hann bjó í eyju þeiri, er nú er kölluð Hlésey. Hann var mjök fjölkunnigr. Hann gerði ferð sína til Ásgarðs, en æsir vissu fyrir ferð hans, ok var honum fagnat vel ok þó margir hlutir gervir með sjónhverfingum. Ok um kveldit, er drekka skyldi, þá lét Óðinn bera inn í höllina sverð ok váru svá björt, at þar af lýsti, ok var ekki haft ljós annat, meðan við drykkju var setit.
Þá gengu æsir at gildi sínu, ok settust í hásæti tólf æsir, þeir er dómendr skyldu vera ok svá váru nefndir: Þórr, Njörðr, Freyr, Týr, Heimdallr, Bragi, Víðarr, Váli, Ullr, Hænir, Forseti, Loki. Slíkt sama ásynjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Iðunn, Gerðr, Sigyn, Fulla, Nanna. Ægi þótti göfugligt þar um at sjást. Veggþili öll váru þar tjölduð með fögrum skjöldum. Þar var ok áfenginn mjöðr ok mjök drukkit. Næsti maðr Ægi sat Bragi, ok áttust þeir vit drykkju ok orðaskipti. Sagði Bragi Ægi frá mörgum tíðendum, þeim er æsir höfðu átt.

I. A certain man was named Ægir, or Hlér. He dwelt on the island which is now called Hlér's Isle,[1] and was deeply versed in black magic. He took his way to Ásgard, but the Æsir had foreknowledge of his journey; he was received with good cheer, and yet many things were done by deceit, with eye-illusions. And at evening, when it was time for drinking, Odin had swords brought into the hall, so bright that light radiated from them: and other illumination was not used while they sat at drinking. The n the Æsir came in to their banquet, and in the high-seats sat them down those twelve Æsir who were appointed to be judges; these were their names: Thor, Njördr, Freyr, Týr, Heimdallr, Bragi, Vídarr, Váli, Ullr, Hœnir, Forseti, Loki; and in like manner the Ásynjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Idunn, Gerdr, Sigyn, Fulla, Nanna. It seemed glorious to Ægir to look about him in the hall: the wainscottings there were all hung with fair shields; there was also stinging mead, copiously quaffed. The man seated next to Ægir was Bragi, and they took part together in drinking and in converse: Bragi told Ægir of many things which had come to pass among the Æsir.

1. Now Læssø.

2. Þjazi jötunn rænti Iðunni.  
Hann hóf þar frásögn, at þrír æsir fóru heiman, Óðinn ok Loki ok Hænir, ok fóru um fjöll ok eyðimerkr, ok var illt til matar. En er þeir koma ofan í dal nakkvarn, sjá þeir öxnaflokk ok taka einn uxann ok snúa til seyðis. En er þeir hyggja, at soðit mun vera, raufa þeir seyðinn, ok var ekki soðit. Ok í annat sinn, er þeir raufa seyðinn, þá er stund var liðin, ok var ekki soðit. Mæla þeir þá sín á milli, hverju þetta mun gegna.
Þá heyra þeir mál í eikina upp yfir sik, at sá, er þar sat, kvaðst ráða því, er eigi soðnaði á seyðinum. Þeir litu til, ok sat þar örn ok eigi lítill.
Þá mælti örninn: "Vilið þér gefa mér fylli mína af uxanum, þá mun soðna á seyðinum."
Þeir játa því. Þá lætr hann sígast ór trénu ok sezt á seyðinn ok leggr upp þegar it fyrsta lær uxans tvau ok báða bóguna.
Þá varð Loki reiðr ok greip upp mikla stöng ok reiðir af öllu afli ok rekr á kroppinn erninum. Örninn bregzt við höggit ok flýgr upp. Þá var föst stöngin við bak arnarins, en hendr Loka við annan enda stangarinnar. Örninn flýgr hátt svá, at fætr Loka taka niðr grjót ok urðir ok viðu, en hendr hans, hyggr hann, at slitna munu ór öxlum. Hann kallar ok biðr allþarfliga örninn friðar. En hann segir, at Loki skal aldri lauss verða, nema hann veiti honum svardaga at koma Iðunni út of Ásgarð með epli sín, en Loki vill þat. Verðr hann þá lauss ok ferr til lagsmanna sinna, ok er eigi at sinni sögð fleiri tíðendi um þeira ferð, áðr þeir koma heim.
En at ákveðinni stundu teygir Loki Iðunni út um Ásgarð í skóg nökkurn ok segir, at hann hefir fundit epli þau, er henni munu gripir í þykkja, ok bað, at hon skal hafa með sér sín epli ok bera saman ok hin. Þá kemr þar Þjazi jötunn í arnarham ok tekr Iðunni ok flýgr braut með ok í Þrymheim til bús síns.
He began the story at the point where three of the Æsir, Odin and Loki and Hœnir, departed from home and were wandering over mountains and wastes, and food was hard to find. But when they came down into a certain dale, they saw a herd of oxen, took one ox, and set about cooking it. Now when they thought that it must be cooked, they broke up the fire, and it was not cooked. After a while had passed, they having scattered the fire a second time, and it was not cooked, they took counsel together, asking each other what it might mean. Then they heard a voice speaking in the oak up above them, declaring that he who sat there confessed he had caused the lack of virtue in the fire. They looked thither, and there sat an eagle; and it was no small one. Then the eagle said: "If ye are willing to give me my fill of the ox, then it will cook in the fire." They assented to this. Then he let himself float down from the tree and alighted by the fire, and forthwith at the very first took unto himself the two hams of the ox, and both shoulders. Then Loki was angered, snatched up a great pole, brandished it with all his strength, and drove it at the eagle's body. The eagle plunged violently at the blow and flew up, so that the pole was fast to the eagle's back, and Loki's hands to the other end of the pole. The eagle flew at such a height that Loki's feet down below knocked against stones and rock-heaps and trees, and he thought his arms would be torn from his shoulders. He cried aloud, entreating the eagle urgently for peace; but the eagle declared that Loki should never be loosed, unless he would give him his oath to induce Idunn to come out of Ásgard with her apples. Loki assented, and being straightway loosed, went to his companions; nor for that time are any more things reported concerning their journey, until they had come home.
But at the appointed time Loki lured Idunn out of Ásgard into a certain wood, saying that he had found such apples as would seem to her of great virtue, and prayed that she would have her apples with her and compare them with these. Then Thjazi the giant came there in his eagle's plumage and took Idunn and flew away with her, off into Thrymheimr to his abode.
3. Loki náði Iðunni ok dráp Þjaza.  

En æsir urðu illa við hvarf Iðunnar, ok gerðust þeir brátt hárir ok gamlir. Þá áttu þeir æsir þing, ok spyrr hverr annan, hvat síðast vissi til Iðunnar, en þat var sét síðast, at hon gekk út ór Ásgarði með Loka. Þá var Loki tekinn ok færðr á þingit, ok var honum heitit bana eða píslum. En er hann varð hræddr, þá kvaðst hann mundu sækja eftir Iðunni í Jötunheima, ef Freyja vill ljá honum valshams, er hon á.

Ok er hann fær valshaminn, flýgr hann norðr í Jötunheima ok kemr einn dag til Þjaza jötuns. Var hann róinn á sæ, en Iðunn var ein heima. Brá Loki henni í hnotarlíki ok hafði í klóm sér ok flýgr sem mest.

En er Þjazi kom heim ok saknar Iðunnar, tekr hann arnarharminn ok flýgr eftir Loka, ok dró arnsúg í flugnum. En er æsirnir sá, er valrinn flaug með hnotina ok hvar örninn flaug, þá gengu þeir út undir Ásgarð ok báru þannig byrðar af lokarspánum. Ok þá er valrinn flaug inn of borgina, lét hann fallast niðr við borgarvegginn. Þá slógu æsirnir eldi í lokarspánuna, en örninn mátti eigi stöðva sik, er hann missti valsins. Laust þá eldinum í fiðri arnarins, ok tók þá af fluginn. Þá váru æsirnir nær ok drápu Þjaza jötun fyrir innan ásgrindr, ok er þat víg allfrægt.

En Skaði dóttir Þjaza jötuns, tók hjálm ok brynju ok öll hervápn ok ferr til Ásgarðs at hefna föður síns. En æsir buðu henni sætt ok yfirbætr ok it fyrsta, at hon skal kjósa sér mann af ásum ok kjósa at fótum ok sjá ekki fleira af.
Þá sá hon eins manns fætr forkunnarfagra ok mælti: "Þenna kýs ek. Fátt mun ljótt á Baldri."
En þat var Njörðr ór Nóatúnum.
Þat hafði hon ok í sættargerð sinni, at æsir skyldu þat gera, er hon hugði, at þeir skyldu eigi mega, at hlægja hana. Þá gerði Loki þat, at hann batt um skegg geitar nökkurrar ok öðrum enda um hreðjar sér, ok létu þau ýmsi eftir ok skrækði hvárt tveggja hátt. Þá lét Loki fallast í kné Skaða, ok þá hló hon. Var þá ger sætt af ásanna hendi við hana.

But the Æsir became straitened at the disappearance of Idunn, and speedily they became hoary and old. Then those, Æsir took counsel together, and each asked the other what had last been known of Idunn; and the last that had been seen was that she had gone out of Ásgard with Loki. Thereupon Loki was seized and brought to the Thing, and was threatened with death, or tortures; when he had become well frightened, he declared that he would seek after Idunn in Jötunheim, if Freyja would lend him the hawk's plumage which she possessed. And when he got the hawk's plumage, he flew north into Jötunheim, and came on a certain day to the home of Thjazi the giant. Thjazi had rowed out to sea, but Idunn was at home alone: Loki turned her into the shape of a nut and grasped her in his claws and flew his utmost.
Now when Thjazi came home and missed Idunn, he took his eagle's plumage and flew after Loki, making a mighty rush of sound with his wings in his flight. But when the Æsir saw how the hawk flew with the nut, and where the eagle was flying, they went out below Ásgard and bore burdens of plane-shavings thither. As soon as the hawk flew into the citadel, he swooped down close by the castle-wall; then the Æsir struck fire to the plane-shavings. But the eagle could not stop himself when he missed the hawk: the feathers of the eagle caught fire, and straightway his flight ceased. Then the Æsir were near at hand and slew Thjazi the giant within the Gate of the Æsir, and that slaying is exceeding famous.
Now Skadi, the daughter of the giant Thjazi, took helm and birnie and all weapons of war and proceeded to Ásgard, to avenge her father. The Æsir, however, offered her reconciliation and atonement: the first article was that she should choose for herself a husband from among the Æsir and choose by the feet only, seeing no more of him. Then she saw the feet of one man, passing fair, and said: "I choose this one: in Baldr little can be loathly."
But that was Njördr of Nóatún.
She had this article also in her bond of reconciliation: that the Æsir must do a thing she thought they would not be able to accomplish: to make her laugh. Then Loki did this: he tied a cord to the beard of a goat, the other end being about his own genitals, and each gave way in turn, and each of the two screeched loudly; then Loki let himself fall onto Skadi's knee, and she laughed. Thereupon reconciliation was made with her on the part of the Æsir.
4. Af ætt Þjaza.  

Svá er sagt, at Óðinn gerði þat til yfirbóta við Skaða, at hann tók augu Þjaza ok kastaði upp á himin ok gerði af stjörnur tvær.
Þá mælti Ægir: "Mikill þykkir mér Þjazi fyrir sér hafa verit, eða hvers kyns var hann?"
Bragi svarar: "Ölvaldi hét faðir hans, ok merki munu þér at þykkja, ef ek segi þér frá honum. Hann var mjök gullauðigr. En er hann dó ok synir hans skyldu skipta arfi, þá höfðu þeir mæling á gullinu, er þeir skiptu, at hverr skyldi taka munnfylli sína ok allir jafnmargar. Einn þeira var Þjazi annarr Iði, þriði Gangr. En þat höfum vér orðtak nú með oss at kalla gullit munntal þessa jötna, en vér felum í rúnum eða í skáldskap svá, at vér köllum þat mál eða orð eða tal þessa jötna."
Þá mælti Ægir: "Þat þykkir mér vel fólgit í rúnum."

It is so said, that Odin did this by way of atonement to Skadi: he took Thjazi's eyes and cast them up into the heavens, and made of them two stars.
Then said Ægir: "It seems to me that Thjazi was a mighty man: now of what family was he?" Bragi answered: "His father was called Ölvaldi, and if I tell thee of him, thou wilt think these things wonders. He was very rich in gold; but when he died and his sons came to divide the inheritance, they determined upon this measure for the gold which they divided: each should take as much as his mouth would hold, and all the same number of mouthfuls. One of them was Thjazi, the second Idi, the third Gangr. And we have it as a metaphor among us now, to call gold the mouth-tale of these giants; but we conceal it in secret terms or in poesy in this way, that we call it Speech, or Word, or Talk, of these giants."
Then said Ægir: "I deem that well concealed in secret terms."
5. Upphaf Suttungamjaðar.  

Ok enn mælti Ægir: "Hvaðan af hefir hafizt sú íþrótt, er þér kallið skáldskap?"

Bragi svarar: "Þat váru upphöf til þess, at goðin höfðu ósætt við þat fólk, er Vanir heita. En þeir lögðu með sér friðstefnu ok settu grið á þá lund, at þeir gengu hvárirtveggju til eins kers ok spýttu í hráka sínum. En at skilnaði þá tóku goðin ok vildu eigi láta týnast þat griðamark ok sköpuðu þar ór mann. Sá heitir Kvasir. Hann er svá vitr, at engi spyrr hann þeira hluta, er eigi kann hann órlausn.

Hann fór víða um heim at kenna mönnum fræði, ok þá er hann kom at heimboði til dverga nökkurra, Fjalars ok Galars, þá kölluðu þeir hann með sér á einmæli ok drápu hann, létu renna blóð hans í tvau ker ok einn ketil, ok heitir sá Óðrerir, en kerin heita Són ok Boðn. Þeir blendu hunangi við blóðit, ok varð þar af mjöðr sá, er hverr, er af drekkr, verðr skáld eða fræðamaðr. Dvergarnir sögðu ásum, at Kvasir hefði kafnat í mannviti, fyrir því at engi var þar svá fróðr, at spyrja kynni hann fróðleiks.

Þá buðu þessir dvergar til sín jötni þeim, er Gillingr heitir, ok konu hans. Þá buðu dvergarnir Gillingi at róa á sæ með sér. En er þeir fóru fyrir land fram, reru dvergarnir á boða ok hvelfðu skipinu. Gillingr var ósyndr, ok týndist hann, en dvergarnir réttu skip sitt ok reru til lands. Þeir sögðu konu hans þenna atburð, en hon kunni illa ok grét hátt. Þá spurði Fjalarr hana, ef henni myndi hugléttara, ef hon sæi út á sæinn, þar er hann hafði týnzt, en hon vildi þat. Þá mælti hann við Galar, bróður sinn, at hann skal fara upp yfir dyrrnar, er hon gengi út, ok láta kvernstein falla í höfuð henni, ok talði sér leiðast óp hennar. Ok svá gerði hann.

Þá er þetta spurði Suttungr jötunn, sonr Gillings, ferr hann til ok tók dvergana ok flytr á sæ út ok setr þá í flæðarsker. Þeir biðja Suttung sér lífsgriða ok bjóða honum til sættar í fóðurgjald mjöðinn dýra, ok þat verðr at sætt með þeim. Flytr Suttungr mjöðinn heim ok hirðir, þar sem heita Hnitbjörg, setr þar til gæzlu dóttur sína, Gunnlöðu. Af þessu köllum vér skáldskap Kvasis blóð eða dvergadrekku eða fylli eða nökkurs konar lög Óðreris eða Boðnar eða Sónar eða farskost dverga, fyrir því at sá mjöðr flutti þeim fjörlausn ór skerinu, eða Suttungamjöð eða Hnitbjargalögr."

Þá mælti Ægir: "Myrkt þykkir mér þat mælt at kalla skáldskap með þessum heitum. En hvernig kómuzt þér æsir at Suttungamiði?"

 And again said Ægir: "Whence did this art, which ye call poesy, derive its beginnings?"

Bragi answered: "These were the beginnings thereof. The gods had a dispute with the folk which are called Vanir, and they appointed a peace-meeting between them and established peace in this way: they each went to a vat and spat their spittle therein. Then at parting the gods took that peace-token and would not let it perish, but shaped thereof a man. This man is called Kvasir, and he was so wise that none could question him concerning anything but that he knew the solution. He went up and down the earth to give instruction to men; and when he came upon invitation to the abode of certain dwarves, Fjalar and Galarr, they called him into privy converse with them, and killed him, letting his blood run into two vats and a kettle. The kettle is named Ódrerir, and the vats Són and Bodn; they blended honey with the blood, and the outcome was that mead by the virtue of which he who drinks becomes a skald or scholar. The dwarves reported to the Æsir that Kvasir had choked on his own shrewdness, since there was none so wise there as to be able to question his wisdom.

"Then these dwarves invited the giant who is called Gillingr to visit them, and his wife with him. Next the dwarves invited Gillingr to row upon the sea with them; but when they had gone out from the land, the dwarves rowed into the breakers and capsized the boat. Gillingr was unable to swim, and he perished; but the dwarves righted their boat and rowed to land. They reported this accident to his wife, but she took it grievously and wept aloud. Then Fjalar asked her whether it would ease her heart if she should look out upon the sea at the spot where he had perished; and she desired it. Then he spoke softly to Galarr his brother, bidding him go up over the doorway, when she should go out, and let a mill-stone fall on her head, saying that her weeping grew wearisome to him; and even so he did.
"Now when the giant Suttungr, Gillingr's son, learned of this, he went over and took the dwarves and carried them out to sea, and set them on a reef which was covered at high tide. They besought Suttungr to grant them respite of their lives, and as the price of reconciliation offered him the precious mead in satisfaction of his father's death. And that became a means of reconciliation between them. Suttungr carried the mead home and concealed it in the place called Hnitbjörg, placing his daughter Gunnlöd there to watch over it. Because of this we call poesy Kvasir's Blood or Dwarves' Drink, or Fill, or any kind of liquid of Ódrerir, or of Bodn, or of Són, or Ferry-Boat of Dwarves--since this mead brought them life--ransom from the reef--or Suttungr's Mead, or Liquor of Hnitbjörg."

Then Ægir said: "These seem to me dark sayings, to call poesy by these names. But how did ye Æsir come at Suttungr's Mead?"
6. Hversu Óðinn komst at miðinum.  

Bragi svarar: "Sjá saga er til þess, at Óðinn fór heiman ok kom þar, er þrælar níu slógu hey. Hann spyrr, ef þeir vili, at hann brýni ljá þeira. Þeir játa því. Þá tekr hann hein af belti sér ok brýndi ljána, en þeim þótti bíta ljárnir miklu betr ok föluðu heinina, en hann mat svá, at sá, er kaupa vildi, skyldi gefa við hóf. En allir kváðust vilja ok báðu hann sér selja, en hann kastaði heininni í loft upp. En er allir vildu henda, þá skiptust þeir svá við, at hverr brá ljánum á háls öðrum.

Óðinn sótti til náttstaðar til jötuns þess, er Baugi hét, bróðir Suttungs. Baugi kallaði illt fjárhald sitt ok sagði, at þrælar hans níu höfðu drepizt, en talðist eigi vita sér ván verkmanna. En Óðinn nefndist fyrir honum Bölverkr. Hann bauð at taka upp níu manna verk fyrir Bauga, en mælti sér til kaups einn drykk af Suttungamiði. Baugi kvaðst einskis ráð eiga at miðinum, sagði, at Suttungr vildi einn hafa, en fara kveðst hann mundu með Bölverki, ok freista, ef þeir fengi mjöðinn.

Bölverkr vann um sumarit níu manna verk fyrir Bauga, en at vetri beiddi hann Bauga leigu sínnar. Þá fara þeir báðir til Suttungs. Baugi segir Suttungi, bróður sínum, kaup þeira Bölverks, en Suttungr synjar þverliga hvers dropa af miðinum. Þá mælti Bölverkr til Bauga, at þeir skyldu freista véla nökkurra, ef þeir megi ná miðinum, en Baugi lætr þat vel vera. Þá dregr Bölverkr fram nafar þann, er Rati heitir, ok mælti, at Baugi skal bora bjargit, ef nafarrinn bítr. Hann gerir svá. Þá segir Baugi, at gegnum er borat bjargit, en Bölverkr blæss í nafarsraufina, ok hrjóta spænirnir upp í móti honum. Þá fann hann, at Baugi vildi svíkja hann, ok bað bora gegnum bjargit. Baugi boraði enn, en er Bölverkr blés annat sinn, þá fuku inn spænirnir. Þá brást Bölverkr í ormslíki ok skreið inn í nafarsraufina, en Baugi stakk eftir honum nafrinum ok missti hans.

Fór Bölverkr þar til, sem Gunnlöð var, ok lá hjá henni þrjár nætr, ok þá lofaði hon honum at drekka af miðinum þrjá drykki. Í inum fyrsta drykk drakk hann allt ór Óðreri, en í öðrum ór Boðn, í inum þriðja ór Són, ok hafði hann þá allan mjöðinn. Þá brást hann í arnarham ok flaug sem ákafast.
En er Suttungr sá flug arnarins, tók hann sér arnarham ok flaug eftir honum. En er æsir sá, hvar Óðinn flaug, þá settu þeir út í garðinn ker sín, en er Óðinn kom inn of Ásgarð, þá spýtti hann upp miðinum í kerin, en honum var þá svá nær komit, at Suttungr myndi ná honum, at hann sendi aftr suman mjöðinn, ok var þess ekki gætt. Hafði þat hverr, er vildi, ok köllum vér þat skáldfífla hlut. En Suttungamjöð gaf Óðinn ásunum ok þeim mönnum, er yrkja kunnu. Því köllum vér skáldskapinn feng Óðins ok fund ok drykk hans ok gjöf hans ok drykk ásanna."

Bragi answered: "That tale runs thus: Odin departed from home and came to a certain place where nine thralls were mowing hay. He asked if they desired him to whet their scythes, and they assented. Then he took a hone from his belt and whetted the scythes; it seemed to them that the scythes cut better by far, and they asked that the hone be sold them. But he put such a value on it that whoso desired to buy must give a considerable price: nonetheless all said that they would agree, and prayed him to sell it to them. He cast the hone up into the air; but since all wished to lay their hands on it, they became so intermingled with one another that each struck with his scythe against the other's neck."
Odin sought a night's lodging with the giant who is called Baugi, Suttungr's brother. Baugi bewailed his husbandry, saying that his nine thralls had killed one another, and declared that he had no hope of workmen. Odin called himself Bölverkr in Baugi's presence; he offered to undertake nine men's work for Baugi, and demanded for his wages one drink of Suttungr's Mead. Baugi declared that he had no control whatever over the mead, and said that Suttungr was determined to have it to himself, but promised to go with Bölverkr and try if they might get the mead.
During the summer Bölverkr accomplished nine men's work for Baugi, but when winter came he asked Baugi for his hire. Then they both set out for Suttungr's. Baugi told Suttungr his brother of his bargain with Bölverkr; but Suttungr flatly refused them a single drop of the mead. Then Bölverkr made suggestion to Baugi that they try certain wiles, if perchance they might find means to get at the mead; and Baugi agreed readily. Thereupon Bölverkr drew out the auger called Rati, saying that Baugi must bore the rock, if the auger cut. He did so. At last Baugi said that the rock was bored through, but Bölverkr blew into the auger-hole, and the chips flew up at him. Then he discovered that Baugi would have deceived him, and he bade him bore through the rock. Baugi bored anew; and when Bölverkr blew a second time, then the chips were blown in by the blast. Then Bölverkr turned himself into a serpent and crawled into the auger-hole, but Baugi thrust at him from behind with the auger and missed him.
Bölverkr proceeded to the place where Gunnlöd was, and lay with her three nights; and then she gave him leave to drink three draughts of the mead. In the first draught he drank every drop out of Ódrerir; and in the second, he emptied Bodn; and in the third, Són; and then he had all the mead. Then he turned himself into the shape of an eagle and flew as furiously as he could; but when Suttungr saw the eagle's flight, he too assumed the fashion of an eagle and flew after him. When the Æsir saw Odin flying, straightway they set out their vats in the court; and when Odin came into Ásgard, he spat up the mead into the vats. Nevertheless he came so near to being caught by Suttungr that he sent some mead backwards, and no heed was taken of this: whosoever would might have that, and we call that the poetaster's part.[2] But Odin gave the mead of Suttungr to the Æsir and to those men who possess the ability to compose. Therefore we call poesy Odin's Booty and Find, and his Drink and Gift, and the Drink of the Æsir." 

2. See Burns, The Kirk's Alarm, 11th stanza, for a similar idea.
7. Einkenni skáldskapar.  

Þá mælti Ægir: "Hversu á marga lund breytið þér orðtökum skáldskapar, eða hversu mörg eru kyn skáldskaparins?"
Þá mælti Bragi; "Tvenn eru kyn, þau er greina skáldskap allan."
Ægir spyrr: "Hver tvenn?"
Bragi segir: "Mál ok hættir."
"Hvert máltak er haft til skáldskapar?"
"Þrenn er grein skáldskaparmáls."
"Hver?"
"Svá at nefna hvern hlut, sem heitir. Önnur grein er sú, er heitir fornöfn. In þriðja málsgrein er sú, er kölluð er kenning, ok er sú grein svá sett, at vér köllum Óðin eða Þór eða Tý eða einhvern af ásum eða álfum, ok hvern þeira, er ek nefni til, þá tek ek með heiti af eign annars ássins eða get ek hans verka nökkurra. Þá eignast hann nafnit, en eigi hinn, er nefndr var. Svá sem vér köllum sig-Tý eða hanga-Tý eða farma-Týr, þat er þá Óðins heiti, ok köllum vér þat kennt heiti, svá ok at kalla reiðar-Tý."

Then said Ægir: "In how many ways are the terms of skaldship variously phrased, or how many are the essential elements of the skaldic art?" Then Bragi answered: "The elements into which all poesy is divided are two." Ægir asked: "What two?" Bragi said: "Metaphor and metre." "What manner of metaphor is used for skaldic writing?" "Three are the types of skaldic metaphor." "Which?" "Thus: [first], calling everything by its name; the second type is that which is called 'substitution;' the third type of metaphor is that which is called 'periphrasis,' and this type is employed in such manner: Suppose I take Odin, or Thor, or Týr, or any of the Æsir or Elves; and to any of them whom I mention, I add the name of a property of some other of the Æsir, or I record certain works of his. Thereupon he becomes owner of the name, and not the one whose name was applied to him: just as when we speak of Victory-Týr, or Týr of the Hanged, or Týr of Cargoes: that then becomes Odin's name: and we call these periphrastic names. So also with the title Týr of the Wain.[3]

3. Týr. See discussion in Cl.-Vig., p. 647. This word as a proper name refers to the one-armed God of War; but, especially in compounds, it has the sense of God, the God, and is usually applied to Odin. The compounds mentioned here by Snorri are all epithets of Odin. See Gylfaginning, p. 30 [chapter 20].]
8. Orðum beint til ungra skálda.  

En þetta er nú at segja ungum skáldum, þeim er girnast at nema mál skáldskapar ok heyja sér orðfjölða með fornum heitum eða girnast þeir at kunna skilja þat, er hulit er kveðit, þá skili hann þessa bók til fróðleiks ok skemmtunar. En ekki er at gleyma eða ósanna svá þessar frásagnir at taka ór skáldskapinum fornar kenningar, þær er höfuðskáld hafa sér líka látit. En eigi skulu kristnir menn trúa á heiðin goð ok eigi á sannyndi þessa sagna annan veg en svá sem hér finnst í upphafi bókar.

"But now one thing must be said to young skalds, to such as yearn to attain to the craft of poesy and to increase their store of figures with traditional metaphors; or to those who crave to acquire the faculty of discerning what is said in hidden phrase: let such an one, then, interpret this book to his instruction and pleasure. Yet one is not so to forget or discredit these traditions as to remove from poesy those ancient metaphors with which it has pleased Chief Skalds to be content; nor, on the other hand, ought Christian men to believe in heathen gods, nor in the truth of these tales otherwise than precisely as one may find here in the beginning of the book.
9. Óðinsheiti ok Óðinskenningar.  

Nú skal láta heyra dæmin, hvernig höfuðskáldin hafa látit sér sóma at yrkja eftir þessum heitum ok kenningum, svá sem segir Arnórr jarlaskáld, at Óðinn heiti Alföðr:

1. Nú hykk slíðrhugaðs segja,
síð léttir mér stríða,
þýtr Alföður, ýtum
jarls kostu, brim hrosta.

Hér kallar hann ok skáldskapinn hrostabrim Alföður. Hávarðr halti kvað svá:

2. Nú er jódraugum ægis
arnar flaug of hauga;
hygg ek, at heimboð þiggi
Hangagoðs af vangi.

Svá kvað Víga-Glúmr:

3. Lattisk herr með höttu
Hangatýs at ganga,
þóttit þeim at hætta
þekkiligt, fyrir brekku.

Svá kvað Refr:

4. Oft kom, jarðar leiftra
er Baldr hniginn skaldi,
hollr at helgu fulli
Hrafnásar mér, stafna.

Svá kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:

5. Ok Sigurð
hinn er svönum veitti
hróka bjór
Haddingja vals
Farmatýs,
fjörvi næmðu
jarðráðendr
á Öglói.

Svá kvað Glúmr Geirason:

6. Þar var, þrafna byrjar
þeim stýrðu goð Beima
sjalfr í sæki-alfi
Sigtýr Atals dýra.

Svá kvað Eyvindr enn:

7. Göndul ok Skögul
sendi Gautatýr
at kjósa of konunga,
hverr Yngva ættar
skyldi með Óðni fara
ok í Valhöllu vera.

Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:

8. Ríðr at vilgi víðu
víðfrægr, en mér líða,
Hroftatýr, of hváfta
hróðrmál, sonar báli.

Svá kvað Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski:

9. Valr lá þar á sandi,
vitinn inum eineygja
Friggjar faðmbyggvi,
fögnuðum dáð slíkri.

Þat kvað Hallfreðr:

10. Sannyrðum spenr sverða
snarr þiggjandi viggjar
barrhaddaða byrjar
biðkván und sik Þriðja.

Hér er þess dæmi, at jörð er kölluð kona Óðins í skáldskap. Svá er hér sagt, at Eyvindr kvað:

11.
Hermóðr ok Bragi,
kvað Hroftatýr,
gangið í gögn grami,
því at konungr ferr,
sá er kappi þykkir,
til hallar hinig.

Svá kvað Kormákr:

12.
Eykr með ennidúki
jarðhljótr día fjarðar
breyti, hún sá er, beinan,
bindr. Seið Yggr til Rindar.

Svá kvað Steinþórr:

13. Forngörvan á ek firnum
farms Gunnlaðar arma
horna fors at hrósa
hlítstyggs ok þó lítinn.

Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:

14. Þar hykk sigrunni svinnum
sylgs valkyrjur fylgja
heilags tafns ok hrafna.
Hlaut innan svá minnum.

Svá kvað Egill Skalla-Grímsson:

15. Blætk eigi af því
bróður Vílis,
goðjaðar,
at ek gjarn séa;
þó hefr Míms vinr
mér of fengit
bölva bætr,
er it betra telk.

16. Gafumk íþrótt
ulfs of bági,
vígi vanr,
vammi firrða.

Hér er hann kallaðr goðjaðarr ok Míms vinr ok úlfs bági. Svá kvað Refr:

17. Þér eigu vér veigar,
Valgautr, salar brautar,
Fals, hrannvala fannar,
framr, valdi tamr, gjalda.

Svá kvað Einarr skálaglamm:

18. Hljóta mun ek, né hlítir,
Hertýs, of þat frýju,
fyrir örþeysi at ausa
austr víngnóðar flausta.

Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:

19. Kostigr ríðr at kesti,
kynfróðs, þeim er goð hlóðu,
Hrafnfreistaðar, hesti
Heimdallr, at mög fallinn.

Svá er sagt í Eiríksmálum:

20. Hvat er þat drauma, kvað Óðinn,
ek hugðumk fyrir dag rísa,
Valhöll ryðja
fyrir vegnu fólki,
vekða ek Einherja,
bæða ek upp rísa,
bekki at strá,
bjórker leyðra,
valkyrjur vín bera,
sem vísi kæmi.

Þat kvað Kormákr:

21. Algildan bið ek aldar
allvald of mér halda
ýs bifvangi Yngva
ungr. Fór Hroftr með Gungni.

Þat kvað Þórálfr:

22. Sagði hitt, er hugði,
Hliðskjalfar gramr sjalfum,
hlífar-styggs þar er höggnir
Háreks liðar váru.

Svá kvað Eyvindr:

23. Hinn, er Surts
ór sökkdölum
farmögnuðr
fljúgandi bar.

Svá kvað Bragi:

24. Þat erumk sýnt, at snimma
sonr Aldaföðrs vildi
afls við úri þafðan
jarðar reist of freista.

Svá kvað Einarr:

25. Því at fjölkostigr flestu
flestr ræðr við son Bestlu,
tekit hefk morðs til mærðar,
mæringr en þú færa.

Svá kvað Þorvaldr blönduskáld:

26. Nú hef ek margt
í miði greipat
burar Bors,
Búra arfa.
II. Now you may hear examples of the way in which Chief Skalds have held it becoming to compose, making use of these simple terms and periphrases: as when Arnórr Earls' Skald says that Odin is called Allfather:

Now I'll tell men the virtue
Of the terrible Jarl;
Allfather's Song-Surf streams;
Late my sorrows lighten,

Here, moreover, he calls poesy the Song-Surf of Allfather. Hávardr the Halt sang thus:

Now is the flight of eagles
Over the field; the sailors
Of the sea-horses hie them
To the Hanged-God's gifts and feasting.

Thus sang Viga-Glúmr:

With the Hanged-God's helmet
The hosts have ceased from going
By the brink; not pleasant
The bravest held the venture.

Thus sang Refr:

Oft the Gracious One came to me
At the holy cup of the Raven-God;
The king of the stem-ploughed sea's gold
From the skald in death is sundered.

Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:

And Sigurdr,
He who sated the ravens
Of Cargo-God
With the gore of the host
Of slain Haddings
Of life was spoiled
By the earth-rulers
At Ögló.

Thus sang Glúmr Geirason:

There the Týr of Triumph
Himself inspired the terror
Of ships; the gods of breezes
That favor good men steered them.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

Göndull and Skögull
Gauta-Týr sent
To choose from kings
Who of Yngvi's kin
Should go with Odin
And be in Valhall.

Thus sang Úlfr Uggason:

Swiftly the Far-Famed rideth,
The Foretelling God, to the fire speeds,
To the wide pyre of his offspring;
Through my cheeks praise-songs are pouring.

Thus sang Thjódólfr of Hvin:

The slain lay there sand-strewing,
Spoil for the Single-Eyed
Dweller in Frigg's bosom;
In such deeds we rejoiced.

Hallfredr sang thus:

The doughty ship-possessor
With sharpened words and soothfast
Lures our land, the patient,
Barley-lockèd Wife of Thridi.

Here is an example of this metaphor, that in poesy the earth is called the Wife of Odin. Here is told what Eyvindr sang:

Hermódr and Bragi,
Spake Hropta-Týr.

Go ye to greet the Prince;
For a king who seemeth
A champion cometh
To the hall hither.

Thus sang Kormákr:

The Giver of Lands, who bindeth
The sail to the top, with gold-lace
Honors him who pours god's verse-mead;
Odin wrought charms on Rindr.

Thus sang Steinthórr:

Much have I to laud
The ancient-made (though little)
Liquor of the valiant
Load of Gunnlöd's arm-clasp.

Thus sang Úlfr Uggason:

There I think the Valkyrs follow,
And ravens, Victorious Odin
To the blood of holy Baldr.
With old tales the hall was painted.

Thus sang Egill Skallagrímsson:

No victims for this
To Víli's brother,
The High-God, I offer,
Glad to behold him;

Yet has Mímir's friend
On me bestowed
Amends of evil
Which I account better.

He has given me the art
He, the Wolf's Opposer,
Accustomed to battle,
Of blemish blameless.

Here he is called High God, and Friend of Mímir, and Adversary of the Wolf.

Thus sang Refr:

Swift God of Slain, that wieldeth
The snowy billow's wave-hawks,
The ships that drive the sea-road,
To thee we owe the dwarves' drink.

Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:

'T is mine to pour the liquor
Of the Host-God's mead-cask freely
Before the ships' swift Speeder:
For this I win no scorning.

Thus sang Úlfr Uggason:

His steed the lordly Heimdallr
Spurs to the pyre gods builded
For the fallen son of Odin,
The All-Wise Raven-Ruler.

This is said in Eiríksmál:

What dream is that? quoth Odin,--
I thought to rise ere day-break
To make Valhall ready
For troops of slain;
I roused the champions,
Bade them rise swiftly
Benches to strew,
To wash beer-flagons;
The Valkyrs to pour wine,
As a Prince were coming.

Kormákr sang this:

I pray the precious Ruler
Of Yngvi's people, o'er me
To hold his hand, bow-shaking.
Hroptr bore with him Gungnir.

Thórálfr sang this:

The Mighty One of Hlidskjálf
Spake his mind unto them
Where the hosts of fearless
Hárekr were slaughtered.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

The mead which forth
From Surtr's sunk dales
The Strong-through-spells
Swift-flying bore.

So sang Bragi:

'Tis seen, on my shield's surface,
How the Son of the Father of Peoples
Craved to try his strength full swiftly
'Gainst the rain-beat Snake earth-circling.

Thus sang Eínarr:

Since less with Bestla's Offspring
Prevail most lordly princes
Than thou, my task is singing
Thy praise in songs of battle.

Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending-Skald:

Now have I much
In the middle grasped
Of the son of Borr,
Of Búri's heir.

10. Skáldskaparkenningar.  

Hér skal heyra, hvé skáldin hafa kennt skáldskapinn eftir þessum heitum, er áðr eru rituð, svá sem er at kalla Kvasis dreyra ok dverga skip, dverga mjöð, jötna mjöð, Suttunga mjöð, Óðins mjöð, ása mjöð, föðurgjöld jötna, lögr Óðreris ok Boðnar ok Sónar ok fyllr, lögr Hnitbjarga, fengr ok fundr ok farmr ok gjöf Óðins, svá sem hér er kveðit, er orti Einarr skálaglamm:


27. Hugstóran bið ek heyra,
heyr, jarl, Kvasis dreyra,
foldar vörð á fyrða
fjarðleggjar brim dreggjar.

Ok sem kvað Einarr enn skálaglamm:

28. Ullar gengr of alla
asksögn þess, er hvöt magnar
byrgis böðvar sorgar,
bergs geymi-lá dverga.

Svá sem kvað Ormr Steinþórsson:

29. At væri borit bjórs
bríkar ok mitt lík,
rekkar nemi dauðs drykk
Dvalins, í einn sal.

Ok sem Refr kvað:

30. Grjót-aldar ték gildi
geðreinar Þórsteini;
berg-Mæra glymr bára,
bið ek lýða kyn hlýða.

Svá sem kvað Egill:

31. Buðumk hilmir löð,
þar á ek hróðrs of kvöð,
bar ek Óðins mjöð
á Engla bjöð.

Ok sem kvað Glúmr Geirason:

32. Hlýði, hafta beiðis
hefk, mildingar, gildi;
því biðjum vér þagnar,
þegna tjón at fregnum.

 

Ok sem kvað Eyvindr:

33.  Vilja ek hljóð
at Hárs líði,
meðan Gillings
gjöldum yppik,
meðan hans ætt
í hverlegi
galgafarms
til goða teljum.

Svá sem Einarr kvað skálaglamm:

34.Eisar vágr fyr vísa,
verk Rögnis mér hagna,
þýtr Óðreris alda,
aldrhafs, við fles galdra.

Ok enn sem hann kvað:

35. Nú er þats Boðnar bára,
berg-Saxa, tér vaxa,
gervi í höll ok hlýði
hljóð fley jöfurs þjóðir.

Ok sem kvað Eilífr Guðrúnarson:

36. Verðið ér, alls orða
oss grær of kon mæran
á sefreinu Sónar
sáð, vingjöfum ráða.

Svá sem kvað Völu-Steinn:

37. Heyr Míms vinar mína,
mér er fundr gefinn Þundar,
við góma sker glymja
glaumbergs, Egill, strauma.

Svá kvað Ormr Steinþórsson:

38. Seggir þurfut ala ugg,
engu sný ek í Viðurs feng
háði, kunnum hróðrsmíð
haga, of mínn brag.

Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:

39. Haldrgegnis ték Hildar
hugreifum Áleifi,
hann vil ek at gjöf Grímnis,
geðfjarðar lá, kveðja.

Skáldskapr er kallaðr sjár eða lögr dverganna, fyrir því at Kvasis blóð var lögr í Óðreri, áðr mjöðrinn væri gerr, ok þar gerðist hann í katlinum, ok er hann kallaðr fyrir því hverlögr Óðins, svá sem kvað Eyvindr ok fyrr var ritat:

40. Meðan hans ætt
í hverlegi
galgafarms
til goða teljum.

Enn er kallaðr skáldskaprinn far eða líð dverganna. Líð heitir öl, ok líð heitir skip. Svá er tekit til dæma, at skáldskapr er nú kallaðr fyrir því skip dverga, svá sem hér segir:

41. Bæði á ek til brúðar
bergjarls ok skip dverga
sollinn vind at senda
seinfyrnd götu eina.
III. "Now you shall hear how the skalds have termed the art of poesy in these metaphorical phrases which have been recorded before: for example, by calling it Kvasir's Gore and Ship of the Dwarves, Dwarves' Mead, Mead of the Æsir, Giants' Father-Ransom, Liquor of Ódrerir and of Bodn and of Són, and Fullness of these, Liquor of Hnitbjörg, Booty and Find and Gift of Odin, even as has been sung in these verses which Einarr Tinkling-Scale wrought:

I pray the high-souled Warder
Of earth to hear the Ocean
Of the Cliff of Dwarves, my verses:
Hear, Earl, the Gore of Kvasir.

And as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang further:

The Dwarves' Crag's Song-wave rushes
O'er all the dauntless shield-host
Of him who speeds the fury
Of the shield-wall's piercing sword-bane.
Even as Ormr Steinthórsson sang: The body of the dame
And my dead be borne
Into one hall; the Drink
Of Dvalinn, Franklins, hear.
And as Refr sang: I reveal the Thought's Drink
Of the Rock-Folk to Thorsteinn;
The Billow of the Dwarf-Crag
Plashes; I bid men hearken.
Even as Egill sang: The Prince requires my lore,
And bound his praise to pour,
Odin's Mead I bore
To English shore.
And as Glúmr Geirason sang: Let the Princely Giver hearken:
I hold the God-King's liquor.
Let silence, then, be granted,
While we sing the loss of thanes.
And as Eyvindr sang: A hearing I crave
For the High One's Liquor,
While I utter
Gillingr's Atonement;
While his kin
In the Kettle-Brewing
Of the Gallows-Lord
To the gods I trace.
Even as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang: The Wave of Odin surges;
Of Ódrerir's Sea a billow
'Gainst the tongue's song-glade crashes;
Aye our King's works are goodly.
And as he sang further: Now that which Bodn's Billow
Bodes forth will straight be uttered:
Let the War-King's host make silence
In the hall, and hear the Dwarves' Ship.
And as Eilífr Gudrúnarson sang: Grant shall ye gifts of friendship,
Since grows of Són the Seedling
In our tongue's fertile sedge-bank:
True praise of our High Lord.
Even as Völu-Steinn sang: Egill, hear the Heart-streams
Of Odin beat in cadence
'Gainst my palate's skerry;
The God's Spoil to me is given.
Thus sang Ormr Steinthórsson: No verse of mine men need to fear,
No mockery I intertwine
In Odin's Spoil; my skill is sure
In forging songs of praise.
Thus sang Úlfr Uggason: I show to host-glad Áleifr
The Heart-Fjord's Shoal of Odin,--
My song: him do I summon
To hear the Gift of Grímnir.
Poesy is called Sea, or Liquid of the Dwarves, because Kvasir's blood was liquid in Ódrerir before the mead was made, and then it was put into the kettle; wherefore it is called Odin's Kettle-Liquor, even as Eyvindr sang and as we have recorded before: While his kin
In the Kettle-Brewing
Of the Gallows-Lord
To the gods I trace.[1]

[1. See page 105.]

Moreover, poesy is called Ship or Ale of the Dwarves: ale is líð, and lið is a word for ships; therefore it is held that it is for this reason that poesy is now called Ship of the Dwarves, even as this verse tells: The wit of Gunnlöd's Liquor
In swelling wind-like fullness,
And the everlasting Dwarves' Ship
I own, to send the same road.
Note: The name Gunnlöd does not appear in this stanza. Anthony Faulkes reads this as:

"I have already both swollen wind-of-rock-earl's [giant's] bride [troll-wife's wind is 'thought'] and unforgetable dwarves' ship to send the same way."

11. Þórskenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna Þór? Svá, at kalla hann son Óðins ok Jarðar, faðir Magna ok Móða ok Þrúðar, verr Sifjar, stjúpfaðir Ullar, stýrandi ok eigandi Mjöllnis ok megingjarða, Bilskirrnis, verjandi Ásgarðs, Miðgarðs, dólgr ok bani jötna ok trollkvinna, vegandi Hrungnis, Geirröðar, Þrívalda, dróttinn Þjálfa ok Rösku, dólgr Miðgarðsorms, fóstri Vingnis ok Hlóru.

Svá kvað Bragi skáld:

42. Vaðr lá Viðris arfa
vilgi slakr, er rakðisk,
á Eynæfis öndri,
Jörmungandr at sandi.

Svá kvað Ölvir hnúfa:

43. Æstisk allra landa
umbgjörð ok sonr Jarðar.

Svá kvað Eilífr:

44. Vreiðr stóð Vrösku bróðir,
vá gagn faðir Magna;
skelfra Þórs né Þjalfa
þróttar steinn við ótta.

Ok sem kvað Eysteinn Valdason:

45. Leit á brattrar brautar
baug hvassligum augum,
æstisk áðr at flausti
öggs búð, faðir Þrúðar.

Enn kvað Eysteinn:

46. Sín bjó Sifjar rúni
snarla fram með karli,
hornstraum getum Hrímnis
hræra, veiðarfæri.

Ok enn kvað hann:

47. Svá brá viðr, at, sýjur,
seiðr, renndu fram breiðar,
jarðar, út af borði
Ulls mágs hnefar skullu.

Svá kvað Bragi:

48. Hamri fórsk í hægri
hönd, þá er allra landa,
ægir öflugbarða,
endiseiðs of kenndi.

Svá kvað Gamli:

49. Þá er gramr, hinn er svik samðit,
snart Bilskirrnis hjarta,
grundar fisk með grandi
gljúfrskeljungs nam rjúfa.

Svá kvað Þorbjörn dísarskáld:

50. Þórr hefir Yggs með árum
Ásgarð af þrek varðan.

Svá kvað Bragi:

51. Ok borðróins barða
brautar hringr inn ljóti
á haussprengi Hrungnis
harðgeðr neðan starði.

Enn kvað Bragi:

52. Vel hafið yðrum eykjum
aftr, Þrívalda, haldit
simbli sumbls of mærum,
sundrkljúfr níu höfða.

 

 

Svá kvað Eilífr:

53. Þröngvir gein við þungum
þangs rauðbita tangar
kveldrunninna kvinna
kunnleggs alinmunni.

Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:

54. Þjokkvöxnum kvaðsk þykkja
þikling firinmikla
hafra njóts at höfgum
hætting megindrætti.

Ok enn þetta:

55. Fullöflugr lét fellir
fjall-Gauts hnefa skjalla,
rammt mein var þat, reyni
reyrar leggs við eyra.

Enn kvað Úlfr:

56. Víðgymnir laust Vimrar
vaðs af fránum naðri
hlusta grunn við hrönnum.
Hlaut innan svá minnum.

Hér er hann kallaðr jötunn Vimrar vaðs. Á heitir Vimur, er Þórr óð, þá er hann sótti til Geirröðargarða.

Ok svá kvað Vetrliði skáld:

57. Leggi brauzt þú Leiknar,
lamðir Þrívalda,
steypðir Starkeði,
stéttu of Gjalp dauða.

Ok svá kvað Þorbjörn dísarskáld:

58. Ball í Keilu kolli,
Kjallandi brauzt þú alla,
áðr draptu Lút ok Leiða,
léztu dreyra Búseyru;
heftir þú Hengjankjöftu,
Hyrrokkin dó fyrri;
þó var snemr in sáma
Svívör numin lífi.

IV. "What figures should be employed to periphrase the name of Thor? Thus: one should call him Son of Odin and of Jörd, Father of Magni and Módi and Thrúdr, Husband of Sif, Stepfather of Ullr, Wielder and Possessor of Mjöllnir and of the Girdle of Strength, and of Bilskirnir; Defender of Ásgard and of Midgard, Adversary and Slaver of Giants and Troll-Women, Smiter of Hrungnir, of Geirrödr and of Thrívaldi, Master of Thjálfi and Röskva, Foe of the Midgard Serpent. Foster-father of Vingnir and Hlóra.

So sang Bragi the Skald:

The line of Odin's Offspring
Lay not slack on the gunwale,
When the huge ocean-serpent
Uncoiled on the sea's bottom.

Thus sang Ölvir Cut-Nose-and-Crop-Ears:

The encírcler of all regions
And Jörd's Son sought each other.

Thus sang Eilífr:

Wroth stood Röskva's Brother,
And Magni's Sire wrought bravely:
With terror Thor's staunch heart-stone
Trembled not, nor Thjálfi's.

And thus sang Eysteinn Valdason:

With glowing eyes Thrúdr's Father
Glared at the sea-road's circler,
Ere the fishes' watery dwelling
Flowed in, the boat confounding.

Eysteinn sang further:

Swiftly Sif's Husband bouned him
To haste forth with the Giants
For his hardy fishing:
Well sing we Hrímnir's horn-stream.

Again he sang:

The earth-fish tugged so fiercely
That Ullr's Kinsman's clenched fists
Were pulled out past the gunwale;
The broad planks rent asunder.

Thus sang Bragi:

The strong fiend's Terrifier
In his right hand swung his hammer,
When he saw the loathly sea-fish
That all the lands confineth.

Thus sang Gamli:

While the Lord of high Bilskirnir,
Whose heart no falsehood fashioned,
Swiftly strove to shatter
The sea-fish with his hammer.

Thus sang Thorbjörn Lady's-Skald:

Bravely Thor fought for Ásgard
And the followers of Odin.

Thus sang Bragi:

And the vast misshapen circler
Of the ship's sea-path, fierce-minded,
Stared from below in anger
At the Skull-Splitter of Hrungnir.

Again sang Bragi:

Well hast Thou, Hewer-in-Sunder
Of the nine heads of Thrívaldi,
Kept thy goats[1] . . . . 

[1. The remainder of this stanza cannot be made out. Faulkes reads:"Well have you, cleaver apart of Thrivaldi's nine heads, hold back your steeds with notorious giant-feast-drinker [Thrym=thunder]"]Thus sang Eilífr: The Merciless Destroyer
Of the people of the Giants
Grasped with ready fore-arms
At the heavy red-hot iron.
Thus sang Úlfr Uggason: Faintly the stout-framed thickling
A fearful peril called it,
At the great draught wondrous heavy
Drawn up by the Lord of he-goats.
Thus Úlfr sang further: The very mighty Slayer
Of the Mountain-Man brought crashing
His fist on Hymir's temple:
That was a hurt full deadly.
Yet again sang Úlfr: Vimur's ford's Wide-Grappler
'Gainst the waves smote featly
The glittering Serpent's head off.
With old tales the hall was gleaming.
Here he is called Giant of Vimur's Ford. There is a river called Vimur, which Thor waded when he journeyed to the garth of Geirrödr.Thus sang Vetrlidi the skald: Thou didst break the leg of Leikn,
Didst cause to stoop Starkadr,
Didst bruise Thrívaldi,
Didst stand on lifeless Gjálp.
Thus sang Thorbjörn Lady's-Skald: Thou didst smite the head of Keila,
Smash Kjallandi altogether,
Ere thou slewest Lútr and Leidi,
Didst spill the blood of Búseyra;
Didst hold back Hengjankjapta,
Hyrrokkin died before;
Yet sooner in like fashion
Svívör from life was taken.
12. Baldrskenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna Baldr? Svá, at kalla hann son Óðins ok Friggjar, ver Nönnu, faðir Forseta, eigandi Hringhorna ok Draupnis, dólgr Haðar, Heljar sinni, Gráta-goð. Úlfr Uggason hefir kveðit eftir sögu Baldrs langt skeið í Húsdrápu, ok ritat er áðr dæmi til þess, er Baldr er svá kenndr.

V. "How should one periphrase Baldr? By calling him Son of Odin and Frigg, Husband of Nanna, Father of Forseti, Possessor of Hringhorni and Draupnir, Adversary of Hödr, Companion of Hel, God of Tears. Úlfr Uggason, following the story of Baldr, has composed a long passage in the Húsdrápá  and examples are recorded earlier to the effect that Baldr is so termed.
13. Njarðarkenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna Njörd? Svá, at kalla hann Vanaguð eða Vananið eða Van ok föður Freys ok Freyju, fégjafa guð.

Svá segir Þórðr Sjáreksson:

59. Varð sjalf suna,
nama snotr una,
Kjalarr of tamði,
kváðut Hamði,
Goðrún bani,
goðbrúðr Vani,
heldr vel mara,
hjörleik spara.

Hér er þess getit, er Skaði gekk frá Nirði, sem fyrr er ritat.

VI. "How should one periphrase Njördr? By calling him God of the Vanir, or Kinsman of the Vanir, or Wane, Father of Freyr and Freyja, God of Wealth-Bestowal.

So says Thórdr Sjáreksson:

Gudrun's self by ill
Her sons did kill;
The wise God-bride
At the Wane's side
Grieved; men tell
Odin tamed steeds well;
'T was not the saying
Hamdir spared sword-playing.

Here it is recorded that Skadi departed from Njördr, as has already been written.

14. Freyskenningar.  
Hvernig skal kenna Frey? Svá, at kalla hann son Njarðar, bróður Freyju ok enn Vanaguð ok Vananið ok Vanr ok árguð ok fégjafa. Svá kvað Egill Skalla-Grímsson:


60. Því at Grjótbjörn
of gæddan hefir
Freyr ok Njörðr
at féarafli.

Freyr er kallaðr Belja dólgr, svá sem kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:

61. Þá er útröst
jarla bági
Belja dolgs
byggja vildi.
Hann er eigandi Skíðblaðnis ok galtar þess, er Gullinbursti heitir, svá sem hér er sagt:

62. Ívalda synir
gengu í árdaga
Skíðblaðni at skapa,
skipa bazt,
skírum Frey,
nýtum Njarðar bur.

Svá segir Úlfr Uggason:

63. Ríðr á börg til borgar
böðfróðr sonar Óðins
Freyr ok folkum stýrir
fyrstr inum gulli byrsta.

Hann heitir ok Slíðrugtanni.

VII. "How should one periphrase Freyr? Thus: by calling him Son of Njördr, Brother of Freyja, and also God of Vanir, and Kinsman of the Vanir, and Wane, and God of the Fertile Season, and God of Wealth-Gifts.

Thus sang Egill Skallagrímsson:

For that Grjótbjörn
In goods and gear
Freyr and Njördr
Have fairly blessed.

Freyr is called Adversary of Beli, even as Eyvindr Spoiler of Skalds sang:

When the Earl's foe
Wished to inhabit
The outer bounds
Of Beli's hater.

He is the possessor of Skídbladnir and of that boar which is called Gold-Bristle, even as it is told here:

Ívaldi's offspring
In ancient days
Went to shape Skídbladnir,
Foremost of ships,
Fairly for Freyr,
Choicely for Njördr's child.

Thus speaks Úlfr Uggason:

The battle-bold Freyr rideth
First on the golden-bristled
Barrow-boar to the bale-fire
Of Baldr, and leads the people.

The boar is also called Fearful-Tusk.

15. Heimdallarkenningar.  

Hvernig skal Heimdall kenna? Svá, at kalla hann son níu mæðra eða vörð goða, svá sem fyrr er ritat, eða hvíta ás, Loka dólg mensækir Freyju. Heimdallar höfuð heitir sverð. Svá er sagt, at hann var lostinn mannshöfði í gegnum. Um þat er kveðit í Heimdallar galdri, ok er síðan kallat höfuð mjötuðr Heimdallar. Sverð heitir manns mjötuðr. Heimdallr er eigandi Gulltopps. Hann er ok tilsækir Vágaskers ok Singasteins. Þá deilði hann við Loka um Brísingamen. Hann heitir ok Vindlér. Úlfr Uggason kvað í Húsdrápu langa stund eftir þeiri frásögu, ok er þess þar getit, at þeir váru í selalíkjum. Hann er ok sonr Óðins.

VIII. "How should one periphrase Heimdallr? By calling him Son of Nine Mothers, or Watchman of the Gods, as already has been written; or White God, Foe of Loki, Seeker of Freyja's Necklace. A sword is called Heimdallr's Head: for it is said that he was pierced by a man's head. The tale thereof is told in Heimdalar-galdr; and ever since a head is called Heimdallr's Measure; a sword is called Man's Measure. Heimdallr is the Possessor of Gulltoppr; he is also Frequenter of Vágasker and Singasteinn, where he contended with Loki for the Necklace Brísinga-men, he is also called Vindlér. Úlfr Uggason composed a long passage in the Húsdrápa on that legend, and there it is written that they were in the form of seals. Heimdallr also is son of Odin.

16. Týskenningar.

 
Hvernig skal kenna Tý? Svá, at kalla hann einhenda ás ok úlfs fóstra, víga guð, son Óðins.

IX. "How should one periphrase Týr? By calling him the One-handed God, and Fosterer of the Wolf, God of Battles, Son of Odin.

17. Bragakenningar.  


Hvernig skal kenna Braga? Svá, at kalla hann Iðunnar ver, frumsmið bragar ok inn síðskeggja ás - af hans nafni er sá kallaðr skeggbragi, er mikit skegg hefir - ok sonr Óðins.

X. "How should one periphrase Bragi? By calling him Husband of Idunn, First Maker of Poetry, and the Long-bearded God (after his name, a man who has a great beard is called Beard-Bragi) and Son of Odin.
18. Víðarskenningar.  
Hvernig skal kenna Víðar? Hann má kalla inn þögla ás, eiganda járnskós, dólg ok bana Fenrisúlfs, hefniás goðanna, byggviás föðurtófta ok son Óðins, bróður ásanna. XI. "How should one periphrase Vídarr? He maybe called the Silent God, Possessor of the Iron Shoe, Foe and Slayer of Fenris-Wolf, Avenger of the Gods, Divine Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers, Son of Odin, and Brother of the Æsir.
19. Válakenningar.  
Hvernig skal kenna Vála? Svá, at kalla hann son Óðins ok Rindar, stjúpson Friggjar, bróður ásanna, hefniás Baldrs, dólg Haðar ok bana hans, byggvanda föðurtófta.
XII. "How should Váli be periphrased? Thus: by calling him Son of Odin and Rindr, Stepson of Frigg, Brother of the Æsir, Baldr's Avenger, Foe and Slayer of Hödr, Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers.
20. Haðarkenningar.  
Hvernig skal kenna Höð? Svá, at kalla hann blinda ás, Baldrs bana, skjótanda Mistilteins, son Óðins, Heljar sinna, Vála dólg. XIII. "How should one periphrase Hödr? Thus: by calling him the Blind God, Baldr's Slayer, Thrower of the Mistletoe, Son of Odin, Companion of Hel, Foe of Váli. 
21. Ullarkenningar.  
Hvernig skal kenna Ull? Svá, at kalla hann son Sifjar, stjúp Þórs, öndurás, bogaás, veiðiás, skjaldarás.

XIV. "How should Ullr be periphrased? By calling him Son of Sif, Stepson of Thor, God of the Snowshoe, God of the Bow, Hunting-God, God of the Shield.

22. Hæniskenningar.  
Hvernig skal kenna Hæni? Svá, at kalla hann sessa eða sinna eða mála Óðins ok inn skjóta ás ok inn langa fót ok aurkonung. XV. "How should Hoenir be periphrased? By calling him Bench-Mate or Companion or Friend of Odin, the Swift of God, the Long-Footed, and King of Clay. (1)

[
1.
? Aur-konung.]
23. Lokakenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna Loka? Svá, at kalla hann son Fárbauta ok Laufeyjar, Nálar, bróður Býleists ok Helblinda, föður Vánargands, þat er Fenrisúlfr, ok Jörmundgands, þat er Miðgarðsormr, ok Heljar ok Nara ok Ála, frænda ok föðurbróður, vársinna ok sessa Óðins ok ása, heimsæki ok kistuskrúð Geirröðar, þjóf jötna, hafrs ok Brísingamens ok Iðunnar epla, Sleipnis frænda, ver Sigynjar, goða dólgr, hárskaði Sifjar, bölvasmiðr, inn slægi áss, rægjandi ok vélandi goðanna, ráðbani Baldrs, inn bundni áss, þrætudólgr Heimdallar ok Skaða. Svá sem hér segir Úlfr Uggason:

64. Ráðgenginn bregðr ragna
rein at Singasteini
frægr við firnaslægjan
Fárbauta mög vári;
móðöflugr ræðr mæðra
mögr hafnýra fögru,
kynni ek, áðr ok einnar
átta, mærðar þáttum.

Hér er þess getit, að Heimdallr er son níu mæðra.

XVI. "How should one periphrase Loki? Thus: call him Son of Fárbauti and Laufey, or of Nil, Brother of Býleistr and of Helblindi, Father of the Monster of Ván (that is, Fenris-Wolf), and of the Vast Monster (that is, the Midgard Serpent), and of Hel, and Nari, and Áli; Kinsman and Uncle, Evil Companion and Bench-Mate of Odin and the Æsir, Visitor and Chest-Trapping of Geirrödr, Thief of the Giants, of the Goat, of Brísinga-men, and of Idunn's Apples, Kinsman of Sleipnir, Husband of Sigyn, Foe of the Gods, Harmer of Sif's Hair, Forger of Evil, the Sly God,  Slanderer and Cheat of the Gods, Contriver of Baldr's Death, the Bound God, Wrangling Foe of Heimdallr and of Skadi. Even as Úlfr Uggason sings here:

The famed rain-bow's defender,
Ready in wisdom, striveth
At Singasteinn with Loki,
Fárbauti's sin-sly offspring;
The son of mothers eight and one,
Mighty in wrath, possesses
The Stone ere Loki cometh:
I make known songs of praise.

Here it is written that Heimdallr is the son of nine mothers.

24. Frá Hrugni jötni.  

Nú skal enn segja dæmi, af hverju þær kenningar eru, er nú váru ritaðar, er áðr váru eigi dæmi til sögð, svá sem Bragi sagði Ægi, at Þórr var farinn í austrvega at berja troll, en Óðinn reið Sleipni í Jötunheima ok kom til þess jötuns, er Hrungnir hét. Þá spyrr Hrungnir, hvat manna sá er með gullhjálminn, er ríðr loft ok lög, ok segir, at hann á furðugóðan hest. Óðinn sagði, at þar vill hann veðja fyrir höfði sínu, at engi hestr skal vera jafngóðr í Jötunheimum. Hrungnir segir, at sá er góðr hestr, en hafa lézt hann mundu miklu stórfetaðra hest. Sá heitir Gullfaxi. Hrungnir varð reiðr ok hleypr upp á hest sinn ok hleypir eftir honum ok hyggr at launa honum ofrmæli. Óðinn hleypir svá mikit, at hann var á öðru leiti fyrir, en Hrungnir hafði svá mikinn jötunmóð, at hann fann eigi fyrr en hann kom inn of ásgrindr.
Ok er hann kom at hallardurum, buðu æsir honum til drykkju. Hann gekk í höllina ok bað fá sér at drekka. Váru þá teknar þær skálir, er Þórr var vanr at drekka af, ok snerti Hrungnir ór hverri. En er hann gerðist drukkinn, þá skorti eigi stór orð. Hann lézt skyldu taka upp Valhöll ok færa í Jötunheima, en sökkva Ásgarði, en drepa goð öll, nema Freyju ok Sif vill hann heim hafa með sér, en Freyja ein þorir þá at skenkja honum, ok drekka lézt hann mundu allt ásaöl.
En er ásum leiddust ofryrði hans, þá nefna þeir Þór. Því næst kom Þórr í höllina ok hafði á lofti hamarinn ok var allreiðr ok spyrr, hverr því ræðr, er jötnar hundvísir skulu þar drekka, eða hverr seldi Hrungni grið at vera í Valhöll eða hví Freyja skal skenkja honum sem at gildi ása.
Þá svarar Hrungnir ok sér ekki vinaraugum til Þórs, sagði, at Óðinn bauð honum til drykkju ok hann var á hans griðum. Þá mælti Þórr, at þess boðs skal Hrungnir iðrast, áðr hann komi út.
Hrungnir segir, at Ása-Þór er þat lítill frami at drepa hann vápnlausan. Hitt er meiri hugraun, ef hann þorir at berjast við hann at landamæri á Grjóttúnagörðum, - "ok hefir þat verit mikit fólskuverk," sagði hann, "er ek lét eftir heima skjöld minn ok hein. En ef ek hefða hér vápn mín, þá skyldum vit nú reyna hólmgönguna, en at öðrum kosti legg ek þér við níðingsskap, ef þú vill drepa mik vápnlausan."
Þórr vill fyrir engan mun bila at koma til einvígis, er honum var hólmr skoraðr, því at engi hafði honum þat fyrr veitt. Fór þá Hrungnir braut leið sína ok hleypði ákafliga, þar til er hann kom í Jötunheima, ok varð ferð hans allfræg með jötnum ok þat, at stefnulag var komit á með þeim Þór. Þóttust jötnar hafa mikit í ábyrgð, hvárr sigr fengi. Þeim var ills ván af Þór, ef Hrungnir léti, fyrir því at hann var þeira sterkastr.

Þá gerðu jötnar mann á Grjóttúnagörðum af leiri, ok var hann níu rasta hár, en þriggja breiðr undir hönd, en ekki fengu þeir hjarta svá mikit, at honum sómði, fyrr en þeir tóku úr meri nökkurri, ok varð honum þar eigi stöðugt, þá er Þórr kom.
Hrungnir átti hjarta þat, er frægt er, af hörðum steini ok tindótt með þrimr hornum, svá sem síðan er gert ristubragð þar, er Hrungnishjarta heitir. Af steini var ok höfuð hans. Skjöldr hans var ok steinn, víðr ok þjokkr, ok hafði hann skjöldinn fyrir sér, er hann stóð á Grjóttatúnagörðum ok beið Þórs, en hein hafði hann fyrir vápn ok reiddi of öxl ok var ekki dælligr. Á aðra hlið honum stóð leirjötunninn, er nefndr er Mökkurkálfi, ok var hann allhræddr. Svá er sagt, at hann meig, er hann sá Þór.
Þórr fór til hólmstefnu ok með honum Þjálfi. Þá rann Þjálfi fram at, þar er Hrungnir stóð, ok mælti til hans: "Þú stendr óvarliga, jötunn, hefir skjöldinn fyrir þér, en Þórr hefir sét þik, ok ferr hann it neðra í jörðu, ok mun hann koma neðan at þér."

Þá skaut Hrungnir skildinum undir fætr sér ok stóð á, en tvíhendi heinina. Því næst sá hann eldingar ok heyrði þrumur stórar. Sá hann þá Þór í ásmóði. Fór hann ákafliga ok reiddi hamarinn ok kastaði um langa leið at Hrungni. Hrungnir færir upp heinina báðum höndum ok kastar í mót. Mætir hon hamrinum á flugi, ok brotnar sundr heinin. Fellr annarr hlutr á jörð, ok eru þar af orðin öll heinberg. Annarr hlutr brast í höfði Þór, svá at hann fell fram á jörð. En hamarrinn Mjöllnir kom í mitt höfuð Hrungni ok lamði hausinn í smán mola, ok fell hann fram yfir Þór, svá at fótr hans lá of háls Þór. En Þjálfi vá at Mökkurkálfa, ok fell hann við lítinn orðstír.

Þá gekk Þjálfi til Þórs ok skyldi taka fót Hrungnis af honum ok gat hvergi valdit. Þá gengu til æsir allir, er þeir spurðu at Þórr var fallinn, ok skyldu taka fótinn af honum ok fengu hvergi komit.
Þá kom til Magni, sonr Þórs ok Járnsöxu. Hann var þá þrínættr. Hann kastaði fæti Hrungnis af Þór ok mælti: "Sé þar ljótan harm, faðir, er ek kom svá síð. Ek hygg, at jötun þenna myndak hafa lostit í hel með hnefa mínum, ef ek hefða fundit hann."
Þá stóð Þórr upp ok fagnaði vel syni sínum ok sagði, at hann myndi verða mikill fyrir sér, - "ok vil ek," sagði hann, "gefa þér hestinn Gullfaxa, er Hrungnir hefir átt."

Þá mælti Óðinn ok sagði, at Þórr gerði rangt, er hann gaf þann inn góða hest gýgjarsyni, en eigi föður sínum.

XVII. "Now an account shall be given of the source of those metaphors which have but now been recorded, and of which no accounts were rendered before: even such as Bragi gave to Ægir, telling how Thor had gone into the east to slay trolls, and Odin rode Sleipnir into Jötunheim and visited that giant who was named Hrungnir. Hrungnir asked what manner of man he with the golden helm might be, who rode through air and water; and said that the stranger had a wondrous good steed. Odin said he would wager his head there was no horse in Jötunheim that would prove equally good. Hrungnir answered that it was a good horse, but declared that he had a much better paced horse which was called Gold-Mane. Hrungnir had become angry, and vaulted up onto his horse and galloped after him, thinking to pay him for his boasting. Odin gal loped so furiously that he was on the top of the next hill first; but Hrungnir was so filled with the giant's frenzy that he took no heed until he had come in beyond the gates of Ásgard. When he came to the hall-door, the Æsir invited him to drink. He went within and ordered drink to be brought to him, and then those flagons were brought in from which Thor was wont to drink; and Hrungnir swilled from each in turn. But when he had become drunken, then big words were not wanting: he boasted that he would lift up Valhall and carry it to Jötunheim, and sink Ásgard and kill all the gods, save that he would take Freyja and Sif home with him. Freyja alone dared pour for him; and he vowed that he would drink all the ale of the Æsir. But when his overbearing insolence became tiresome to the Æsir, they called on the name of Thor.
"Straightway Thor came into the hall, brandishing his hammer, and he was very wroth, and asked who had advised that these dogs of giants be permitted to drink there, or who had granted Hrungnir safe-conduct to be in Valhall, or why Freyja should pour for him as at a feast of the Æsir. Then Hrungnir answered, looking at Thor with no friendly eyes, and said that Odin had invited him to drink, and he was under his safe-conduct. Thor declared that Hrungnir should repent of that invitation before he got away. Hrungnir answered that Ása-Thor would have scant renown for killing him, weaponless as he was: it were a greater trial of his courage if he dared fight with Hrungnir on the border at Grjótúnagard. 'And it was a great folly,' said he, 'when I left my shield and hone behind at home; if I had my weapons here, then we should try single-combat. But as matters stand, I declare thee a coward if thou wilt slay me, a weaponless man.' Thor was by no means anxious to avoid the fight when challenged to the field, for no one had ever offered him single-combat before.
"Then Hrungnir went his way, and galloped furiously until he came to Jötunheim. The news of his journey was spread abroad among the giants, and it became noised abroad that a meeting had been arranged between him and Thor; the giants deemed that they had much at stake, who should win the victory, since they looked for ill at Thor's hands if Hrungnir perished, he being strongest of them all. Then the giants made a man of clay at Grjótúnagard: he was nine miles high and three broad under the arm-pits; but they could get no heart big enough to fit him, until they took one from a mare. Even that was not steadfast within him, when Thor came. Hrungnir had the heart which is notorious, of hard stone and spiked with three corners, even as the written character is since formed, which men call Hrungnir's Heart. His head also was of stone; his shield too was stone, wide and thick, and he had the shield before him when he stood at Grjótúnagard and waited for Thor. Moreover he had a hone for a weapon, and brandished it over his shoulders, and he was not a pretty sight. At one side of him stood the clay giant, which was called Mökkurkálfi: he was sore afraid, and it is said that he wet himself when he saw Thor.
"Thor went to the meeting-place, and Thjálfi with him. Then Thjálfi ran forward to the spot where Hrungnir stood and said to him: 'Thou standest unwarily, Giant, having the shield before thee: for Thor has seen thee, and comes hither down below the earth, and will come at thee from beneath.' Then Hrungnir thrust the shield under his feet and stood upon it, wielding the hone with both hands. Then speedily he saw lightnings and heard great claps of thunder; then he saw Thor in God-like anger, who came forward furiously and swung the hammer and cast it at Hrungnir from afar off. Hrungnir lifted up the hone in both hands and cast it against him; it struck the hammer in flight, and the hone burst in sunder: one part fell to the earth, and thence are come all the flint-rocks; the other burst on Thor's head, so that he fell forward to the earth. But the hammer Mjöllnir struck Hrungnir in the middle of the head, and smashed his skull into small crumbs, and he fell forward upon Thor, so that his foot lay over Thor's neck. Thjálfi struck at Mökkurkálfi, and he fell with little glory. Thereupon Thjálfi went over to Thor and would have lifted Hrungnir's foot off him, but could not find sufficient strength. Straightway all the Æsir came up, when they, learned that Thor was fallen, and would have lifted the foot from off him, and could do nothing. Then Magni came up, son of Thor and Járnsaxa: he was then three nights old; he cast the foot of Hrungnir off Thor, and spake: 'See how ill it is, father, that I came so late: I had struck this giant dead with my fist, methinks, if I had met with him.' Thor arose and welcomed his son, saying that he should surely become great; 'And I will give thee,' he said, the horse Gold-Mane, which Hrungnir possessed.' Then Odin spake and said that Thor did wrong to give the good horse to the son of a giantess, and not to his father.
25. Frá Gróu völu.  
Þórr fór heim til Þrúðvanga, ok stóð heinin í höfði honum. Þá kom til völva sú, er Gróa hét, kona Aurvandils ins frækna. Hon gól galdra sína yfir Þór, til þess er heinin losnaði. En er Þórr fann þat ok þótti þá ván, at braut myndi ná heininni, þá vildi hann launa Gró lækninguna ok gera hana fegna, sagði henni þau tíðendi, at hann hafði vaðit norðan yfir Élivága ok hafði borit í meis á baki sér Aurvandil norðan ór Jötunheimum, ok þat til jartegna, at ein tá hans hafði staðit ór meisinum, ok var sú frerin, svá at Þórr braut af ok kastaði upp á himin ok gerði af stjörnu þá, er heitir Aurvandilstá. Þórr sagði, at eigi myndi langt til, at Aurvandill myndi heim koma, en Gróa varð svá fegin, at hon mundi enga galdra, ok varð heinin eigi lausari ok stendr enn í höfði Þór, ok er þat boðit til varnanar at kasta hein of gólf þvert, því at þá hrærist heinin í höfði Þór. Eftir þessi sögu hefir ort Þjóðólfr hvinverski í Haustlöng."
"Thor went home to Thrúdvangar, and the hone remained sticking in his head. Then came the wise woman who was called Gróa, wife of Aurvandill the Valiant: she sang her spells over Thor until the hone was loosened. But when Thor knew that, and thought that there was hope that the hone might be removed, he desired to reward Gróa for her leech-craft and make her glad, and told her these things: that he had waded from the north over Icy Stream and had borne Aurvandill in a basket on his back from  the north out of Jötunheim. And he added for a token, that one of Aurvandill's toes had stuck out of the basket, and became frozen; wherefore Thor broke it off and cast it up into the heavens, and made thereof the star called Aurvandill's Toe. Thor said that it would not be long ere Aurvandill came home: but Gróa was so rejoiced that she forgot her incantations, and the hone was not loosened, and stands yet in Thor's head. Therefore it is forbidden to cast a hone across the floor, for then the hone is stirred in Thor's head. Thjódólfr of Hvin has made a song after this tale in the Haustlöng.
  [It says there:

14. Eðr of sér, es jötna
ótti lét of sóttan
hellis baur á hyrjar,
haug Grjótúna, baugi;
ók at ísarnleiki
Jarðar sunr, en dunði,
móðr svall Meila blóða,
Mána vegr und hónum. 

On the high and painted surface
Of the hollow shield, still further
One may see how the Giant's Terror
Sought the home of Grjótún;
The angry son of Jörd drove
To the play of steel; below him
Thundered the moon-way; rage swelled
In the heart of Meili's Brother.

15. Knóttu öll, en, Ullar
endilóg, fyr mági,
grund vas grápi hrundin,
ginnunga vé brinna,
þás hafregin hafrar
hógreiðar framm drógu
(seðr gekk Svölnis ekkja
sundr) at Hrungnis fundi.

All the bright gods' high mansions
Burned before Ullr's kinsman;
With hail the earth was beaten
Along his course, when the he-goats
Drew the god of the smooth wain forward
To meet the grisly giant:
The Earth, the Spouse of Odin,
Straightway reft asunder.

16. Þyrmðit Baldrs of barmi,
berg, solgnum þar dolgi,
hristusk björg ok brustu,
brann upphiminn, manna;
mjök frák móti hrøkkva
myrkbeins Haka reinar,
þás vígligan, vagna
vátt, sinn bana þátti.

No truce made Baldr's brother
With the bitter foe of earth-folk.
Rocks shook, and crags were shivered;
The shining Upper Heaven Burned;
I saw the giant
Of the boat-sailed sea-reef waver
And give way fast before him,
Seeing his war-like Slayer.

17. Brátt fló bjarga gæti
- bönd ollu því - randa
(ímun) fölr und iljar
íss (vildu svá dísir);
varðat höggs frá hörðum
hraundrengr þaðan lengi
trjónu trolls of-rúna
tíðs fjöllama at bíða.

Swiftly the shining shield-rim
Shot 'neath the Cliff-Ward's shoe-soles;
That was the wise gods' mandate,
The War-Valkyrs willed it.
The champion of the Waste-Land
Not long thereafter waited
For the speedy blow delivered
By the Friend of the snout-troll's crusher.

18. Fjörspillir lét falla
fjalfrs ólágra gjalfra
bölverðungar Belja
bolm á randar holmi;
þar hné grundar gilja
gramr fyr skörpum hamri,
en berg-Dana bægði
brjótr við jörmunþrjóti.

He who of breath despoileth
Beli's baleful hirelings
Felled on the shield rim-circled
The fiend of the roaring mountain;
The monster of the glen-field
Before the mighty hammer
Sank, when the Hill-Danes' Breaker
Struck down the hideous caitiff.

19. Ok hörð brotin herju
heimþingaðar Vingnis
hvein í hjarna mœni
hein at Grundar sveini,
þar svát, eðr í Óðins
ólaus burar hausi,
stála vikr of stokkin
stóð Einriða blóði.

Then the hone hard-broken
Hurled by the Ogress-lover
Whirred into the brain-ridge
Of Earth's Son, that the whetter
Of steels, sticking unloosened
In the skull of Odin's offspring,
Stood there all besprinkled
With Einridi's blood.

20. Áðr ór hneigihlíðum
hárs öl-Gefjun sára
reiði-Týs et rauða
ryðs hœliböl gœli.
Görla lítk á Geitis
garði þær of farðir.
Baugs þák bifum fáða
bifkleif at Þórleifi.


Until the wise ale-goddess,
With wondrous lays, enchanted
The vaunted woe, rust-ruddy,
From the Wain-God's sloping temples;
Painted on its circuit
I see them clearly pictured:
The fair-bossed shield, with stories
Figured, I had from Thórlelfr." [1]

1. Passages enclosed within brackets are considered by Jónsson to be spurious. Jónsson's edition does not include the texts of the poems Haustlöng, Þórsdrápa, Gröttasöng, or Ragnars drápu loðbrókar, all of which have been included here by Brodeur. 
26. För Þórs til Geirröðargarða.  
Þá mælti Ægir: "Mikill þótti mér Hrungnir fyrir sér. Vann Þórr meira þrekvirki nökkut, þá er hann átti við troll?"

Þá svarar Bragi: "Mikillar frásagnar er þat vert, er Þórr fór til Geirröðargarða. Þá hafði hann eigi hamarinn Mjöllni eða megingjarðar eða járngreipr, ok olli því Loki. Hann fór með honum, því ar Loka hafði þat hent, þá er hann flaug einu sinni at skemmta sér með valsham Friggjar, at hann flaug fyrir forvitni sakar í Geirröðargarða ok sá þar höll mikla, settist ok sá inn of glugg. En Geirröðr leit í móti honum ok mælti, at taka skyldi fuglinn ok færa honum, en sendimaðr komst nauðuliga á hallarvegginn, svá var hann hár. Þat þótti Loka gott, er hann sótti erfiðliga til hans, ok ætlaði sér stund at fljúga eigi upp, fyrr en hann hafði farit allt torleiðit. En er maðrinn sótti at honum, þá beinir hann fluginn ok spyrnir við fast, ok eru þá fætrnir fastir.

 

Var Loki tekinn þar höndum ok færðr Geirröði jötni. En er hann sá augu hans, þá grunaði hann, at maðr myndi vera, ok bað hann svara, en Loki þagði. Þá læsti Geirröðr Loka í kistu ok svelti hann þar þrjá mánuðr. En þá er Geirröðr tók hann upp ok beiddi hann orða, þá sagði Loki, hverr hann var, ok til fjörlausnar vann hann Geirröði þess eiða, at hann skyldi koma Þór í Geirröðargarða, svá at hann hefði hvárki hamarinn né megingjarðar.

Þórr kom til gistingar til gýgjar þeirar, er Gríðr er kölluð. Hon var móðir Víðars ins þögla. Hon sagði Þór satt frá Geirröði, at hann var jötunn hundvíss ok illr viðreignar. Hon léði honum megingjarða ok járngreipr, er hon átti, ok staf sinn, er heitir Gríðarvölr. Þá fór Þórr til ár þeirar, er Vimur heitir, allra á mest. Þá spennti hann sik megingjörðum ok studdi forstreymis Gríðarvöl, en Loki helt undir megingjarðar. Ok þá er Þórr kom á miðja ána, þá óx svá mjök áin, at uppi braut á öxl honum. Þá kvað Þórr þetta:

65. Vax-at-tu nú, Vimur,
alls mik þik vaða tíðir
jötna garða í;
veiztu, ef þú, vex,
at þá vex mér ásmegin
jafnhátt upp sem himinn.

Þá sér Þórr uppi í gljúfrum nökkurum, at Gjálp, dóttir Geirröðar stóð þar tveim megin árinnar, ok gerði hon árvöxtinn.
Þá tók Þórr upp ór ánni stein mikinn ok kastaði at henni ok mælti svá: "At ósi skal á stemma."


Eigi missti hann, þar er hann kastaði til. Ok í því bili bar hann at landi ok fekk tekit reynirunn nökkurn ok steig svá ór ánni. Því er það orðtak haft, at reynir er björg Þórs.

En er Þórr kom til Geirröðar, þá var þeim félögum vísat fyrst í geitahús til herbergis, ok var þar einn stóll til sætis, ok sat Þórr þar. Þá varð hann þess varr, at stóllinn fór undir honum upp at ræfri. Hann stakk Gríðarveli upp í raftana ok lét sígast fast á stólinn. Varð þá brestr mikill, ok fylgði skrækr. Þar höfðu verit undir stólinum dætr Geirröðar, Gjálp ok Greip, ok hafði hann brotit hrygginn í báðum.

Þá lét Geirröðr kalla Þór í höllina til leika. Þar váru eldar stórir eftir endilangri höll. En er Þórr kom gagnvart Geirröði, þá tók Geirröðr með töng járnsíu glóandi ok kastar at Þór, en Þórr tók í móti með járngreipum ok færir á loft síuna, en Geirröðr hljóp undir járnsúlu at forða sér. Þórr kastaði síunni ok laust gegnum súluna ok gegnum Geirröð ok gegnum vegginn ok svá fyrir útan í jörðina." 

Eftir þessi sögu hefir ort Eilífr Guðrúnarson í Þórsdrápu.

XVIII. Then said, Ægir: "Methinks Hrungnir was of great might. Did Thor accomplish yet more valorous deeds when he had to do with the trolls?"

And Bragi answered: "It is worthy to be told at length, how Thor went to Geirrödr's dwelling. At that time he had not the hammer Mjöllnir with him, nor his Girdle of Might, nor the iron gauntlets: and that was the fault of Loki, who went with him. For once, flying in his sport with Frigg's hawk-plumage, it had happened to Loki to fly for curiosity's sake into Geirrödr's court. There he saw a great hall, and alighted and looked in through the window; and Geirrödr looked up and saw him, and commanded that the bird be taken and brought to him, But he who was sent could scarce get to the top of the wall, so high was it; and it seemed pleasant to Loki to see the man striving with toil and pains to reach him, and he thought it was not yet time to fly away until the other had accomplished the perilous climb. When the man pressed hard after him, then he stretched his wings for flight, and thrust out vehemently, but now his feet were stuck fast.

So Loki was taken and brought before Geirrödr the giant; but when Geirrödr saw his eyes, he suspected that this might be a man, and bade him answer; but Loki was silent. Then Geirrödr shut Loki into a chest and starved him there three months. And now when Geirrödr took him out and commanded him to speak, Loki told who he was; and by way of ransom for his life he swore to Geirrödr with oaths that he would get Thor to come into Geirrödr's dwelling in such a fashion that he should have neither hammer nor Girdle of Might with him.

"Thor came to spend the night with that giantess who was called Grídr, mother of Vídarr the Silent. She told Thor the truth concerning Geirrödr, that he was a crafty giant and ill to deal with; and she lent him the Girdle of Might and iron gloves which she possessed, and her staff also, which was called Grídr's Rod. Then Thor proceeded to the river named Vimur, greatest of all rivers. There he girded himself with the Girdle of Might and braced firmly downstream with Grídr's Rod, and Loki held on behind by the Girdle of Might. When Thor came to mid-current, the river waxed so greatly that it broke high upon his shoulders. Then Thor sang this:

Wax thou not now, Vimur,
For I fain would wade thee
Into the Giants' garth:
Know thou, if thou waxest,
Then waxeth God-strength in me
As high up as the heaven.

"Then Thor saw Gjálp, daughter of Geirrödr, standing in certain ravines, one leg in each, spanning the river, and she was causing the spate. Then Thor snatched up a great stone out of the river and cast it at her, saying these words: 'At its source should a river be stemmed.' Nor did he miss that at which he threw. In that moment he came to the shore and took hold of a rowan-clump, and so climbed out of the river; whence comes the saying that rowan is Thor's deliverance.

"Now when Thor came before Geirrödr, the companions were shown first into the goat-fold[1] for their entertainment, and there was one chair there for a seat, and Thor sat there. Then he became aware that the chair moved under him up toward the roof: he thrust Grídr's Rod up against the rafters and pushed back hard against the chair. Then there was a great crash, and screaming followed. Under the chair had been Geirrödr's daughters, Gjálp and Greip; and he had broken both their backs. Then Geirrödr had Thor called into the hall to play games. There were great fires the whole length of the hall. When Thor came up over against Geirrödr, then Geirrödr took up a glowing bar of iron with the tongs and cast it at Thor. Thor caught it with his iron gloves and raised the bar in the air, but Geirrödr leapt behind an iron pillar to save himself. Thor lifted up the bar and threw it, and it passed through the pillar and through Geirrödr and through the wall, and so on out, even into the earth.

1. So Codex Regius and Codex Worm.; Codex Upsal. and Codex Hypn. read gesta hús = guest's house. Gering, Simrock, and Anderson prefer the latter reading. I have followed Jónsson in accepting geita hús.

Eilífr Gudrúnarson has wrought verses on this story, in Thórsdrápa:

1. Flugstalla réð felli
fjörnets goða at hvetja
(drjúgr vas Loptr at ljúga)
lögseims faðir heiman;
geðreynir kvað grœnar
Gauts herþrumu brautir
vilgi tryggr til veggjar
viggs Geirrøðar liggja. 

1.  The winding sea-snake's father
Did wile from home the slayer Of the life of the gods' grim foemen;
--(Ever was Loptr a liar)--
The never faithful Searcher
Of the heart of the fearless Thunderer
Declared green ways were lying
To the walled stead of Geirrödr.

2. Geðstrangr of lét göngu
Gammleið Þóarr skömmum
(fýstusk þeir at þrýsta
Þorns niðjum) sik biðja,
þás garðvitjuðr gerðisk,
Gandvíkr Skotum ríkri,
endr til Ymsa kindar
Iðja setrs frá Þriðja.

2. No long space Thor let Loki
Lure him to the going:
They yearned to overmaster
Thorn's offspring, when the Seeker
Of Idi's garth, than giants
Greater in might, made ready
In ancient days, for faring
To the Giants' Seat, from Odin's.

3. Görr, varð í för fyrri
farmr, meinsvárans, arma
sóknar hapts með svipti
sagna galdrs an Rögnir ;
þylk granstrauma Grímnis ;
gall- mantælendr halla
-ópnis ilja gaupnum
Endils á mó spendu.

3. Further in the faring
Forward went warlike Thjálfi
With the divine Host-Cheerer
Than the deceiving lover
Of her of enchanted singing:
--(I chant the Ale of Odin)--
The hill dame's Mocker measured
The moor with hollow foot-soles.

4. Ok, Gangs, vanir gingu
gunn, vargs himintörgu
fríðrar unz til fljóða
frumseyrir kom dreyra,
þás bölkveitir brjóta
bragðmildr Loka vildi
bræði vændr á brúði
bág sefgrímnis mága.

4. And the war-wonted journeyed
Till the hill-women's Waster
Came to Gangr's blood, the Vimur;
Then Loki's bale-repeller,
Eager in anger, lavish
Of valor, longed to struggle
Against the maid, kinswoman
Of the sedge-cowled giant.

5. Ok vegþverrir varra
vann fetrunnar Nönnu
hjalts, af hagli oltnar,
hlaupáar, of ver gaupu ;
mjök leið ór stað støkkvir
stikleiðar veg breiðan
urðar þrjóts, þars eitri,
œstr, þjóðáar fnœstu.

5. And the honor-lessener
Of the Lady of the Sea-Crag
Won foot-hold in the surging
Of the hail-rolled leaping hill-spate;
The rock-knave's swift Pursuer
Passed the broad stream of his staff's road,
Where the foam-flecked mighty rivers
Frothed with raging venom.

 

6. Þar í mörk fyrir (-markar
málhvettar byr-) settu
(né hvélvölur hálar)
háfs skotnaðra (svófu) ;
knátti, hreggi höggvin,
hlymþél við möl glymja,
en fellihryn fjalla
Feðju þaut með steðja.

6. There they set the staves before them
In the streaming grove of dogfish;
The wind-wood's slippery pebbles,
Smitten to speech, slept not;
The clashing rod did rattle
'Gainst the worn rocks, and the rapid
Of the fells howled, storm-smitten,
On the river's stony anvil.

7. Harðvaxnar leit herðar
halllands of sik falla
(gatat) mar njótr (in neytri)
njarð- (róð fyr sér) -gjarðar ;
þverrir lét, nema þyrri
Þorns, barna sér Marnar,
snerriblóð, til, svíra,
salþaks megin vaxa.

7. The Weaver of the Girdle
Beheld the washing slope-stream
Fall on his hard-grown shoulders:
No help he found to save him;
The Minisher of hill-folk
Caused Might to grow within him
Even to the roof of heaven,
Till the rushing flood should ebb.

8. Óðu fast (en) fríðir
(flaut) eiðsvara Gauta
setrs víkingar snotrir
(svarðrunnit fen) gunnar ;
þurði hrönn at herði
hauðrs rúmbyggva nauðar
jarðar skafls at afli
áss hretviðri blásin.

8. The fair warriors of the Æsir,
In battle wise, fast waded,
And the surging pool, sward-sweeping,
Streamed: the earth-drift's billow,
Blown by the mighty tempest,
Tugged with monstrous fury
At the terrible oppressor
Of the earth-born tribe of cave-folk.

9. Unz með ýta sinni
(aflraun vas þat) skaunar
á seil (himinsjóla)
sjalflopta kom Þjalfi ;
hóðu stáli stríðan
straum hrekkmímis ekkjur ;
stophnísu fór steypir
stríðlundr með völ Gríðar.

9. Till Thjálfi came uplifted
On his lord Thor's wide shield-strap:
That was a mighty thew-test
For the Prop of Heaven; the maidens
Of the harmful giant stiffly
Held the stream stubborn against them;
The Giantess-Destroyer
With Grídr's staff fared sternly.


10. Né djúp- akörn drópu
dolgs, vamms, firum, glamma
stríðkviðjöndum, stöðvar
stall við rastar -falli ;
ógndjarfan hlaut Atli
eirfjarðan hug meira.
Skalfa Þórs né Þjalfa
þróttar steinn við ótta.

10. Nor did their hearts of rancor
Droop in the men unblemished,
Nor courage 'gainst the headlong
Fall of the current fail them:
A fiercer-daring spirit
Flamed in the dauntless God's breast,--
With terror Thor's staunch heart-stone
Trembled not, nor Thjálfi's.

11. Ok sifuna síðan
sverðs liðhatar gerðu
hlífar borðs við Hörða
harðgleipnis dyn barða,
áðr "hylríðar" hæði
hrjóðendr fjöru þjóðar
við skyld-Breta "skytju"
skálleik Heðins reikar.

11. And afterward the haters
Of the host of sword-companions,
The shatterers of bucklers,
Dinned on the shield of giants,
Ere the destroying peoples
Of the shingle-drift of monsters
Wrought the helm-play of Hedinn
'Gainst the rock-dwelling marksmen.

12. Dreif fyr dróttar kneyfi
dolg Svíþjóðar kolgu
(sótti) ferð (á flótta
flesdrótt í vó) nesja,
þás "funristis" fasta,
flóðrifs Danir, stóðu,
knóttu, Jólnis ættir,
útvés fyrir lúta.

12. The hostile folk of sea-heights
Fled before the Oppressor
Of headland tribes; the dalesmen
Of the hill-tops, imperilled,
Fled, when Odin's kindred
Stood, enduring staunchly;
The Danes of the flood-reef's border
Bowed down to the Flame-Shaker.

13. Þars í þróttar hersar
þornrann hugum bornir,
hlymr varð hellis Kumra
hringbalkar, framm gingu;
Lista vas fœrðr í fasta
(friðsein vas þar) hreina
gnípu hlöðr á greypan
(grón) hött risa kvánar.

13. Where the chiefs, with thoughts of valor
Imbued, marched into Thorn's house,
A mighty crash resounded
Of the cave's ring-wall; the slayer
Of the mountain-reindeer-people
On the giant-maiden's wide hood
Was brought in bitter peril:
There was baleful peace-talk.

14. Ok, hóm, loga himni
hall-, fylvingum, -vallar,
tróðusk þær, við tróði
-tungls brá- salar þrungu ;
húfstjóri braut hvóru
hreggs váfreiða tveggja
hlátr-Elliða hellis
hundfornan kjöl sprundi.

14. And they pressed the high head, bearing
The piercing brow-moon's eye-flame
Against the hill-hall's rafters;
On the high roof-tree broken
He crushed those raging women:
The swinging Storm-car's Guider
Burst the stout, ancient back-ridge
And breast-bones of both women.

15. Fátíða nam frœði,
fjarðeplis, konr Jarðar,
mœrar legs né mýgðu
menn ölteiti, kenna ;
almtaugar laust œgir
angrþjóf sega tangar
Óðins afli soðnum
áttruðr í gin Suðra.

 

15. Earth's Son became familiar
With knowledge strange; the cave-men
Of the land of stone o'ercame not,
Nor long with ale were merry:
The frightful elm-string's plucker,
The friend of Sudri, hurtled
The hot bar, in the forge fused,
Into the hand of Odin's Gladdener.

17. Svát hraðskyndir handa
hrapmunnum svalg gunnar
lyptisylg á lopti
langvinr síu Þröngvar,
þás örþrasis eisa
ós Hrímnis fló drósar
til þrámóðnis Þrúðar
þjóst af greipar brjósti.

So that Gunnr's Swift-Speeder
Seized (the Friend of Freyja),
With quick hand-gulps, the molten
High-raised draught of metal,
When the fire-brand, glowing,
Flew with maddened fury
From the giant's gripping fingers
To the grim Sire of Thrúdr.

18. Bifðisk höll þás höfði
heiðreks of kom breiðu
und fletbjarnar fornan
fótlegg þrasis veggjar ;
ítr gulli laust Ullar
jótrs vegtaugar þrjóti
meina niðr í miðjan
mest bígyrðil nestu.

The hall of the doughty trembled
When he dashed the massy forehead
Of the hill-wight 'gainst the bottom
Of the house-wall's ancient column;
Ullr's glorious step-sire
With the glowing bar of mischief
Struck with his whole strength downward
At the hill-knave's mid-girdle.

19. Glaums niðjum fór görva
gramr með dreyrgum hamri ;
of salvanið Synjar
sigr hlaut arinbauti ;
komat tvíviðar tívi
tollur karms, sás harmi,
brautar liðs, of beitti
bekk-, fall, jötuns -rekka.

The God with gory hammer
Crushed utterly Glaumr's lineage;
The Hunter of the Kindred
Of the hearth-dame was victorious;
The Plucker of the Bow-String
Lacked not his people's valor,--
The Chariot-God, who swiftly
Wrought grief to the Giant's bench-thanes.

20. Herblótinn vá hneitir
hógbrotningi skógar
undirfjalfrs af afli
alfheims "bliku" kalfa ;
né liðföstum Lista
látr val-Rygir móttu
aldrminkanda aldar
Ellu steins of bella.

He to whom hosts make offering
Hewed down the dolt-like dwellers
Of the cloud-abyss of Elf-Home,
Crushing them with the fragment
Of Grídr's Rod: the litter
Of hawks, the race of Listi
Could not harm the help-strong
Queller of Ella's Stone-Folk.]

27. Friggjarkenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna Frigg? Svá, at kalla hana dóttur Fjörgyns, kona Óðins, móður Baldrs, elju Jarðar ok Rindar ok Gunnlaðar ok Gerðar, sværa Nönnu, dróttning ása ok ásynja, Fullu ok valshams ok Fensala.

XIX. How should one periphrase Frigg? Call her Daughter of Fjörgynn, Wife of Odin, Mother of Baldr, Co-Wife of Jörd and Rindr and Gunnlöd and Grídr, Mother-in-law of Nanna, Lady of the Æsir and Ásynjur, Mistress of Fulla and of the Hawk-Plumage and of Fensalir.

28. Freyjukenningar.  

Hvernig skal Freyju kenna? Svá, at kalla hana dóttur Njarðar, systur Freys, konu Óðs, móður Hnossar, eigandi valfalls ok Sessrúmnis ok fressa, Brisíngamens, Vanagoð, Vanadís, it grátfagra goð, ástaguð. - Svá má kenna allar ásynjur at nefna annarrar nafni ok kenna við eign eða verk sín eða ættir.

XX. "How should one periphrase Freyja? Thus: by calling her Daughter of Njördr, Sister of Freyr, Wife of Ódr, Mother of Hnoss, Possessor of the Slain, of Sessrúmnir, of the Gib-Cats, and of Brísinga-men; Goddess of the Vanir, Lady of the Vanir, Goddess Beautiful in Tears, Goddess of Love. All the goddesses may be periphrased thus: by calling them by the name of another, and naming them in terms of their possessions or their works or their kindred.

29. Sifjarkenningar.

 

Hvernig skal kenna Sif? Svá, at kalla hana konu Þórs, móður Ullar, it hárfagra goð, elja Járnsöxu, móður Þrúðar.

XXI. "How should Sif be periphrased? By calling her Wife of Thor, Mother of Ullr, Fair-Haired Goddess, Co-Wife of Járnsaxa, Mother of Thrúdr.
30. Iðunnarkenningar.  
Hvernig skal kenna Iðunni? Svá, at kalla hana konu Braga ok gætandi eplanna, en eplin ellilyf ásanna. Hon er ok ránfengr Þjaza jötuns, svá sem fyrr er sagt, at hann tók hana braut frá ásum.

Eftir þeiri sögu orti Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski í Haustlöng.

XXII. "How should Idunn be periphrased? Thus: by calling her Wife of Bragi, and Keeper of the Apples; and the apples should be called Age-Elixir of the Æsir. Idunn is also called Spoil of the Giant Thjazi, according to the tale that has been told before, how he took her away from the Æsir. Thjódólfr of Hvin composed verses after that tale in the Haustlöng:
1. Hvé skalk góðs at gjöldum
gunnveggjar brú leggja?
- - - - - - - - - - - -
naddkleif at Þorleifi.
Týframra sék tíva
trygglaust of far þriggja
á hreingöru hlýri
Hildar vetts ok Þjaza.
How shall I make voice-payment
Meetly for the shield-bridge
. . . . . . .
Of the war-wall Thórleifr gave me?
I survey the truceless faring
Of the three gods strife-foremost,
And Thjatsi's, on the shining
Cheek of the shield of battle.
2. Segjöndum fló sagna
snótar ulfr at móti
í gemlis ham gömlum
glamma ó- fyr -skömmu;
settisk örn, þars æsir
ár-Gefnar mar bóru
(vasa byrgi-Týr bjarga
bleyði vændr) á seyði.
The Spoiler of the Lady
Swiftly flew with tumult
To meet the high god-rulers
Long hence in eagle-plumage;

The erne in old days lighted
Where the Æsir meat were bearing
To the fire-pit; the Giant
Of the rocks was called no faint-heart.
3. Tormiðlaðr vas tívum
ta[ð]lhreinn meðal beina,
hvat, kvað hapta snytrir
hjalmfaldinn, því valda.
Margspakr of nam mæla
mór valkastar bóru
(vasat Hœnis vinr hónum
hollr) af fornum þolli.

The skilful god-deceiver
To the gods proved a stern sharer
Of bones: the high Instructor
Of Æsir, helmet-hooded,
Saw some power checked the seething;

The sea-mew, very crafty,
Spake from the ancient tree-trunk;
Loki was ill-willed toward him.

4. Fjallgylðir bað fyllar
fet-Meila sér deila
(hlaut) af helgum skutli
(hrafnásar vinr blása);
ving-rögnir lét -vögna
vígfrekr ofan sígask,
þars vélsparir vóru
varnendr goða farnir.
The wolfish monster ordered
Meili's Sire to deal him
Food from the holy trencher:
The friend of Him of Ravens
To blow the fire was chosen;
The Giant-King, flesh-greedy,
Sank down, where the guileless
Craft-sparing gods were gathered.
5. Fljótt bað foldar dróttinn
Fárbauta mög vára
þekkiligr með þegnum
þrymseilar hval deila,
en af breiðu bjóði
bragðvíss at þat lagði
ósvífrandi ása
upp þjórhluti fjóra.
The comely Lord of All Things
Commanded Loki swiftly
To part the bull's-meat, slaughtered
By Skadi's ringing bow-string,
Among the folk, but straightway
The cunning food-defiler
Of the Æsir filched-the quarters,
All four, from the broad table.
6. Ok slíðrliga síðan
svangr (vas þat fyr löngu)
át af eikirótum
okbjörn faðir Mörna[r],
áðr djúphugaðr dræpi
dolg ballastan vallar
hirði-Týr meðal herða
herfangs ofan stöngu.
And the hungry Sire of Giants
Savagely ate the yoke-beast
From the oak-tree's sheltering branches,--
That was in ancient ages,--
Ere the wise-minded Loki,
Warder of war-spoil, smote him,
Boldest of foes of Earth-Folk,
With a pole betwixt the shoulders.
7. Þá varð fastr við fóstra
farmr Sigynjar arma,
sás öll regin eygja,
öndurgoðs, í böndum;
loddi ró við ramman
reimuð Jötunheima,
en holls vinar Hœnis
hendr við stangar enda.

The Arm-Burden then of Sigyn,
Whom all the gods in bonds see,
Firmly forthwith was fastened
To the Fosterer of Skadi;
To Jötunheim's Strong Dweller
The pole stuck, and the fingers
Of Loki too, companion
Of Hœnir, clung to the pole's end.

8. Fló með fróðgum tívi
fangsæll of veg langan
sveita nagr, svát slitna
sundr ulfs faðir mundi;
þá varð Þórs of rúni
(þungr vas Loptr of sprunginn)
mólunaut, hvat's mátti,
miðjungs friðar biðja.

The Bird of Blood flew upward
(Blithesome in his quarry)
A long way off with Loki,
The lither God, that almost
Wolf's Sire was rent asunder;
Thor's friend must sue for mercy,
Such peace as he might purchase
To pray: nigh slain was Loptr.

9. Sér bað sagna hrœri
sorgœra[n] mey fœra,
þás ellilyf ása,
áttrunnr Hymis, kunni;
brunnakrs of kom bekkjar
Brísings goða dísi
girðiþjófr í garða
grjót-Níðaðar síðan.
Then Hymir's Kinsman ordered
The crafty god, pain-maddened,
To wile to him the Maiden
Who warded the Æsir's age-cure;
Ere long the necklace-robber,
Brísinga's thief, lured slyly
The Dame of Brunnakr's brooklet
Into the Base One's dwelling.
10. Urðut bjartra borða
byggvendr at þat hryggvir;
þá vas Ið- með jötnum
-unnr nýkomin sunnan;
gættusk allar áttir
Ing[v]i-freys at þingi
(vóru heldr) ok hárar
(hamljót regin) gamlar,

At that the steep slope-dwellers
No sorrow felt; then Idunn
Was from the south, by giants
New-stolen, come among them.
All Ingvi-Freyr's high kindred,
Hoary and old, to council
Hasted; grewsome of fashion
And ugly all the gods were.

11. unz hrynsævar hræva
hund öl-Gefnar fundu
leiðiþír ok læva
lundar geiri bundu;
'Þú skalt véltr nema vélum,'
[v]reiðr mælti svá, 'leiðir
munstœrandi mœra
mey aptr, Loki, [hapta].

Translation of this stanza omitted . . . . . . .[1]

FOOTNOTE: 1. "Brjála ður texti"
['confused text']--Jónsson,
Edda (Reykjavik, 1907), p. 384. The condition of the text makes translation impossible.

Anthony Faulkes reads:

"—until they found ale-Gefn's [Idunn's] flowing corpse-sea [blood] hound [wolf, thief i.e. Loki] and bound the thief, that tree of deceit, who had led ale-Gefn off. 'You shall be trapped, Loki,' the angry one spke thus, 'unless by some scheme you bring back the renowned maid, enlarger of the fetters' [gods'] joy.'

12. Heyrðak svá, þat síðan
sveik ept ósa leiku
hugreynandi Hœnis
hauks flugbjalfa aukinn,
ok lómhugaðr lagði,
leikblaðs reginn fjaðrar,
ern at öglis barni
arnsúg faðir Mörnar.

This heard I, that the Staunch Friend
Of Hœnir--oft thereafter
With wiles he tricked the Æsir--
Flew, in hawk-wings hidden;
And the vile Sire of Giants,
Vigorous Wing-Plume-Wielder,
Hurtled on eagle-pinion
After the hawk-shaped Loki.

13. Hófu skjótt en skófu
sköpt ginnregin brinna,
en sonr biðils sviðnar
(sveipr varð í för) Greipar.
Þats of fátt á fjalla
Finns ilja brú minni:
baugs þá bifum fáða
bifkleif at Þorleifi.

Swiftly the gods have kindled
A fire; and the sovereign rulers
Sustained the flame with shavings:
Scorched was the flying giant,--
He plunged down in mid-soaring:
'Tis pictured on the giant's
Sole-bridge, the shield which, painted
With stories, Thórleifr gave me.]
Ásu er svá rétt at kenna at kalla einn hvern annars nafni ok kenna við verk sín eða eign eða ættir.

"This is the correct manner of periphrasing the Æsir: To call each of them by the name of another, and to designate him in terms of his works or his possessions or his kindred.

31. Himinskenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna himin? Svá, at kalla hann Ymis haus ok þar af jötuns haus ok erfiði eða byrði dverganna eða hjálm Vestra ok Austra, Suðra, Norðra, land sólar ok tungls ok himintungla, vagna ok veðra, hjálmr eða hús lofts ok jarðar ok sólar. Svá kvað Arnórr jarlaskáld:

66. Ungr skjöldungr stígr aldri
jafnmildr á við skildan
þess var grams, und gömlum,
gnóg rausn, Ymis hausi.

Ok enn sem hann kvað:

67. Björt verðr sól at svartri,
sökkr fold í mar dökkvan,
brestr erfiði Austra,
allr glymr sjár á fjöllum.

Svá kvað Böðvarr balti:

68. Alls engi verðr Inga
undir sólar grundu
böðvar hvatr né betri
bræðr landreki æðri.

Ok sem kvað Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski:

69. Ók at ísarnleiki
Jarðar sunr, en dunði,
móðr svall Meila blóða,
mána vegr und hánum.

Svá sem kvað Ormr Barreyjarskáld:

70. Hvégi er, Draupnis drógar
dís, ramman spyr ek vísa,
sá ræðr, valdr, fyr veldi,
vagnbrautar mér fagnar.

Svá sem kvað Bragi skáld:

71. Hinn er varp á víða
vinda Öndurdísar
of manna sjöt margra
mundlaug föður augum.

Ok sem Markús kvað:

72. Fjarri hefir, at fæðisk dýrri
flotna vörðr á élkers botni,
háva leyfir hverr maðr ævi
hringvarpaðar, gjalfri kringðum.

Svá sem kvað Steinn Herdísarson:

73. Hás kveð ek helgan ræsi
heimtjalds at drag þeima,
mærð tésk fram, en fyrða
fyrr, því at hann er dyrri.

Ok sem kvað Arnórr jarlaskáld:

74. Hjalp þú, dýrr konungr, dýrum,
dags grundar, Hermundi.

Ok enn kvað Arnórr:

75. Saðr stillir, hjalp þú snjöllum,
sóltjalda, Rögnvaldi.

Ok sem kvað Hallvarðr:

76. Knútr verr jörð sem ítran
alls dróttinn sal fjalla.

Sem Arnórr kvað:

77. Míkáll vegr þat er misgért þykkir
mannvits fróðr ok allt it góða;
tyggi skiptir síðan seggjum
sólar hjalms á dæmistóli.

XXIII. "How should the heaven be periphrased? Thus: call it Skull of Ymir, and hence, Giant's Skull; Task or Burden of the Dwarves, or Helm of Vestri and Austri, Sudri, or Nordri; Land of the Sun, of the Moon, and of the Stars of Heaven, of the Wains and the Winds; Helm, or House, of the Air and the Earth and the Sun. So sang Arnórr Earls'-Skald:

So large of gifts ne'er mounted
Young Lord of Shields on ship-deck
'Neath the ancient Skull of Ymir:
Splendid this Prince's largess.

And as he sang again:

Bright grows the sun at dusking,
The earth sinks into the dark sea,
The Toil of Austri bursteth;
All the ocean on the fells breaks.

Thus sang Bödvarr the Halt:

For never 'neath the Sun's Plain
Shall come a nobler Land-Ward,
Keener in battle-onset,
Nor a brother of Ingi better.

And as Thjódólfr of Hvin sang:

Jörd's Son drove to the steel-play
(High swelled the godlike anger
In the mind of Meili's Brother),
And the Moon-Way 'neath him quivered.

Even as sang Ormr Barrey's-Skald:,

Lady of Draupnir's gore-streak,
However great I know him

The wielder (by right he ruleth)
Of the Wain's Road sees me gladly.

Even as the skald Bragi sang:

He who threw the dead eyes
Of Thjazi, Skadi's father,
Into the Winds' Wide Basin
O'er the abodes of men-folk many.

And as Markús sang:

'Tis long since the dear-loved Warder
Of sea-men was born on the wave-girt earth-bottom
Of the Storm-Container; each man praises
The sublime age of the Ring-Dispenser.

Even as Steinn Herdísarson sang:

I sing the holy Ruler
Of the high World-Tent rather
Than men, for very precious
Is He: His praises tell I.

And as Arnórr Earls'-Skald sang:

Help, dear King of Heaven,
The Day's Plain, help my Hermundr.

And as Arnórr sang further:

Soothfast King of the Sun-Tents,
Help stout-hearted Rögnvaldr.

And as Hallvardr sang:

Knútr wards the land, as the Ruler
Of All wards the radiant Fell-Hall.

As Arnórr sang:

Michael, wise of understanding,
Weighs what seems done ill, and good things:
Then the Monarch of the Sun's Helm
At the Doom-Seat parts all mortals.

32. Jarðarkenningar.  

Hvernig skal jörð kenna? Svá, at kalla hana Ymis hold ok móður Þórs, dóttur Ónars, brúði Óðins, elju Friggjar ok Rindar ok Gunnlaðar, sværu Sifjar, gólf ok botn veðra hallar, sjár dýranna, dóttir Náttar, systir Auðs ok Dags. Svá sem kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:

78. Nú er alfröðull elfar
jötna dolgs of folginn,
ráð eru rammrar þjóðar
rík, í móður líki.

Sem kvað Hallfreðr vandræðskáld:

79. Ráð lukusk, at sá, síðan,
snjallráðr konungs spjalli
átti einga-dóttur
Ónars viði gróna.

Ok enn sagði hann:

80. Breiðleita gat brúði
Báleygs at sér teygða
stefnir stöðvar hrafna
stála ríkismálum.

Svá sem kvað Þjóðólfr:

81. Útan bindr við enda
elgvers glöðuðr hersa
hreins við, húfi rónum,
hafs botni far gotna.

Sem Hallfreðr kvað:

82. Því hygg fleygjanda frægjan,
ferr jörð und menþverri
ítran, eina at láta
Auðs systur mjök trauðan.

Svá kvað Þjóðólfr:

83. Dolgljóss, hefir dási
darrlatr staðit fjarri,
endr þá er elju Rindar
ómynda tók skyndir.

XXIV. "How should one periphrase the earth? Thus: by calling her Flesh of Ymir, and Mother of Thor, Daughter of Ónarr, Odin's Bride, Co-Wife of Frigg and Rindr and Gunnlöd, Mother-in-law of Sif, Floor and Bottom of the Storm-Hall, Sea of Beasts, Daughter of Night, Sister of Audr and of Day. Even as Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler sang:

Now the beaming gold is hidden
In the body of the Mother
Of the Giants' Foe; the counsels
Of a kindred strong are mighty.

As sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald:

In council 't was determined
That the King's friend, wise in counsel,
Should wed the Land, sole Daughter
Of Ónarr, greenly wooded.

And he said further:

The Raven-Abode's brave Ruler
Got the broad-faced Bride of Odin,
The Land, with kingly counsels
Of weapons, lured unto him.

Even as Thjódólfr-sang:

The Ruler, glad in Warriors,
In the rowed hull doth fasten
The ships of men to the strand's end,
At the head of the sea keel-ridden.

As Hallfredr sang:

Full loath to let the Land slip
I hold the lordly Spear-Prince
Audr's sister is subjected
To the splendid Treasure-Spender.

Thus sang Thjódólfr:

Far off the dart-slow sluggard
Stood, when the Sword-Inciter
In ancient days took to him
The unripe Co-Wife of Rindr.

33. Sjávarkenningar.  

Hvernig skal sæ kenna? Svá, at kalla hann Ymis blóð, heimsækir goðanna, verr Ránar, faðir Ægisdætra, þeira er svá heita Himinglæva, Dúfa, Blóðughadda, Hefring, Uðr, Hrönn, Bylgja, Bára, Kólga, land Ránar ok Ægisdætra ok skipa ok sæskips heita, kjalar, stála, súða, sýju, fiska, ísa, sækonunga leið ok brautir, eigi síðr hringr eyjanna, hús sanda ok þangs ok skerja, dorgar land ok sæfugla, byrjar. Svá sem kvað Ormr Barreyjarskáld:


84. Útan gnýr á eyri
Ymis blóð fara góðra.

 

Svá kvað Refr:

85. Vágþeysta berr vestan,
vætti ek lands fyr brandi,
hvalmæni skefr, húna
hógdýr of lög bógu.

Svá sem kvað Sveinn:

86. Þá er élreifar ófu
Ægis dætr ok tættu
föls, við frost of alnar,
fjallgarðs rokur harðar.

Ok sem kvað Refr:

87. Færir björn, þar er bára
brestr, undinna festa
oft í Ægis kjafta
úrsvöl Gymis völva.

Hér er sagt, at allt er eitt Ægir ok Hlér ok Gymir. Ok enn kvað hann:

88. En sægnípu Sleipnir
slítr úrdrifinn hvítrar
Ránar, rauðum steini
runnit, brjóst ór munni.

Sem kvað Einarr Skúlason:

89. Harðr hefir ört frá jörðu
élvindr, svana strindar
blakkr lætr í sog sökkva
snægrund, skipi hrundit.

Ok enn sem hann kvað:

90. Margr ríss, en drífr dorgar
dynströnd í svig löndum,
spend verða stög stundum,
stirðr keipr, fira greipum.

Ok enn kvað hann:

91. Grams bera gollna spánu,
göfug ferð er sú jöfri,
skýtr holmfjöturr Heita
hrafni, snekkju stafnar.

Enn sem hann kvað:

92. Haustköld skotar hélðum
holmrönd varar öndri.

Ok enn svá:

93. Sundr springr svalra landa
sverrigjörð fyr börðum.

Sem Snæbjörn kvað:

94. Hvatt kveða hræra Grótta
hergrimmastan skerja
út fyrir jarðar skauti
eylúðrs níu brúðir,
þær er, lungs, fyrir löngu,
líðmeldr, skipa hlíðar
baugskerðir rístr barði
ból, Amlóða mólu.

Hér er kallat hafit Amlóða kvern. - Enn sem kvað Einarr Skúlason:

95. Viknar ramr í, Rakna,
reksaumr fluga-straumi,
dúks hrindr böl, Þar er bleikir
bifgrund, á stag rifjum.

XXV. "How should one periphrase the sea? Thus: by calling it Ymir's Blood; Visitor of the Gods; Husband of Rán; Father of Ægir's Daughters, of them who are called Himinglæva, Dúfa, Blódughadda, Hefring, Udr, Hrönn, Bylgja, Bára, Kolga; Land of Rán and of Ægir's Daughters, of Ships and of ships' names, of the Keel, of Beaks, of Planks and Seams, of Fishes, of Ice; Way and Road of Sea-Kings; likewise Encircler of Islands; House of Sands and of Kelp and of Reefs; Land of Fishing-gear, of Sea-Fowls, and of Fair Wind. Even as Ormr Barrey's-Skald sang:

On the gravelly beach of good ships
Grates the Blood of Ymir.

As Refr sang:

The mild deer of the masthead beareth
O'er the murky water from the westward
Her wave-pressed bows; the land I look for
Before the beak; the Whale-Home shallows.

Even as Steinn sang:

When the fallow fell-wall's Whirlwinds
Wove o'er the waves full fiercely,
And Ægir's storm-glad daughters
Tore, of grim frost begotten.

And as Refr sang:

Gymir's wet-cold Spae-Wife
Wiles the Bear of Twisted Cables
Oft into Ægir's wide jaws,
Where the angry billow breaketh.

It is said here that Ægir and Gymir are both the same. And he sang further:

And the Sea-Peak's Sleipnir slitteth
The stormy breast rain-driven,
The wave, with red stain running
Out of white Rán's mouth.

 

As Einarr Skúlason sang:

The stern snow-wind has thrust out
With strength, the ship from landward:
The Swan-Land's steed sees Iceland
Into the surf receding.

And as he sang further:

Many a stiff rowlock straineth,
And the noisy Strand of Fish-Gear,
The Sea, the lands o'ercometh:
Men's hands oft span the stays.

And he sang yet further:

The gray Isle-Fetter urges
Heiti's raven-ship onward;
Gold beaks the fleet ships carry:
Rich that faring to the Chieftain.

And he sang again:

The Isle-Rim autumn chilly
Impels the dock's cold snowshoe.

And thus also:

The cool lands' Surging-Girdle
Before the beaks springs asunder.

As Snæbjorn sang:

They say nine brides of skerries
Swiftly move the Sea-Churn
Of Grótti's Island-Flour-Bin
Beyond the Earth's last outskirt,--
They who long the corny ale ground
Of Amlódí; the Giver
Of Rings now cuts with ship's beak
The Abiding-Place of boat-sides.

Here the sea is called Amlódi's Churn.

As Einarr Skúlason sang:

The sturdy drive-nails weaken
In the swift swirl, where paleth
Rakni's Heaving Plain: wind
Puffs the reefs against the stays.

34. Sólarkenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna sól? Svá, at kalla hana dóttur Mundilfara, systur Mána, kona Glens, eldr himins ok lofts. Svá sem kvað Skúli Þorsteinsson:

96.
Glens beðja veðr gyðju
goðblíð í vé, síðan
ljós kemr gótt með geislum
gránserks ofan Mána.

Svá kvað Einarr Skúlason:

97.
Hvargi er Beita borgar
bálgrimmustum skála
hár of hnossvin órum
heims vafrlogi sveimar.

XXVI. "How should one periphrase the sun? By calling her Daughter of Mundilfari, Sister of the Moon, Wife of Glenr, Fire of Heaven and of the Air. Even as Skúli Thorsteinsson sang:

Glenr's god-blithe Bed-Mate wadeth
Into the Goddess's mansion
With rays; then the good light cometh
Of gray-sarked Máni downward.

Thus sang Einarr Skúlason:

Whereso the lofty flickering
Flame of the World's Hall swimmeth

O'er our loved friend, who hateth
And lavisheth the sea-gold.

35. Vindskenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna vind? Svá, at kalla hann son Fornjóts, bróður Ægis ok elds, brjót viðar, skaði ok bani eða hundr eð vargr viðar eða segls eða seglreiða. Svá sagði Sveinn í Norðrsetudrápu:

98.
Tóku fyrst til fjúka
Fornjóts synir ljótir.

XXVII. "How should the wind be periphrased? Thus: call it Son of Fornjótr, Brother of the Sea and of Fire, Scathe or Ruin or Hound or Wolf of the Wood or of the Sail or of the Rigging.

Thus spake Sveinn in the Nordrsetu-drápa:

First began to fly
Fornjótr's sons ill-shapen.

36. Eldskenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna eld? Svá, at kalla hann bróður vinds ok Ægis, bana ok grand viðar ok húsa, Hálfs bani, sól húsanna.

XXVIII. "How should one periphrase fire? Thus: call it Brother of the Wind and the Sea, Ruin and Destruction of Wood and of Houses, Hálfr's Bane, Sun of Houses.

37. Vetrarkenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna vetr? Svá, at kalla hann son Vindsvals ok bana orma, hríðmál. Svá kvað Ormr Steinþórsson:

99.
Ræð ek þenna mög manni
Vindvals unað blindum.

Svá kvað Ásgrímr:

100.
Sigrgæðir var síðan
seimörr í Þrándheimi,
þjóð veit þínar íðir,
þann orms-trega, sannar.

XXIX. "How should winter be periphrased? Thus: call it Son of Vindsvalr, Destruction of Serpents, Tempest Season. Thus sang Ormr Steinthórsson:

To the blind man I proffer
This blessing: Vindsvalr's Son.

Thus sang Ásgrímr:

The warlike Spoil-Bestower,
Lavish of Wealth, that winter--
Snake's-Woe--in Thrándheim tarried;
The folk knew thy true actions.

38. Sumarkenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna sumar? Svá, at kalla son Svásaðar ok líkn ormanna ok gróðr manna. Svá sem kvað Egill Skalla-Grímsson:

101. Upp skulum órum sverðum,
ulfs tannlituðr, glitra,
eigum dáð at drýgja
í dalmiskunn fiska.

XXX. "How should one periphrase summer? Thus: call it Son of Svásudr and Comfort of Serpents, and Growth of Men. Even as Egill Skallagrímsson sang:

We shall wave our swords, O Dyer
Of Wolf's Teeth, make them glitter:
A deed we have for wreaking
In the Comfort of Dale-Serpents.

39. Mannkenningar ok kvenkenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna manninn? Mann skal kenna við verk sín, þat er hann veitir eða þiggr eða gerir. Hann má ok kenna til eignar sinnar, þeirar er hann á, ok svá ef hann gaf, svá ok við ættir þær, er hann kom af, svá þær, er frá honum kómu. Hvernig skal hann kenna við þessa hluti? Svá, at kalla hann vinnanda eða fremjanda fara sinna eða athafnar, víga eða sæfara eða veiða eða vápna eða skipa. Ok fyrir því at hann er reynir vápnanna ok viðr víganna, allt eitt ok vinnandi. Viðr heitir tré. Reynir heitir ok tré. Af þessum heitum hafa skáldin kallat manninn ask eða hlyn, lund eða öðrum viðarheitum karlkenndum ok kennt til víga eða skipa eða fjár. Mann er ok rétt at kenna til allra ásaheita. Kennt er ok við jötnaheiti, ok er þat flest háð eða lastmæli. Vel þykkir kennt til álfa.


Konu skal kenna til alls kvenbúnaðar, gulls ok gimsteina, öls eða víns eða annars drykkjar, þess er hon selr eða gefr, svá ok til ölgagna ok allra þeira hluta, er henni samir at vinna eða veita. Rétt er at kenna hana svá at kalla hana selju eða lág þess, er hon miðlar, en selja eða lág, þat eru tré. Fyrir því er kona kölluð til kenningar öllum kvenkenndum viðarheitum. En fyrir því er kona kennd til gimsteina eða glersteina, at þat var í forneskju kvinnabúnaðr, er kallat var steinasörvi, er þær höfðu á hálsi sér. Nú er svá fært til kenningar, at konan er nú kennd við stein ok við öll steinsheiti. Kona er ok kennd við allar ásynjur eða valkyrjur eða nornir eða dísir. Konu er ok rétt at kenna við alla athöfn sína eða við eign eða ætt.

 

XXXI. "How should man be periphrased? By his works, by that which he gives or receives or does; he may also be periphrased in terms of his property, those things which he possesses, and, if he be liberal, of his liberality; likewise in terms of the families from which he descended, as well as of those which have sprung from him. How is one to periphrase him in terms of these things? Thus, by calling him accomplisher or performer of his goings or his conduct, of his battles or sea-voyages or huntings or weapons or ships. And because he is a tester of weapons and a winner of battles,--the words for 'winner' and 'wood' being the same, as are also those for tester' and 'rowan,'--therefore, from these phrases, skalds have called man Ash or Maple, Grove, or other masculine tree-names, and periphrased him in such expressions in terms of battles or ships or possessions. It is also correct to periphrase man with all the names of the Æsir; also with giant-terms, and this last is for the most part for mocking or libellous purposes. Periphrasis with the names of elves is held to be favorable.

"Woman should be periphrased with reference to all female garments, gold and jewels, ale or wine or any other drink, or to that which she dispenses or gives; likewise with reference to ale-vessels, and to all those things which it becomes her to perform or to give. It is correct to periphrase her thus: by calling her giver or user of that of which she partakes. But the words for 'giver' and 'user' are also names of trees; therefore woman is called in metaphorical speech by all feminine tree-names. Woman is periphrased with reference to jewels or agates for this reason: in heathen times what was called a 'stone-necklace,' which they wore about the neck, was a part of a woman's apparel; now it is used figuratively in such a way as to periphrase woman with stones and all names of stones. Woman is also metaphorically called by the names of the Ásynjur or the Valkyrs or Norris or women of supernatural kind. It is also correct to periphrase woman in terms of all her conduct or property or family.

40. Gullskenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna gull? Svá, at kalla þat eld Ægis ok barr Glasis, haddr Sifjar, höfuðband Fullu, grátr Freyju, munntal ok rödd ok orð jötna, dropa Draupnis ok regn eða skúr Draupnis eða augna Freyju, otrgjöld, nauðgjald ásanna, sáð Fýrisvalla, haugþak Hölga, eldr allra vatna ok handar, grjót ok sker eða blik handar.

XXXII. "How should gold be periphrased? Thus: by calling it Ægir's Fire, and Needles of Glasir, Hair of Sif, Snood of Fulla, Freyja's Tears, Talk and Voice and Word of Giants, Draupnir's Drop and Rain or Shower of Draupnir, or of Freyja's Eyes, Otter's Ransom, Forced Payment of the Æsir, Seed of Fýris-Plain, Cairn-Roof of Hölgi, Fire of all Waters and of the Hand, Stone and Reef or Gleam of the Hand.

41. Æsir þágu veizlu at Ægis.  

Fyrir hví er gull kallat eldr Ægis? Þessi saga er til þess, er fyrr er getit, at Ægir sótti heimboð til Ásgarðs, en er hann var búinn til heimferðar, þá bauð hann til sín Óðni ok öllum ásum á þriggja mánaða fresti. Til þeirar ferðar varð fyrst Óðinn ok Njörðr, Freyr, Týr, Bragi, Viðarr, Loki, svá ok ásynjur Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Skaði, Iðunn, Sif. Þórr var eigi þar. Hann var farinn í austrveg at drepa troll. En er goðin höfðu setzt í sæti, þá lét Ægir bera inn á hallargólf lýsigull, þat er birti ok lýsti höllina sem eldr, ok þat var þar haft fyrir ljós at hans veizlu, sem í Valhöllu váru sverðin fyrir eld. Þá sennti Loki þar við öll goð ok drap þræl Ægis, þann er Fimafengr hét. Annarr þræll hans er nefndr Eldir. Rán er nefnd kona hans, en níu dætr þeira, svá sem fyrr er ritat. At þeiri veizlu vannst allt sjálft, bæði vist ok öl ok öll reiða, er til veizlunnar þurfti. Þá urðu æsir þessir varir, at Rán átti net þat, er hon veiddi í menn alla, þá er á sæ kómu. Nú er þessi saga til þess, hvaðan af þat er, at gull er kallat eldr eða ljós eða birti Ægis, Ránar eða Ægis dætra. Ok af þeim kenningum er nú svá sett, at gull er kallat eldr sævar ok allra hans heita, svá sem Ægir eða Rán eigu heiti við sæinn, ok þaðan af er nú gull kallat eldr vatna eða á ok allra árheita.

 

 

 

En þessi heiti hafa svá farit sem önnur ok kenningar, at in yngri skáld hafa ort eftir dæmum inna gömlu skálda, svá sem stóð í þeira kvæðum, en sett síðan út í hálfur þær, er þeim þóttu líkar við þat, er fyrr var ort, svá sem vatnit er sænum, en áin vatninu, en bekkr ánni. Því er þat kallat nýgervingar allt, er út er sett heiti lengra en fyrr finnst, ok þykkir þat vel allt, er með líkendum ferr ok eðli. Svá kvað Bragi skáld:

102. Eld of þák af jöfri
ölna bekks við drykkju;
þat gaf Fjölnis fjalla,
með fulli mér stillir.

XXXIII. Wherefore is gold called Ægir's Fire? This tale is to the same purport as we have told before: Ægir went to Ásgard to a feast, but when he was ready to return home, he invited Odin and all the Æsir to visit him in three months' time. First came Odin and Njördr, Freyr, Týr, Bragi, Vídarr, Loki; likewise the Ásynjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Skadi, Idunn, Sif. Thor was not there, having gone into the eastern lands to slay trolls. When the gods had sat down in their places, straightway Ægir had bright gold brought in onto the floor of the hall, and the gold gave forth light and illumined the hall like fire: and it was used there for lights at his banquet, even as in Valhall swords were used in place of fire. Then Loki bandied sharp words with all the gods, and slew one of Ægir's thralls, him who was called Five-Finger; another of his thralls was named Fire-Kindler. Rán is the name of Ægir's wife, and their daughters are nine, even as we have written before. At this feast all things were self-served, both food and ale, and all implements needful to the feast. Then the Æsir became aware that Rán had that net wherein she was wont to catch all men who go upon the sea. Now this tale is to show whence it comes that gold is called Fire or Light or Brightness of Ægir, of Rán, or of Ægir's daughters; and now such use is made of these metaphors that gold is called Fire of the Sea, and of all names of the sea, even as Ægir or Rán had names associated with the sea. Therefore gold is now called Fire of Waters or of Rivers, and of all river names.

"But these names have fared just as other figures also have done: the later skalds have composed after the examples of the old skalds, even those examples which stood in their poems, but were later expanded into such forms as seemed to later poets to be like what was written before: as a lake is to the sea, or the river to the lake, or the brook to the river. Therefore all these are called new figures, when terms are expanded to greater length than what was recorded before; and all this seems well and good, so fair as it concurs with verisimilitude and nature. As Bragi the Skald sang:

I was given by the Battler
The fire of the Brook of Sea-Fish:

He gave it me, with mercy,
For the Drink of the Mountain-Giant.

42. Frá lundinum Glasi.  

Hví er gull kallat barr eða lauf Glasis? Í Ásgarði fyrir durum Valhallar stendr lundr, sá er Glasir er kallaðr, en lauf hans allt er gull rautt, svá sem hér er kveðit, at

103. Glasir stendr
með gullnu laufi
fyrir Sigtýs sölum.

Sá er viðr fegrstr með goðum ok mönnum.

XXXIV. "Why is gold called the Needles, or Leaves; of Glasir? In Ásgard, before the doors of Valhall, there stands a grove which is called Glasir, and its leafage is all red gold, even as is sung here:

Glasir stands
With golden leafage
Before the High God's halls.

Far and wide, this tree is the fairest known among gods and men.

43. Af smíðum Ívaldasona ok Sindra dvergs.  

Hví er gull kallat haddr Sifjar? Loki Laufeyjarson hafði þat gert til lævísi at klippa hár allt af Sif. En er Þórr varð þess varr, tók hann Loka ok myndi lemja hvert bein í honum, áðr hann svarði þess, at hann skal fá af Svartálfum, at þeir skulu gera af gulli Sifju hadd þann, er svá skal vaxa sem annat hár. Eftir þat fór Loki til þeira dverga, er heita Ívaldasynir, ok gerðu þeir haddinn ok Skíðblaðni ok geirinn, er Óðinn átti, er Gungnir heitir. Þá veðjaði Loki höfði sínu við þann dverg, er Brokkr heitir, hvárt bróðir hans, Sindri, myndi gera jafngóða gripi þrjá sem þessir váru. En er þeir kómu til smiðju, þá lagði Sindri svínskinn í aflinn ok bað blása Brokk ok létta eigi fyrr en hann tæki þat ór aflinum, er hann hafði í lagt. En þegar er hann var genginn ór smiðjunni, en hinn blés, þá settist fluga ein á hönd honum ok kroppaði, en hann blés sem áðr, þar til er smiðrinn tók ór aflinum, ok var þat göltr, ok var burstin ór gulli. Því næst lagði hann í aflinn gull ok bað hann blása ok hætta eigi fyrr blæstrinum en hann kæmi aftr. Gekk hann á braut. En þá kom flugan ok settist á háls honum ok kroppaði nú hálfu fastara en áðr, en hann blés, þar til er smiðrinn tók ór aflinum gullhring þann, er Draupnir heitir. Þá lagði hann járn í aflinn ok bað hann blása ok sagði, at ónýtt myndi verða, ef blástrinn felli. Þá settist flugan milli augna honum ok kroppaði hvarmana, en er blóðit fell í augun, svá at hann sá ekki, þá greip hann til hendinni sem skjótast, meðan belgrinn lagðist niðr, ok sveipði af sér flugunni, ok þá kom þar smiðrinn ok sagði, at nú lagði nær, at allt myndi ónýtast, er í aflinum var. Þá tók hann ór aflinum hamar. Fékk hann þá alla gripina í hendr bróður sínum Brokk ok bað hann fara með til Ásgarðs ok leysa veðjunina.

 

 

En er þeir Loki báru fram gripina, þá settust æsirnir á dómstóla ok skyldi þat atkvæði standast, sem segði Óðinn, Þórr, Freyr. Þá gaf Loki Óðni geirinn Gungni, en Þór haddinn, er Sif skyldi hafa, en Frey Skíðblaðni ok sagði skyn á öllum gripunum, at geirrinn nam aldri staðar í lagi, en haddrinn var holdgróinn, þegar er hann kom á höfuð Sif, en Skíðblaðnir hafði byr, þegar er segl kom á loft, hvert er fara skyldi, en mátti vefja saman sem dúk ok hafa í pungi sér, ef þat vildi. Þá bar fram Brokkr sína gripi. Hann gaf Óðni hringinn ok sagði, at ina níundu hverja nótt myndi drjúpa af honum átta hringar jafnhöfgir sem hann. En Frey gaf hann göltinn ok sagði, at hann mátti renna loft ok lög nótt ok dag meira en hverr hestr ok aldri varð svá myrkt af nótt eða í myrkheimum, at eigi væri ærit ljós, þar er hann fór; svá lýsti af burstinni. Þá gaf hann Þór hamarinn ok sagði, at hann myndi mega ljósta svá stórt sem hann vildi, hvat sem fyrir væri, at eigi myndi hamarrinn bila, ok ef hann yrpi honum til, þá myndi hann aldri missa ok aldri fljúga svá langt, at eigi myndi hann sækja heim hönd, ok ef þat vildi, þá var hann svá lítill, at hafa mátti serk sér. En þat var lýi á, ar forskeftit var heldr skammt.

 

 

 

Þat var dómr þeira, at hamarrinn var beztr af öllum gripunum ok mest vörn í fyrir hrímþursum, ok dæmðu þeir, at dvergrinn ætti veðféit. Þá bauð Loki at leysa höfuð sitt, en dvergrinn sagði, at þess var engi ván. "Taktu mik þá," kvað Loki, en er hann vildi taka hann, þá var hann víðs fjarri. Loki átti skúa þá, er hann rann á loft ok lög. Þá bað dvergrinn Þór, at hann skyldi taka hann, en hann gerði svá. Þá vildi dvergrinn höggva af höfuð hans, en Loki sagði, at hann átti höfuðit, en eigi hálsinn. Þá tók dvergrinn þveng ok kníf ok vill stinga rauf á vörrum Loka ok vill rifa saman munninn, en knífrinn beit ekki. Þá mælti hann, at betri væri þar alr bróður hans, en jafnskjótt sem hann nefndi hann, þá var þar alrinn, ok beit hann varrarnar. Rifaði hann saman varrirnar, ok reif Loki ór æsunum. Sá þvengr, er muðrinn Loka var saman rifaðr, heitir Vartari.

XXXV. "Why is gold called Sif's Hair? Loki Laufeyarson, for mischief's sake, cut off all Sif's hair. But when Thor learned of this, he seized Loki, and would have broken every bone in him, had he not sworn to get the Black Elves to make Sif hair of gold, such that it would grow like other hair. After that, Loki went to those dwarves who are called Ívaldi's Sons; and they made the hair, and Skídbladnir also, and the spear which became Odin's possession, and was called Gungnir. Then Loki wagered his head with the dwarf called Brokkr that Brokkr's brother Sindri could not make three other precious things equal in virtue to these. Now when they came to the smithy, Sindri laid a pigskin in the hearth and bade Brokkr blow, and did not cease work until he took out of the hearth that which he had laid therein. But when he went out of the smithy, while the other dwarf was blowing, straightway a fly settled upon his hand and stung: yet he blew on as before, until the smith took the work out of the hearth; and it was a boar, with mane and bristles of gold. Next, he laid gold in the hearth and bade Brokkr blow and cease not from his blast until he should return. He went out; but again the fly came and settled on Brokkr's neck, and bit now half again as hard as before; yet he blew even until the smith took from the hearth that gold ring which is called Draupnir. Then Sindri laid iron in the hearth and bade him blow, saying that it would be spoiled if the blast failed. Straightway the fly settled between Brokkr's eyes and stung his eyelid, but when the blood fell into his eyes so that he could not see, then he clutched at it with his hand as swiftly as he could,--while the bellows grew flat,--and he swept the fly from him. Then the smith came thither and said that it had come near to spoiling all that was in the hearth. Then he took from the forge a hammer, put all the precious works into the hands of Brokkr his brother, and bade him go with them to Ásgard and claim the wager.

"Now when he and Loki brought forward the precious gifts, the Æsir sat down in the seats of judgment; and that verdict was to prevail which Odin, Thor, and Freyr should render. Then Loki gave Odin the spear Gungnir, and to Thor the hair which Sif was to have, and Skídbladnir to Freyr, and told the virtues of all these things: that the spear would never stop in its thrust; the hair would grow to the flesh as soon as it came upon Sif's head; and Skídbladnir would have a favoring breeze as soon as the sail was raised, in whatsoever direction it might go, but could be folded together like a napkin and be kept in Freyr's pouch if he so desired. Then Brokkr brought forward his gifts: he gave to Odin the ring, saying that eight rings of the same weight would drop from it every ninth night; to Freyr he gave the boar, saying that it could run through air and water better than any horse, and it could never become so dark with night or gloom of the Murky Regions that there should not be sufficient light where be went, such was the glow from its mane and bristles. Then he gave the hammer to Thor, and said that Thor might smite as hard as he desired, whatsoever might be before him, and the hammer would not fail; and if he threw it at anything, it would never miss, and never fly so far as not to return to his hand; and if be desired, he might keep it in his sark, it was so small; but indeed it was a flaw in the hammer that the fore-haft was somewhat short.

"This was their decision: that the hammer was best of all the precious works, and in it there was the greatest defence against the Rime-Giants; and they gave sentence, that the dwarf should have his wager. Then Loki offered to redeem his head, but the dwarf said that there was no chance of this. 'Take me, then,' quoth Loki; but when Brokkr would have laid hands on him, he was a long way off. Loki had with him those shoes with which he ran through air and over water. Then the dwarf prayed Thor to catch him, and Thor did so. Then the dwarf would have hewn off his head; but Loki said that he might have the head, but not the neck. So the dwarf took a thong and a knife, and would have bored a hole in Loki's lips and stitched his mouth together, but the knife did not cut. Then Brokkr said that it would be better if his brother's awl were there: and even as he named it, the awl was there, and pierced the lips. He stitched the Ups together, and Loki ripped the thong out of the edges. That thong, with which Loki's mouth was sewn together, is called Vartari.

44. Kenningar á gulli ok Freyju.  

Hér heyrir, at gull er kennt til höfuðbands Fullu, er orti Eyvindr skáldaspillir:

104. Fullu skein á fjöllum
fallsól bráavallar.
Ullar kjóls of allan
aldr Hákunar skaldum.

XXXVI. "One may hear how gold is metaphorically called Fulla's Snood, in this verse which Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler wrought:

Fulla's shining Fillet,
The forehead's sun at rising,
Shone on the swelling shield-hill
For skalds all Hakon's life-days.

Gull er kallat grátr Freyju, sem fyrr er sagt. Svá kvað Skúli Þorsteinsson:

105. Margr of hlaut of morgin
morðelds, þar er val felldum,
Freyju tár at fleiri
fárbjóðr; at þar várum.

Ok sem kvað Einarr Skúlason:

106. Þar er Mardallar milli,
meginhurðar, liggr skurða,
Gauts berum galla þrútinn,
grátr, dalreyðar látri.

Ok hér hefir Einarr enn kennt svá Freyju at kalla hana móður Hnossar eða konu Óðs, svá sem hér:

107. Eigi þverr fyrir augna
Óðs beðvinu Róða
ræfrs, eignisk svá, regni
ramsvell, konungr elli.

Ok enn svá:

108. Hróðrbarni kná ek Hörnar,
hlutum dýran grip, stýra,
brandr þrymr gjalfrs á grandi
gollvífiðu, hlífar;
sáðs, berr sinnar móður,
svans unni mér gunnar
fóstrgæðandi Fróða,
Freys nift bráa driftir.

Hér getr ok þess, at Freyju má svá kenna at kalla hana systur Freys. Ok enn svá:

109. Nýt buðumk Njarðar dóttur,
nálægt var þat stáli
vel of hrósa ek því vísa
vörn, sævar bál barni.

 

 

Hér er hon kölluð dóttir Njarðar. Ok enn Svá:

110. Gaf, sá er erring ofrar,
ógnprúðr Vanabrúðar
þing Váfaðar þröngvir
þróttöflga mér dóttur;
ríkr leiddi mey mækis
mátvaldr á beð skaldi
Gefnar, glóðum drifna,
Gautreks svana brautar.

Hér er hon kölluð Gefn ok Vanabrúðr. Til allra heita Freyju er rétt at kenna grátinn ok kalla svá gullit, ok á marga lund er þessum kenningum breytt, kallat hagl eða regn eða él eða dropar eða skúrir eða forsar augna hennar eða kinna eða hlýra eða brá eða hvarma.

XXXVII. "Gold is called Freyja's Tears, as was said before. So sang Skúli Thorsteinsson:

Many a fearless swordsman
Received the Tears of Freyja
The more the morn when foemen
We murdered; we were present.

And as Einarr Skúlason sang:

Where, mounted 'twixt the carvings,
The Tear of Mardöll lieth,
We bear the axe shield-splitting,
Swollen with Serpent's lair-gold.

And here Einarr has further periphrased Freyja so as to call her Mother of Hnoss, or Wife of Ódr, as standeth below:

The shield, tempest's strong roof-ice,
With tear-gold is unminished,
Eye-rain of Ódr's Bed-Mate:
His age the King so useth.

And again thus:

Hörn's Child, the glorious adornment,
I own, gold-wound--a jewel
Most fair--to the shield's rim
Fast is the golden Sea-Flame:
On the gem, Freyr's Niece, the tear-drift
Of the fore-head of her Mother
She bears; the Raven-Feeder
Gave me Fródi's seed-gold's fostering.

It is also recorded here that one may periphrase Freyja by calling her Sister of Freyr. And thus also:

A defence of songs full goodly
He freely gave me, neighbor
Of sea-scales: I praise gladly
Njördr's Daughter's golden gem-child.

Here she is called Daughter of Njördr.

And again thus:

The awesome Stately Urger
Of Odin, he who raises
The struggle stern, gave to me
The courage-stalwart daughter
Of the Vana-Bride, my fair axe;
The valorous sword-mote's Ruler
Led Gefn's girl to the Skald's bed,
Set with the sea-flame's gold-work.

Here she is called Gefn and Bride of the Vanir.--It is proper to join 'tears' with all the names of Freyja, and to call gold by such terms; and in divers ways these periphrases have been varied, so that gold is called Hail, or Rain, or Snow-Storm, or Drops, or Showers, or Water falls, of Freyja's Eyes, or Cheeks, or Brows, or Eyelids.

45. Gull kallat mál jötna.  

Hér má þat heyra, at kallat er orð eða rödd jötna gullit, svá sem fyrr er sagt. Svá kvað Bragi skáld:

111.
Þann átta ek vin verstan
vaströdd en mér baztan
Ála undirkúlu
óniðraðan þriðja.

Hann kallaði stein vasta undirkúlu, en jötun Ála steinsins, en gull rödd jötuns.

XXXVIII. "In this place one may hear that gold is called Word, or Voice, of Giants, as we have said before; thus sang Bragi the Skald:

Then had I the third friend
Fairly praised: the poorest
In the Voice of the Botched-Knob's Áli,
But best of all to me.

He called a rock Botched Knob, and a giant Áli of Rock, and gold Voice of the Giant.

46. Af otrgjöldum.  

Hver sök er til þess, at gull er kallat otrgjöld? Svá er sagt, at þá er æsir fóru at kanna heim, Óðinn ok Loki ok Hænir, þeir kómu at á nökkurri ok gengu með ánni til fors nökkurs, ok við forsinn var otr einn ok hafði tekit lax ór forsinum ok át blundandi. Þá tók Loki upp stein ok kastaði at otrinum ok laust í höfuð honum. Þá hrósði Loki veiði sinni, at hann hefði veitt í einu höggvi otr ok lax. Tóku þeir þá laxinn ok otrinn ok báru eftir sér, kómu þá at bæ nökkurum ok gengu inn. En sá búandi er nefndr Hreiðmarr, er þar bjó. Hann var mikill fyrir sér ok mjök fjölkunnigr. Beiddust æsir at hafa þar náttstað ok kváðust hafa með sér vist ærna ok sýndu búandanum veiði sína.
En er Hreiðmarr sá otrinn, þá kallaði hann sonu sína, Fáfni ok Regin, ok segir, at Otr, bróðir þeira, var drepinn ok svá, hverir þat höfðu gert. Nú ganga þeir feðgar at ásunum ok taka þá höndum ok binda ok segja þá um otrinn, at hann var sonr Hreiðmars. Æsir bjóða fyrir sik fjörlausn, svá mikit fé sem Hreiðmarr sjálfr vill á kveða, ok varð þat at sætt með þeim ok bundit svardögum. Þá var otrinn fleginn. Tók Hreiðmarr otrbelginn ok mælti við þá, at þeir skulu fylla belginn af rauðu gulli ok svá hylja hann allan, ok skal þat vera at sætt þeira.


Þá sendi Óðinn Loka í Svartálfaheim, ok kom hann til dvergs þess, er heitir Andvari. Hann var fiskr í vatni, ok tók Loki hann höndum ok lagði á hann fjörlausn allt þat gull, er hann átti í steini sínum. Ok er þeir koma í steininn, þá bar dvergrinn fram allt gull, þat er hann átti, ok var þat allmikit fé. Þá svipti dvergrinn undir hönd sér einum litlum gullbaug. Þat sá Loki ok bað hann fram láta bauginn. Dvergrinn bað hann eigi bauginn af sér taka ok lézt mega æxla sér fé af bauginum, ef hann heldi. Loki kvað hann eigi skyldu hafa einn penning eftir ok tók bauginn af honum ok gekk út, en dvergrinn mælti, at sá baugr skyldi vera hverjum höfuðsbani, er ætti. Loki segir, at honum þótti þat vel, ok sagði, at þat skyldi haldast mega fyrir því sá formáli, at hann skyldi flytja þeim til eyrna, er þá tæki við.


Fór hann í braut ok kom til Hreiðmars ok sýndi Óðni gullit. En er hann sá bauginn, þá sýndist honum fagr ok tók hann af fénu, en greiddi Hreiðmari gullit. Þá fylldi hann otrbelginn, sem mest mátti hann, ok setti upp, er fullr var. Gekk þá Óðinn til ok skyldi hylja belginn með gullinu, ok þá mælti hann við Hreiðmar, at hann skal sjá, hvárt belgrinn er þá allr hulðr. En Hreiðmarr leit til ok hugði at vandliga ok sá eitt granahár ok bað þat hylja, en at öðrum kosti væri lokit sætt þeira. Þá dró Óðinn fram bauginn ok hulði granahárit ok sagði, at þá váru þeir lausir frá otrgjöldunum.


En er Óðinn hafði tekit geir sinn, en Loki skúa sína ok þurftu þá ekki at óttast, þá mælti Loki, at þat skyldi haldast, er Andvari hafði mælt, at sá baugr ok þat gull skyldi verða þess bani, er ætti, ok þat helzt síðan. Nú er sagt, af hverju gull er otrgjöld kallat eða nauðgjald ásanna eða rógmálmr.

XXXIX. "For what reason is gold called Otter's Wergild? It is related that when certain of the Æsir, Odin and Loki and Hœnir, went forth to explore the earth, they came to a certain river, and proceeded along the river to a waterfall. And beside the fall was an otter, which had taken a salmon from the fall and was eating, blinking his eyes the while. Then Loki took up a stone and cast it at the otter, and struck its head. And Loki boasted in his catch, that he had got otter and salmon with one blow. Then they took up the salmon and the otter and bore them along with them, and coming to the buildings of a certain farm, they went in. Now the husbandman who dwelt there was named Hreidmarr: he was a man of much substance, and very skilled in black magic. The Æsir asked him for a night's lodging, saying that they had sufficient food with them, and showed him their catch. But when Hreidmarr saw the otter, straight way he called to him his sons, Fáfnir and Reginn, and told them that the otter their brother was slain, and who had done that deed.

It Now father and sons went up to the Æsir, seized them, bound them, and told them about the otter, how he was Hreidmarr's son. The Æsir offered a ransom for their lives, as much wealth as Hreidmarr himself desired to appoint; and a covenant was made between them on those terms, and confirmed with oaths. Then the otter was flayed, and Hreidmarr, taking the otter-skin, bade them fill the skin with red gold and also cover it altogether; and that should be the condition of the covenant between them. Thereupon Odin sent Loki into the Land of the Black Elves, and he came to the dwarf who is called Andvari, who was as a fish in the water. Loki caught him in his hands and required of him in ransom of his life all the gold that he had in his rock; and when they came within the rock, the dwarf brought forth all the gold he had, and it was very much wealth. Then the dwarf quickly swept under his hand one little gold ring, but Loki saw it and commanded him to give over the ring. The dwarf prayed him not to take the ring from him, saying that from this ring he could multiply wealth for himself if he might keep it. Loki answered that be should not have one penny left, and took the ring from him and went out; but the dwarf declared that that ring should be the ruin of every one who should come into possession of it. Loki replied that this seemed well enough to him, and that this condition should hold good provided that he himself brought it to the ears of them that should receive the ring and the curse. He went his way and came to Hreidmarr's dwelling, and showed the gold to Odin; but when Odin saw the ring, it seemed fair to him, and he took it away from the treasure, and paid the gold to Hreidmarr. Then Hreidmarr filled the otter-skin as much as he could, and set it up when it was full. Next Odin went up, having the skin to cover with gold, and he bade Hreidmarr look whether the skin were yet altogether hidden. But Hreidmarr looked at it searchingly, and saw one of the hairs of the snout, and commanded that this be covered, else their covenant should be at an end. Then Odin drew out the ring, and covered the hair, saying that they were now delivered from their debt for the slaying of the otter. But when Odin had taken his spear, and Loki his shoes, and they had no longer any need to be afraid, then Loki declared that the curse which Andvari had uttered should be fulfilled: that this ring and this gold should be the destruction of him who received it; and that was fulfilled afterward. Now it has been told wherefore gold is called Otter's Wergild, or Forced Payment of the Æsir, or Metal of Strife.

47. Frá Fáfni, Regin ok Sigurði.  

Hvat er fleira at segja frá gullinu? Hreiðmarr tók þá gullit at sonargjöldum, en Fáfnir ok Reginn beiddust af nökkurs í bróðurgjöld. Hreiðmarr unni þeim enskis pennings af gullinu. Þat varð óráð þeira bræðra, at þeir drápu föður sinn til gullsins.
Þá beiddist Reginn, at Fáfnir skyldi skipta gullinu í helminga með þeim. Fáfnir svarar svá, at lítil ván var at hann myndi miðla gullit við bróður sinn, er hann drap föður sinn til gullsins, ok bað Regin fara braut, en at öðrum kosti myndi hann fara sem Hreiðmarr. Fáfnir hafði þá tekit hjálm, er Hreiðmarr hafði átt, ok setti á höfuð sér, er kallaðr var ægishjálmr, er öll kvikvendi hræðast, er sjá, ok sverð þat, er Hrotti heitir. Reginn hafði þat sveð, er Refill er kallaðr. Flýði hann þá braut, en Fáfnir fór upp á Gnitaheiði ok gerði sér þar ból ok brást í ormslíki ok lagðist á gullit. Reginn fór þá til Hjálpreks konungs á Þjóði ok gerðist þar smiðr hans.
Þá tók hann þar til fóstrs Sigurð, son Sigmundar, sonar Völsungs, ok son Hjördísar, dóttur Eylima. Sigurðr var ágætastr allra herkonunga af ætt ok afli ok hug. Reginn sagði honum til, hvar Fáfnir lá á gullinu, ok eggjaði hann at sækja gullit.

Þá gerði Reginn sverð þat, er Gramr heitir, er svá var hvasst, at Sigurðr brá niðr í rennanda vatn ok tók í sundr ullarlagð, er rak fyrir strauminum at sverðsegginni. Því næst klauf Sigurðr steðja Regins ofan í stokkinn með sverðinu.

Eftir þat fóru þeir Sigurðr ok Reginn á Gnitaheiði. Þá gróf Sigurðr gröf á veg Fáfnis ok settist þar í. En er Fáfnir skreið til vatns ok hann kom yfir gröfina, þá lagði Sigurðr sverðinu í gegnum hann, ok var þat hans bani. Kom þá Reginn at ok sagði, at hann hefði drepit bróður hans, ok bauð honum þat at sætt, at hann skyldi taka hjarta Fáfnis ok steikja við eld, en Reginn lagðist niðr ok drakk blóð Fáfnis ok lagðist at sofa.


En er Sigurðr steikði hjartat ok hann hugði, at fullsteikt myndi, ok tók á fingrinum, hvé hart var. En er frauðit rann ór hjartanu á fingrinn, þá brann hann ok drap fingrinum í munn sér. En er hjartablóðit kom á tunguna, þá kunni hann fuglsrödd ok skilði, hvat igðurnar sögðu, er sátu í viðnum. Þá mælti ein:

 

112. Þar sitr Sigurðr
sveita stokkinn,
Fáfnis hjarta
við funa steikir;
spakr þætti mér
spillir bauga
ef fjörsega
fránan æti.

113. Þar liggr Reginn, kvað önnur,
ræðr um við sik,
vill tæla mög,
þann er trúir hánum,
berr af reiði
röng orð saman,
vill bölvasmiðr
bróður hefna.

 

Þá gekk Sigurðr til Regins ok drap hann, en síðan til hests síns, er Grani heitir, ok reið til þess, er hann kom til bóls Fáfnis, tók þá gullit ok batt í klyfjar ok lagði upp á bak Grana ok steig upp sjálfr ok reið þá leið sína. Nú er þat sagt, hver saga til er þess, at gullit er kallat ból eða byggð Fáfnis eða málmr Gnitaheiðar eða byrðr Grana.

XL. "What more is to be said of the gold? Hreidmarr took the gold for his son's wergild, but Fáfnir and Reginn claimed some part of their brother's blood-money for themselves. Hreidmarr would not grant them one penny of the gold. This was the wicked purpose of those brethren: they slew their father for the gold. Then Reginn demanded that Fáfnir share the gold with him, half for half. Fáfnir answered that there was little chance of his sharing it with his brother, seeing that he had slain his father for its sake; and he bade Reginn go hence, else he should fare even as Hreidmarr. Fáfnir had taken the helmet which Hreidmarr had possessed, and set it upon his head (this helmet was called the Helm of Terror, of which all living creatures that see it are afraid), and the sword called Hrotti. Reginn had that sword which was named Refill. So he fled away, and Fáfnir went up to Gnita Heath, and made himself a lair, and turned himself into a serpent, and laid him down upon the gold.

"Then Reginn went to King Hjálprekr at Thjód, and there he became his smith; and he took into his fostering Sigurdr, son of Sigmundr, Völsungr's son, and of Hjördís, daughter of Eylimi. Sigurdr was. most illustrious of all Host-Kings in race, in prowess, and in mind. Reginn declared to him where Fáfnir lay on the gold, and incited him to seek the gold. Then Reginn fashioned the sword Gramr, which was so sharp that Sigurdr, bringing it down into running water, cut asunder a flock of wool which drifted down-stream onto the sword's edge. Next Sigurdr clove Reginn's anvil down to the stock with the sword. After that they went, Sigurdr and Reginn, to Gnita Heath, and there Sigurdr dug a pit in Fáfnr's way and laid him self in ambush therein. And when Fáfnir glided toward the water and came above the pit, Sigurdr straightway thrust his sword through him, and that was his end.

"Then Reginn came forward, saying that Sigurdr had slain his brother, and demanded as a condition of reconciliation that he take Fáfnir's heart and roast it with fire; and Reginn laid him down and drank the blood of Fáfnir, and settled himself to sleep. But when Sigurdr was roasting the heart, and thought that it must be quite roasted, he touched it with his finger to see how hard it was; and then the juice ran out from the heart onto his finger, so that he was burned and put his finger to his mouth. As soon as the heart's blood came upon his tongue, straightway he knew the speech of birds, and he understood what the nuthatches were saying which were sitting in the trees. Then one spake:

There sits Sigurdr
Blood-besprinkled,
Fáfnir's heart
With flame he roasteth:
Wise seemed to me
The Spoiler of Rings
If the gleaming
Life-fibre he ate.

There lies Reginn--sang another--
Rede he ponders,
Would betray the youth
Who trusteth in him:
In his wrath he plots
Wrong accusation;
The smith of bale
Would avenge his brother.

Then Sigurdr went over to Reginn and slew him, and thence to his horse, which was named Grani, and rode till he came to Fáfnir's lair. He took up the gold, trussed it up in his saddle-bags, laid it upon Grani's back, mounted up himself, and then rode his ways. Now the tale is told why gold is called Lair or Abode of Fáfnir, or Metal of Gnita Heath, or Grani's Burden.

48. Frá Sigurði ok Gjúkungum.  

Þá reið Sigurðr, til þess er hann fann á fjallinu hús. Þar svaf inni ein kona, ok hafði sú hjálm ok brynju. Hann brá sverðinu ok reist brynjuna af henni. Þá vaknaði hon ok nefndist Hildr. Hon er kölluð Brynhildr ok var valkyrja.
Sigurðr reið þaðan ok kom til þess konungs, er Gjúki hét. Kona hans er nefnd Grímhildr. Börn þeira váru þau Gunnarr, Högni, Guðrún, Guðný. Gotthormr var stjúpsonr Gjúka. Þar dvalðist Sigurðr langa hríð. Þá fekk hann Guðrúnar Gjúkadóttur, en Gunnarr ok Högni sórust í bræðralag við Sigurð.
Því næst fóru þeir Sigurðr ok Gjúkusynir at biðja Gunnari konu til Atla Buðlasonar, Brynhildar, systur hans. Hon sat á Hindafjalli, ok var um sal hennar vafrlogi, en hon hafði þess heit strengt at eiga þann einn mann, er þorði at ríða vafrlogann. Þá riðu þeir Sigurðr ok Gjúkungar - þeir eru ok kallaðir Niflungar - upp á fjallit, ok skyldi þá Gunnarr ríða vafrlogann. Hann átti hest þann, er Goti heitir, en sá hestr þorði eigi at hlaupa í eldinn.
Þá skiptu þeir litum, Sigurðr ok Gunnarr, ok svá nöfnum, því at Grani vildi undir engum manni ganga nema Sigurði. Þá hljóp Sigurðr á Grana ok reið vafrlogann. Þat kveld gekk hann at brúðlaupi með Brynhildi. En er þau kómu í sæing, þá dró hann sverðit Gram ór slíðum ok lagði í milli þeira. En at morgni, er hann stóð upp ok klæddi sik, þá gaf hann Brynhildi at línfé gullbauginn, þann er Loki hafði tekit af Andvara, en tók af hendi henni annan baug til minja. Sigurðr hljóp þá á hest sinn ok reið til félaga sinna. Skipta þeir Gunnarr þá aftr litum ok fóru heim til Gjúka með Brynhildi. Sigurðr átti tvau börn með Guðrúnu, Sigmund ok Svanhildi.

XLI. "Then Sigurdr rode on till he found a house on the mountain, wherein a woman in helm and birnie lay sleeping. He drew his sword and cut the birnie from her: she awoke then, and gave her name as Hildr: she is called Brynhildr, and was a Valkyr. Sigurdr rode away and came to the king who was named Gjúki, whose wife was Grímhildr; their children were Gunnarr, Högni, Gudrún, Gudný; Gotthormr was Gjúki's stepson. Sigurdr tarried there a long time, and then he obtained the hand of Gudrún, daughter of Gjúki, and Gunnarr and Högni swore oaths of blood brotherhood with Sigurdr. Thereafter Sigurdr and the sons of Gjúki went unto Atli, Budli's son, to sue for the hand of Brynhildr his sister in marriage to Gunnarr. Brynhildr abode on Hinda-Fell, and about her hall there was a flaring fire; and she had made a solemn vow to take none but that man who should dare to ride through the flaring fire.

"Then Sigurdr and the sons of Gjúki (who were also called Niflungs) rode up onto the mountain, and Gunnarr should have ridden through the flaring fire: but he had the horse named Goti, and that horse dared not leap into the fire. So they exchanged shapes, Sigurdr and Gunnarr, and names likewise; for Grani would go under no man but Sigurdr. Then Sigurdr leapt onto Grani, and rode through the flaring fire. That eve he was wedded with Brynhildr. But when they came to bed, he drew the Sword Gramr from its sheath and laid it between them. In the morning when he arose and clothed himself, he gave Brynhildr as linen-fee the same gold ring which Loki had taken from Andvari, and took another ring from her hand for remembrance. Then Sigurdr mounted his horse and rode to his fellows, and he and Gunnarr changed shapes again and went home to Gjúki with Brynhildr. Sigurdr and Gudrún had two children, Sigmundr and Svanhildr.

49. Drepinn Sigurðr.  

Þat var eitt sinn, at Brynhildr ok Guðrún gengu til vatns at bleikja hadda sína. Þá er þær kómu til árinnar, þá óð Brynhildr út í ána frá landi ok mælti, at hon vildi eigi bera í höfuð sér þat vatn, er rynni ór hári Guðrúnu, því at hon átti búanda hugaðan betr.
Þá gekk Guðrún í ána eftir henni ok sagði, at hon mátti fyrir því þvá ofar sinn hadd í ánni, at hon átti þann mann, er eigi Gunnarr ok engi annarr í veröldu var jafnfrækn, því at hann vá Fáfni ok Regin ok tók arf eftir báða þá.
Þá svarar Brynhildr: "Meira er þat vert, er Gunnarr reið vafrlogann, en Sigurðr þorði eigi."
Þá hló Guðrún ok mælti: "Ætlar þú, at Gunnarr riði vafrlogann? Sá ætlak at gengi í rekkju hjá þér, er mér gaf gullbaug þenna. En sá gullbaugr, er þú hefir á hendi ok þú þátt at línfé, hann er kallaðr Andvaranautr, ok ætlak, at eigi sótti Gunnarr hann á Gnitaheiði."
Þá þagnaði Brynhildr ok gekk heim. Eftir þat eggjaði hon Gunnar ok Högna at drepa Sigurð, en fyrir því at þeir váru eiðsvarar Sigurðar, þá eggjuðu þeir til Gotthorm, bróður sinn, at drepa Siguð. Hann lagði Sigurð sverði í gegnum sofanda. En er hann fekk sárit, þá kastaði hann sverðinu Gram eftir honum, svá at sundr sneið í miðju manninn. Þar fell Sigurðr ok sonr hans þrévetr, er Sigmundr hét, er þeir drápu. Eftir þat lagði Brynhildr sik sverði, ok var hon brennd með Sigurði, en Gunnarr ok Högni tóku þá Fáfnisarf ok Andvaranaut ok réðu þá löndum.


"It befell on a time that Brynhildr and Gudrún went to the water to wash their hair. And when they came to the river, Brynhildr waded out from the bank well into the river, saying that she would not touch to her head the water which ran out of the hair of Gudrún, since herself had the more valorous husband. Then Gudrún went into the river after her and said that it was her right to wash her hair higher upstream, for the reason that she had to husband such a man as neither Gunnarr nor any other in the world matched in valor, seeing that he had slain Fáfnir and Reginn and succeeded to the heritage of both. And Brynhildr made answer: 'It was a matter of greater worth that Gunnarr rode through the flaring fire and Sigurdr durst not.' Then Gudrún laughed, and said: 'Dost thou think that Gunnarr rode through the flaring fire? Now I think that he who went into the bride-bed with thee was the same that gave me this gold ring; and the gold ring which thou bearest on thine hand and didst receive for linen-fee is called Andvari's Yield, and I believe that it was not Gunnarr who got that ring on Gnita Heath.' Then Brynhildr was silent, and went home.

"After that she egged on Gunnarr and Högni to slay Sigurdr; but because they were Sigurdr's sworn blood-brothers, they stirred up Gotthormr their brother to slay him. He thrust his sword through Sigurdr as he slept; but when Sigurdr felt the wound, he hurled his sword Gramr after Gotthormr, so that it cut the man asunder at the middle. There fell Sigurdr and Sigmundr, his son of three winters, whom they slew. Then Brynhildr stabbed herself with a sword, and she was burned with Sigurdr; but Gunnarr and Högni took Fáfnir's heritage and Andvari's Yield, and ruled the lands thereafter.

50. Dráp Gjúkunga ok hefndir Guðrúnar.  

Atli konungr Buðlason, bróðir Brynhildar, fekk þá Guðrúnar, er Sigurðr hafði átta, ok áttu þau börn. Atli konungr bauð þá til sín Gunnari ok Högna, en þeir fóru at heimboðinu. En áðr þeir fóru heiman, þá fálu þeir gullit Fáfnisarf í Rín, ok hefir þat gull aldri síðan fundizt. En Atli konungr hafði þar lið fyrir ok barðist við þá Gunnar ok Högna, ok urðu þeir handteknir. Lét Atli konungr skera hjarta ór Högna kykum. Var þat hans bani. Gunnari lét hann kasta í ormgarð, en honum var fengin leyniliga harpa, ok sló hann með tánum, því at hendr hans váru bundnar, en svá lék hann hörpuna, svá at allir ormarnir sofnuðu nema sú naða, er renndi at honum ok hjó svá fyrir flagbrjóskat, at hon steypði höfðinu inn í holit, ok hangði hon á lifrinni, þar til er hann dó. Gunnarr ok Högni eru kallaðir Niflungar ok Gjúkungar. Fyrir því er gull kallat Niflunga skattr eða arfr.
Litlu síðar drap Guðrún tvá sonu sína ok lét gera með gulli ok silfri borðker af hausum þeira, ok þá var gert erfi Niflunga. At þeiri veizlu lét Guðrún skenkja Atla konungi með þeim borðkerum mjöð, ok var blandit við blóði sveinanna, en hjörtu þeira lét hon steikja ok fá konungi at eta. En er þat var gert, þá sagði hon honum sjálfum með mörgum ófögrum orðum. Eigi skorti þar áfenginn drykk, svá at flest fólk sofnaði, þar sem sat. Á þeiri nótt gekk hon til konungs, er hann svaf, ok með henni sonr Högna ok vágu at honum. Þat var hans bani. Þá skutu þau eldi í höllina, ok brann þat fólk, er þar var inni.
Eftir þat fór hon til sjávar ok hljóp á sæinn ok vildi týna sér, en hana rak yfir fjörðinn, kom þá á þat land, er átti Jónakr konungr. En er hann sá hana, tók hann hana til sín ok fekk hennar. Áttu þau þrjá sonu, er svá hétu: Sörli, Hamðir, Erpr. Þeir váru allir svartir sem hrafn á hárslit sem Gunnarr ok Högni ok aðrir Niflungar.
Þar fæddist upp Svanhildr, dóttir Sigurðar sveins, ok var allra kvinna fegrst. Þat spurði Jörmunrekkr konungr inn ríki. Hann sendi son sinn, Randvé, at biðja hennar sér til handa. En er hann kom til Jónakrs, þá var Svanhildr seld honum í hendr. Skyldi hann færa hana Jörmunrekki konungi. Þá sagði Bikki jarl, at þat var betr fallit, at Randvér ætti Svanhildi, er hann var ungr ok bæði þau, en Jörmunrekkr var gamall. Þetta ráð líkaði þeim vel inum ungum mönnum. Því næst sagði Bikki þetta konungi. Þá lét Jörmunrekkr konungr taka son sinn ok leiða til gálga. Þá tók Randvér hauk sinn ok plokkaði af fjaðrarnar ok bað senda feðr sínum. Þá var hann hengðr. En er Jörmunrekkr konungr sá haukinn, þá kom honum í hug, at svá sem haukrinn var ófleygr ok fjaðralauss, svá var ríki hans ófært, er hann var gamall ok sonlauss. Þá leit Jörmunrekkr konungr Svanhildi, er hann reið ór skógi frá veiðum með hirð sína, hvar hon sat at haddbliki. Þá riðu þeir á hana ok tráðu hana undir hestafótum til bana.


En er þetta spurði Guðrún, þá eggjaði hon sonu sína til hefndar eftir Svanhildi. En er þeir bjuggust til ferðar, þá fekk hon þeim brynjur ok hjálma svá sterka, at eigi mundi járn á festa. Hon lagði ráð fyrir þá, at þá er þeir kæmi til Jörmunrekks konungs, at þeir skyldu ganga of nótt at honum sofanda.

Skyldi Sörli ok Hamðir höggva af honum hendr ok fætr, en Erpr höfuðit. En er þeir kómu á leið, þá spurðu þeir Erp, hver liðsemð þeim myndi at honum, ef þeir hitti Jörmunrekk konung. Hann svarar, at hann myndi veita þeim þvílíkt sem hönd fæti. Þeir segja, at þat var alls ekki, at fótr styddist við hönd. Þeir váru svá reiðir móður sinni, er hon hafði leitt þá út með heiftyrðum, ok þeir vildu gera þat, er henni þætti verst, ok drápu Erp, því at hon unni honum mest.
Litlu síðar, er Sörli gekk, skriðnaði hann öðrum fæti, studdi sik með hendinni. Þá mælti hann: "veitti nú höndin fætinum. Betr væri nú, at Erpr lifði."
En er þeir kómu til Jörmunrekks konungs of nótt, þar sem hann svaf, ok hjuggu af honum hendr ok fætr, þá vaknaði hann ok kallaði á menn sína, bað þá vaka.
Þá mælti Hamðir: "Af myndi nú höfuðit, ef Erpr lifði."

Þá stóðu upp hirðmenninir ok sóttu þá ok fengu eigi sótt með vápnum. Þá kallaði Jörmunrekkr, at þá skal berja grjóti. Var svá gert. Þar fellu þeir Sörli ok Hamðir. Þá var ok dauð öll ætt ok afkvæmi Gjúka.

"King Atli, Budli's son, and brother of Brynhildr, then wedded Gudrún, whom Sigurdr had had to wife; and they had children. King Atli invited to him Gunnarr and Högni, and they came at his invitation. Yet before they departed from their land, they hid the gold, Fáfnir's heritage, in the Rhine, and that gold has never since been found. Now King Atli had a host in readiness, and fought with Gunnarr and Högni; and they were made captive. King Atli bade . the heart be cut out of Högni alive, and that was his end. Gunnarr he caused to be cast into a den of serpents. But a harp was brought secretly to Gunnarr, and he struck it with his toes, his hands being bound; he played the harp so that all the serpents fell asleep, saving only one adder, which glided over to him, and gnawed into the cartilage of his breast-bone so far that her head sank within the wound, and she clove to his liver till he died. Gunnarr and Högni were called Niflungs and Gjúkungs, for which reason gold is called Treasure, or Heritage, of the Niflungs.

["A little while after, Gudrún slew her two sons, and caused flagons to be made of their skulls, set with gold and silver. Then the funeral-feast was held for the Niflungs; and at this feast Gudrún had mead poured into the flagons for King Atli, and the mead was mixed with the blood of the boys. Moreover, she caused their hearts to be roasted and set before the king, that he might eat of them. And when he had eaten, then she herself told him what she had done, with many scathing words. There was no lack of strong drink there, so that most of the company had fallen asleep where they sat. That night she went to the king while he slept, and Högni's son with her; they smote the king, and that was the death of him. Then they set fire to the hall, and burned the folk that were within. After that she went to the shore and leaped into the sea, desiring to make an end of herself; but she was tossed by the billows over the firth, and was borne to King Jónakr's land. And when he saw her, he took her to him and wedded her, and they had three sons, called Sörli, Hamdir, and Erpr: they were all raven-black of hair, like Gunnarr and Högni and the other Niflungs.

 There Svanhildr, daughter of the youth Sigurdr, was reared, and of all women she was fairest. King Jörmunrekkr the Mighty learned of her beauty, and sent his son Randvér to woo her and bring her to be his wife. When Randvér had come to the court of Jónakr, Svanhildr was given into his hands, and he should have! brought her to King Jörmunrekkr. But Earl Bikki said that it was a better thing for Randvér to wed Svandhildr, since he and she were both young, whereas Jörmunrekkr was old. This counsel pleased the young folk well. Thereupon Bikki reported the matter to the king. Straightway, King Jörmunrekkr commanded that his son be seized and led to the gallows. Then Randvér took his hawk and plucked off ins feathers, and bade that it be sent so to his father; after which he was hanged. But when King Jörmunrekkr saw the hawk, suddenly it came home to him that even as the hawk was featherless and powerless to fly, so was his kingdom shorn of its might, since he was old and childless. Then King Jörmunrekkr, riding out of the wood where he had been hunting, beheld Svanhildr as she sat washing her hair: they rode upon her and trod her to death under their horses' feet."
But when Gudrún learned of this, she urged on her sons to take vengeance for Svanhildr. When they were preparing for their journey, she gave them birnies and helmets so strong that iron could not bite into them. She laid these instructions upon them: that, when they were come to King Jörmunrekkr, they should go up to him by night as he slept: Sörli and Hamdir should hew off his hands and feet, and Erpr his head. But when they were on their way, they asked Erpr what help they might expect from him, if they met King Jörmunrekkr. He answered that he would render them such aid as the hand affords the foot. They said that that help which the foot received from the hand was altogether nothing. They were so wroth with their mother that she had sent them away with angry words, and they desired so eagerly to do what would seem worst to her, that they slew Erpr, because she loved him most of all. A little later, while Sörli was walking, one of his feet slipped, and he supported himself on his hand; and he said: 'Now the hand assists the foot indeed; it were better now that Erpr were living.' Now when they came to King Jörmunrekkr by night, where he was sleeping, and hewed hands and feet off him, he awoke and called upon his men, and bade them arise. And then Hamdir spake, saying: 'The head had been off by now, if Erpr lived.'
Then the henchmen rose up and attacked them, but could not overmaster them with weapons; and Jörmunrekkr called out to them to beat them with stones, and it was done. There Sörli and Hamdir fell, and now all the house and offspring of Gjúki were dead. 
Því er brynja kölluð klæði eða váðir Hamðis ok Sörla. [Because of this byrnies are called clothes or garments of Hamdir and Sörli.]
51. Frá Völsungum.  

Eftir Sigurð svein lifði dóttir, er Áslaug hét, er fædd var at Heimis í Hlymdölum, ok eru þaðan ættir komnar stórar. Svá er sagt, at Sigmundr Völsungsson var svá máttugr, at hann drakk eitr ok sakaði ekki, en Sinfjötli, sonr hans, ok Sigurðr váru svá harðir á húðna, at þá sakaði ekki eitr, at útan kæmi á þá bera. Því hefir Bragi skáld svá kveðit:

114.
Þá er forns Litar flotna
á fangboða öngli
hrökkviáll of hrokkinn
hekk Völsunga drekku.

Eftir þessum sögum hafa flest skáld ort ok tekit ýmsa þáttu. Bragi inn gamli orti um fall Sörla ok Hamðis í drápu þeiri, er hann orti um Ragnar loðbrók.

115. Knátti eðr við illan
Jörmunrekkr at vakna
með dreyrfáar dróttir
draum í sverða flaumi;
rósta varð í ranni
Raudvés höfuðniðja,
þá er hrafnbláir hefnðu
harma Erps of barmar.

116. Flaut of set við sveita
sóknar alfs í golfi
hræva dögg, þar er höggnar
hendr sem fætr of kenndusk;
fell í blóði blandinn
brunn ölskála, runna
þat er á Leifa landa
laufi fátt, at höfði.

117. Þar svá at gerðu gyrðan
golfhölkvis sá fylkis
segls naglfara siglur
saums andvanar standa;
urðu snemmst ok sörli
samráða þeir Hamðir
hörðum herðimýlum
Hergauts vinu barðir.

118. Mjök lét stála stökkvir
styðja Gjúka niðja
flaums, þá er fjörvi næma
Foglhildar mun vildu,
ok bláserkjar birkis,
ball, fagrgötu allir,
ennihögg ok eggjar
Jónakrs sonum launa.

119. Þat sék fall á fögrum
flotna randar botni.
Ræs gafumk reiðar mána
Ragnarr ok fjölð sagna.

A daughter named Áslaug lived after young Sigurdr; she was reared with Heimir in Hlymdalir, and great houses are sprung from her. It is said that Sigmundr, Völsungr's son, was so strong that he could drink venom and receive no hurt; and Sinfjötli his son and Sigurdr were so hard-skinned that no venom from without could harm them: wherefore Bragi the Skald has sung thus:

When the wriggling Serpent
Of the Völsung's Drink hung writhing

On the hook of the Foeman
Of Hill-Giants' kindred.

Most skalds have made verses and divers short tales from these sagas. Bragi the Old wrote of the fall of Sörli and Hamdir in that song of praise which he composed on Ragnarr Lodbrók:

Once Jörmunrekkr awakened
To an dream, 'mid the princes
Blood-stained, while swords were swirling:
A brawl burst in the dwelling
Of Randvér's royal kinsman,
When the raven-swarthy
Brothers of Erpr took vengeance
For all the bitter sorrows.

The bloody dew of corpses,
O'er the king's couch streaming,
Fell on the floor where, severed,
Feet and hands blood-dripping
Were seen; in the ale-cups' fountain
He fell headlong, gore-blended:
On the Shield, Leaf of the Bushes
Of Leifi's Land, 't is painted.

There stood the shielded swordsmen,
Steel biting not, surrounding
The king's couch; and the brethren
Hamdir and Sörli quickly
To the earth were beaten
By the prince's order,

To the Bride of Odin
With hard stones were battered.

The swirling weapons' Urger
Bade Gjúki's race be smitten
Sore, who from life were eager
To ravish Svanhildr's lover;
And all pay Jónakr's offspring
With the fair-piercing weapon,
The render of blue birnies,
With bitter thrusts and edges.

I see the heroes' slaughter
On the fair shield-rim's surface;
Ragnarr gave me the Ship-Moon
With many tales marked on it.
]

52. Frá Fróða konungi ok kverninni Grótta.  

Hví er gull kallat mjöl Fróða? Til þess er saga sjá, at Skjöldr hét sonr Óðins, er Skjöldungar eru frá komnir. Hann hafði atsetu ok réð löndum, þar sem nú er kölluð Danmörk, en þá var kallat Gotland. Skjöldr átti þann son, er Friðleifr hét, er löndum réð eftir hann. Sonr Friðleifs hét Fróði. Mann tók konungdóm eftir föður sinn í þann tíð, er Ágústus keisari lagði frið of heim allan. Þá var Kristr borinn. En fyrir því at Fróði var allra konunga ríkastr á Norðlöndum, þá var honum kenndr friðrinn um alla danska tungu, ok kalla menn það Fróðafrið. Engi maðr grandaði öðrum, þótt hann hitti fyrir sér föðurbana eða bróðurbana lausan eða bundinn. Þá var ok engi þjófr eða ránsmaðr, svá at gullhringr einn lá á Jalangrsheiði lengi.
Fróði konungr sótti heimboð í Svíþjóð til þess konungs, er Fjölnir er nefndr. Þá keypti hann ambáttir tvær, er hétu Fenja ok Menja. Þær váru miklar ok sterkar.
Í þann tíma fundust í Danmörku kvernsteinar tveir svá miklir, at engi var svá sterkr, at dregit gæti. En sú náttúra fylgði kvernunum, at þat mólst á kverninni, sem sá mælti fyrir, er mól. Sú kvern hét Grótti. Hengikjöftr er sá nefndr, er Fróða konungi gaf kvernina.
Fróði konungr lét leiða ambáttirnar til kvernarinnar ok bað þær mala gull, ok svá gerðu þær, mólu fyrst gull ok frið ok sælu Fróða. Þá gaf hann þeim eigi lengri hvílð eða svefn en gaukrinn þagði eða hljóð mátti kveða. Þat er sagt, at þær kvæði ljóð þau, er kallat er Gróttasöngr, ok er þetta upphaf at:

120. Nú erum komnar
til konungs húsa
framvísar tvær,
Fenja ok Menja;
þær eru at Fróða
Friðleifs sonar
máttkar meyjar
at mani hafðar.

Ok áðr létti kvæðinu, mólu þær her at Fróða, svá at á þeiri nótt kom þar sá sækonungr, er Mýsingr hét, ok drap Fróða, tók þar herfang mikit. Þá lagðist Fróðafriðr. Mýsingr hafði með sér Grótta ok svá Fenju ok Menju ok bað þær mala salt. Ok at miðri nótt spurðu þær, ef eigi leiddist Mýsingi salt. Hann bað þær mala lengr. Þær mólu litla hríð, áðr niðr sökk skipit, ok var þar eftir svelgr í hafinu, er særinn fellr í kvernaraugat. Þá varð sær saltr.

XLII. "Why is gold called Fródi's Meal? This is the tale thereof: One of Odin's sons, named Skjöldr,--from whom the Skjöldungs are come,--had his abode and ruled in the realm which now is called Denmark, but then was known as Gotland. Skjöldr's son, who ruled the land after him, was named Fridleifr. Fridleifr's son was Fródi: he succeeded to the kingdom after his father, in the time when Augustus Caesar imposed peace on all the world; at that time Christ was born. But because Fródi was mightiest of all kings in the Northern lands, the peace was called by his name wherever the Danish tongue was spoken; and men call it the Peace of Fródi. No man injured any other, even though he met face to face his father's slayer or his brother's, loose or bound. Neither was there any thief nor robber then, so that a gold ring lay long on Jalangr's Heath. King Fródi went to a feast in Sweden at the court of the king who was called Fjölnir, and there he bought two maid-servants, Fenja and Menja: they were huge and strong. In that time two mill-stones were found in Denmark, so great that no one was so strong that he could turn them: the nature of the mill was such that whatsoever he who turned asked for, was ground out by the mill-stones. This mill was called Grótti. He who gave King Fródi the mill was named Hengikjöptr. King Fródi had the maid-servants led to the mill, and bade them grind gold; and they did so. First they ground gold and, peace and happiness for Fródi; then he would grant them rest or sleep no longer than the cuckoo held its peace or a song might be sung. It is said that they sang the song which is called the Lay of Grótti, and this is its beginning:

Now are we come
To the king's house,
The two fore-knowing,
Fenja and Menja:
These are with Fródi
Son of Fridleifr,
The Mighty Maidens,
As maid-thralls held.

And before they ceased their singing, they ground out a host against Fródi, so that the sea-king called Mýsingr came there that same night and slew Fródi, taking much plunder. Then the Peace of Fródi was ended. Mýsingr took Grótti with him, and Fenja and Menja also, and bade them grind salt. And at midnight they asked whether Mýsingr were not weary of salt. He bade them grind longer. They had ground but a little while, when down sank the ship; and from that time there has been a whirlpool the sea where the water falls through the hole in the mill-stone. It was then that the sea became salt.

[Gróttasöngr: ["The lay of Grótti:

2. Þær at lúðri
leiddar váru
ok grjóts gréa
gangs of beiddu;
hét hann hvárigri
hvíld né ynði,
áðr hann heyrði
hljóm ambátta.

They to the flour-mill
Were led, those maidens,
And bidden tirelessly
To turn the gray mill-stone:
He promised to neither
Peace nor surcease
Till he had heard
The handmaids' singing.

3. Þær þyt þulu
þögnhorfinnar:
"Leggjum lúðra,
léttum steinum."
Bað hann enn meyjar,
at þær mala skyldu.

They chanted the song
Of the ceaseless mill-stone:
'Lay we the bins right,
Lift we the stones!'
He urged the maidens
To grind on ever.

4. Sungu ok slungu
snúðga-steini,
svá at Fróða man
flest sofnaði;
þá kvað þat Menja,
var til meldrs komin:

They sung and slung
The whirling stone
Till the men of Fródi
For the most part slept;
Then spake Menja,
To the mill coming:

5. "Auð mölum Fróða,
mölum alsælan,
mölum fjölð féar
á feginslúðri;
siti hann á auði,
sofi hann á dúni,
vaki hann at vilja,
þá er vel malit.

'Wealth grind we for Fródi,
We grind it in plenty,
Fullness of fee
At the mill of fortune:
Let him sit on riches
And sleep on down;
Let him wake in weal:
Then well 't is ground.

 

6. Hér skyli engi
öðrum granda,
til böls búa
né til bana orka,
né höggva því
hvössu sverði,
þó at bana bróður
bundinn finni."

Here may no one
Harm another,
Contrive evil,
Nor cast wiles for slaying,
Nor slaughter any
With sword well sharpened,
Though his brother's slayer
In bonds he find.'

 

7. En hann kvað ekki
orð it fyrra:
"Sofið eigi meir
en of sal gaukar
eða lengr en svá
ljóð eitt kveðak."

But he spake no word
Save only this:
'Sleep ye no longer
Than the hall-cuckoo's silence,
Nor longer than so,
While one song is sung.'

8. "Var-at-tu, Fróði,
fullspakr of þik,
málvinr manna,
er þú man keyptir;
kaustu at afli
ok at álitum,
en at ætterni
ekki spurðir.

'Thou wast not, Fródi,
Full in wisdom,
Thou friend of men,
When thou boughtest the maidens:
Didst choose for strength
And outward seeming;
But of their kindred
Didst not inquire.

9. Harðr var Hrungnir
ok hans faðir,
þó var Þjazi
þeim öflgari;
Iði ok Aurnir,
okkrir niðjar,
bræðr bergrisa,
þeim erum bornar.

'Hardy was Hrungnir,
And his father;
Yet was Thjazi
Than they more mighty:
Idi and Aurnir
Of us twain are kinsmen,--
Brothers of Hill-Giants,
Of them were we born.

10. Kæmi-a Grótti
ór gréa fjalli
né sá inn harði
hallr ór jörðu,
né mæli svá
mær bergrisa,
ef vissi vit
vætr til hennar.

Grótti had not come
From the gray mountain,
Nor the hard boulder
From the earth's bosom,
Nor thus would grind
The Hill-Giants' maiden,
If any had known
The news of her.

11. Vér vetr níu
várum leikur
öflgar alnar
fyr jörð neðan;
stóðu meyjar
at meginverkum,
færðum sjalfar
setberg ór stað.

'We nine winters
Were playmates together,
Mighty of stature,
'Neath the earth's surface,
The maids had part
In mighty works:
Ourselves we moved
Mighty rocks from their place.

12. Veltum grjóti
of garð risa,
svá at fold fyrir
fór skjalfandi;
svá slöngðum vit
snúðga-steini,
höfga-halli,
at halir tóku.

'We rolled the rock
O'er the Giants' roof-stead,
So that the ground,
Quaking, gave before us;
So slung we
The whirling stone,
The mighty boulder,
Till men took it.

13. En vit síðan
á Svíþjóðu
framvísar tvær
í folk stigum,
beiddum björnu,
en brutum skjöldu,
gengum í gögnum
gráserkjat lið.

'And soon after
In Sweden's realm,
We twain fore-knowing
Strode to the fighting;
Bears we hunted,
And shields we broke;
We strode through
The gray-mailed spear-host.

14. Steypðum stilli,
studdum annan,
veittum góðum
Gothormi lið;
var-a kyrrseta,
áðr Knúi felli.

We cast down a king,
We crowned another;
To Gotthormr good
We gave assistance;
No quiet was there
Ere Knúi fell.

15. Fram heldum því
þau misseri,
at vit at köppum
kenndar várum;
þar sorðu vit
skörpum geirum
blóð ór benjum
ok brand ruðum.

'This course we held
Those years continuous,
That we were known
For warriors mighty;
There with sharp spears
Wounds we scored,
Let blood from wounds,
And reddened the brand.

16. Nú erum komnar
til konungs húsa
miskunnlausar
ok at mani hafðar;
aurr etr iljar,
en ofan kulði,
drögum dolgs sjötul,
daprt er at Fróða.

'Now are we come
To the king's abode
Of mercy bereft
And held as bond-maids;
Clay eats our foot-soles,
Cold chills us above;
We turn the Peace-Grinder:
'T is gloomy at Fródi's.

17. Hendr skulu hvílask,
hallr standa mun,
malit hefi ek fyr mik;
mitt of leiti;
nú mun-a höndum
hvíld vel gefa,
áðr fullmalit
Fróða þykki.

'Hands must rest,
The stone must halt;
Enough have I turned,
My toil ceases:
Now may the hands
Have no remission
Till Fródi hold
The meal ground fully.

18. Hendr skulu höndla
harðar trjónur,
vápn valdreyrug,
vaki þú, Fróði,
vaki þú, Fróði,
ef þú hlýða vill
söngum okkrum
ok sögnum fornum.

'The hands should hold
The hard shafts,
The weapons gore-stained,--
Wake thou, Fródi!
Wake thou, Fródi,
If thou wouldst hearken
To the songs of us twain
And to ancient stories.

19. Eld sé ek brenna
fyr austan borg,
vígspjöll vaka,
þat mun viti kallaðr,
mun herr koma
hinig af bragði
ok brenna bæ
fyr buðlungi.

'Fire I see burning
East of the burg,
War-tidings waken,
A beacon of warning:
A host shall come
Hither, with swiftness,
And fire the dwellings
Above King Fródi.

20. Mun-at þú halda
Hleiðrar stóli,
rauðum hringum
né regingrjóti;
tökum á möndli
mær, skarpara,
erum-a varmar
í valdreyra.

'Thou shalt not hold
The stead of Hleidr,
The red gold rings
Nor the gods' holy altar;
We grasp the handle,
Maiden, more hardly,--
We were not warmer
In the wound-gore of corpses.

21. Mól míns föður
mær rammliga,
því at hon feigð fira
fjölmargra sá;
stukku stórar
steðr frá lúðri
járni varðar,
mölum enn framar!

'My father's maid
Mightily ground
For she saw the feyness
Of men full many;
The sturdy posts
From the flour-box started,
Made staunch with iron.
Grind we yet swifter.

22. Mölum enn framar!
Mun Yrsu sonr,
niðr Halfdanar,
hefna Fróða;
sá mun hennar
heitinn verða
burr ok bróðir,
vitum báðar þat."

'Grind we yet swifter!
The son of Yrsa,
Hálfdanr's kinsman,
Shall come with vengeance
On Fródi's head:
Him shall men call
Yrsa's son and brother.
We both know that.'

23. Mólu meyjar,
megins kostuðu,
váru ungar
í jötunmóði;
skulfu skaptré,
skauzk lúðr ofan,
hraut inn höfgi
hallr sundr í tvau.

The maidens ground,
Their might they tested,
Young and fresh
In giant-frenzy:
The bin-poles trembled,
And burst the flour-box;
In sunder burst
The heavy boulder.

24. En bergrisa
brúðr orð of kvað:
"Malit höfum, Fróði,
sem munum hætta,
hafa fullstaðit
fljóð at meldri."

And the sturdy bride
Of Hill-Giants spake:
'We have ground, O Fródi!
Soon we cease from grinding;
The women have labored
O'er long at the grist.'

Einarr Skúlason kvað svá: Thus sang Einarr Skúlason:


Frá ek at Fróða meyjar
fullgóliga mólu
- lætr stillir grið gulli -
Grafvitnis beð - slitna.
Mjúks - bera minnar øxar
meldr þann við hlyn *feldrar -
konungs dýrkar fé - Fenju
fögr hlýr - bragar stýri.

I have heard that Fródi's hand-maids
Ground in the mill full gladly
The Serpent's Couch; with gold-meal
The king lets peace be broken:
The fair cheeks of my axe-head,
Fitted with maple, show forth
Fenja's Grist; exalted
Is the skald with the good king's riches.

Svá kvað Egill: So sang Egill:

Glaðar flotna fjölð
við Fróða mjöl

Glad are full many men
In Fródi's meal.]

53. Frá Hrólfi kraka ok Vögg  
Hví er gull kallat sáð Kraka? Konungr einn í Danmörk er nefndr Hrólfr kraki. Hann var ágætastr fornkonunga fyrst af mildi ok fræknleik ok lítillæti. Þat er eitt mark um lítillæti hans, er mjök er fært í frásagnir, at einn lítill sveinn ok fátækr er nefndr Vöggr. Hann kom í höll Hrólfs konungs. Þá var konungrinn ungr at aldri ok grannligr á vöxt. Þá gekk Vöggr fyrir hann ok sá upp á hann.
Þá mælti konungr: "Hvat viltu mæla, sveinn, er þú sér á mik?"
Vöggr segir: "Þá er ek var heima, heyrðak sagt, at Hrólfr konungr at Hleiðru var mestr maðr á Norðrlöndum, en nú sitr hér í hásæti kraki einn lítill, ok kallið þér hann konung."
Þá svarar konungr: "Þú, sveinn, hefir gefit mér nafn, at ek skal heita Hrólfr kraki, en þat er títt, at gjöf skal fylgja nafnfesti. Nú sé ek þik enga gjöf hafa til at gefa mér at nafnfesti, þá er mér sé þægilig. Nú skal sá gefa öðrum, er til hefir," - tók gullhring af hendi sér ok gaf honum.
Þá mælti Vöggr: "Gef þú allra konunga heilastr, ok þess strengi ek heit at verða þess manns bani, er þinn banamaðr verðr."
Þá mælti konungr ok hló við: "Litlu verðr Vöggr feginn."

XLIII. "Why is gold called Kraki's Seed? In Denmark there was a king called Hrólfr Kraki: he was most renowned of all ancient kings for munificence, valor, and graciousness. One evidence of his graciousness which is often brought into stories is this: A little lad and poor, Vöggr by name, came into the hall of King Hrólfr. At that time the king was young, and of slender stature. Vöggr came into his presence and looked up at him; and the king said: 'What wouldst thou say, lad, for thou lookest at me?' Vöggr answered: 'When I was at home, I heard say that Hrólfr the king at Hleidr was the greatest man in the northern lands; but now there sitteth in the high seat a little pole, and he is called King.' Then the king made answer: 'Thou, boy, hast given me a name, so that I shall be called Hrólfr the Pole (Kraki); and it is the custom that the giving of a name be accompanied by a gift. Now I see that with the name which thou has fastened on me, thou hast no gift such as would be acceptable to me, wherefore he that has wherewith to give shall give to the other.' And he took from his hand a gold ring and gave it to him. Then Vöggr said: 'Above all kings be thou most blessed of givers! Now I swear an oath that I shall be that man's slayer who slays thee.' Then spake the king, laughing loudly: 'Vöggr is pleased with a small thing.'

54. Frá Hrólfi hraka ok Aðilsi konungi.  

Annat mark var þat sagt frá Hrólfi kraka um fræknleik hans, at sá konungr réð fyrir Uppsölum, er Aðils hét. Hann átti Yrsu, móður Hrólfs kraka. Hann hafði ósætt við þann konung, er réð fyrir Nóregi, er Áli hét. Þeir stefndu orrostu milli sín á ísi vatns þess, er Væni heitir. Aðils konungr sendi boð Hrólfi kraka, mági sínum, at hann kæmi til liðveizlu við hann, ok hét mála öllum her hans, meðan þeir væri í ferðinni, en konungr sjálfr skyldi eignast þrjá kostgripi, þá er hann köri af Svíðjóð. Hrólfr konungr mátti eigi fara fyrir ófriði þeim, er hann átti við Saxa, en þó sendi hann Aðilsi berserki sína tólf. Þar var einn Böðvarr bjarki ok Hjalti hugprúði, Hvítserkr hvati, Vöttr, Véseti, þeir bræðr Svipdagr ok Beiguðr. Í þeiri orrostu féll Áli konungr ok mikill hluti liðs hans. Þá tók Aðils konungr af honum dauðum hjálminn Hildisvín ok hest hans Hrafn.

Þá beiddust þeir berserkir Hrólfs kraka at taka mála sinn, þrjú pund gulls hverr þeira, ok um fram beiddust þeir at flytja Hrólfi kraka kostgripi þá, er þeir kuru til handa honum. Þat var hjálmrinn Hildigöltr ok brynjan Finnsleif, er á hvárigu festi járn, ok gullhringr sá, er kallaðr var Svíagríss, er átt höfðu langfeðgar Aðils. En konungr varnaði allra gripanna, ok eigi heldr galt hann málann. Fóru berserkir braut ok unðu illa sínum hlut, sögðu svá búit Hrólfi kraka.

Ok jafnskjótt byrjaði hann ferð sína til Uppsala, ok er hann kom skipum sínum í ána Fýri, þá reið hann til Uppsala, ok með honum tólf berserkir hans, allr griðalausir. Yrsa, móðir hans, fagnaði honum ok fylgði honum til herbergis ok eigi til konungs hallar. Váru þá gervir eldar fyrir þeim ok gefit öl at drekka.

Þá komu menn Aðils konungs inn ok báru skíð á eldinn ok gerðu svá mikinn, at klæði brunnu af þeim Hrólfi, ok mæltu: "Er þat satt, at Hrólfr kraki ok berserkir hans flýja hvárki eld né járn?"
Þá hljóp Hrólfr kraki upp ok allir þeir. Þá mælti hann:

121. "Aukum enn elda
at Aðils húsum,"

tók skjöld sinn ok kastaði á eldinn ok hljóp yfir eldinn, meðan skjöldrinn brann, ok mælti enn:

122. "Flýra sá eld
er yfir hleypr."

Svá fór hverr at öðrum hans manna, tóku þá ok, er eldinn höfðu aukit, ok köstuðu á eldinn. Þá kom Yrsa ok fekk Hrólfi kraka dýrshorn, fullt af gulli, ok þar með hringinn Svíagrís ok bað þá braut ríða til liðsins. Þeir hljópu á hesta sína ok ríða ofan á Fýrisvöllu. Þá sá þeir, at Aðils konungr reið eftir þeim með her sinn alvápnaðan ok vill drepa þá. Þá tók Hrólfr kraki hægri hendi gullit ofan í hornit ok söri allt um götuna. En er Svíar sjá þat, hlaupa þeir ór söðlunum, ok tók hverr slíkt er fekk, en Aðils konungr bað þá ríða ok reið sjálfr ákafliga. Slöngvir hét hestr hans, allra hesta skjótastr. Þá sá Hrólfr kraki, at Aðils konungr reið nær honum, tók þá hringinn Svíagrís ok kastaði til hans ok bað hann þiggja at gjöf. Aðils konungr reið at hringinum ok tók til með spjótsoddinum ok renndi upp á falinn.
Þá veik Hrólfr kraki aftr ok sá, er hann laut niðr. Þá mælti hann: "Svínbeygt hefi ek nú þann, er ríkastr er með Svíum." Svá skilðust þeir.

Af þessi sök er gull kallat sáð Kraka eða Fýrisvalla. Svá kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:

123. Bárum, Ullr, of alla,
ímunlauks, á hauka
fjöllum Fýrisvalla
fræ Hákunar ævi.

Svá sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

124. Örð sær Yrsu burðar
inndrótt jöfurr sinni
bjartplógaðan bauga
brattakr völu-spakra.
Eyss landreki ljósu
lastvarr Kraka barri
á hlémyldar holdi,
hauks kölfur mér sjalfum.

"Another example is the tale told concerning the valor of Hrólfr Kraki: That king whom men call Adils ruled over Uppsala; he had to wife Yrsa, mother of Hrólfr Kraki. He was at strife with the king who ruled over Norway, whose name was Ali; the two joined battle on the ice of the lake called Vaeni. King Adils sent an embassy to Hrólfr Kraki, his stepson, praying him to come to his aid, and promised wages to all his host so long as they should be away; King Hrólfr himself should have three precious gifts, whatsoever three he might choose from all Sweden.  King Hrólfr could not make the journey in person, owing to the strife in which he was engaged with the Saxons; but he sent to Adils his twelve berserks: Bödvar-Bjarki was there for one, and Hjalti the Stout-Hearted, Hvítserkr the Stern, Vöttr Véseti, and the brethren Svipdagr and Beigudr. In that battle King Áli fell, and the great part of his host with him; and King Adils took from him in death the helm Battle-Swine and his horse Raven. Then the berserks of Hrólfr Kraki demanded for their hire three pounds of gold for each man of them; and in addition they required that they might bear to Hrólfr Kraki those gifts of price which they had chosen for him: which were the Helm Battle-Boar and the birnie Finn's Heritage,--on neither of which iron would take hold,--and the gold ring which was called Pig of the Swedes, which Adils' forefathers had had. But the king denied them all these things, nor did he so much as pay their hire: the berserks went away ill-pleased with their share, and told the state of things to Hrólfr Kraki.

"Straightway he begin his journey to Uppsala; and when he had brought his ships into the river Fýri, he rode at once to Uppsala, and his twelve berserks with him, all without safe-conduct. Yrsa, his mother, welcomed him and led him to lodgings, but not to the king's hall: fires were made there before them, and ale was given them to drink. Then men of King Adils came in and heaped firewood onto the fire, and made it so great that the clothes were burnt off Hrólfr and his men. And the fellows spake: 'Is it true that Hrólfr Kraki and his berserks shun neither fire nor iron?' Then Hrólfr Kraki leapt up, and all they that were with him; and he said:

'Add we to the fire
In Adils' dwelling!'

took his shield and cast it onto the fire, and leapt over the flames, while the shield burnt; and he spake again:

'He flees not the flames
Who o'er the fire leapeth!'

Even so did his men, one after another; and they laid hands on those fellows who had heaped up the fire, and cast them into the flames. Then Yrsa came and gave Hrólfr Kraki a deer's horn full of gold, the ring Pig of the Swedes being with the gold; and she bade them ride away to the host. They vaulted onto their horses and rode down into the Plain of the Fýri; and soon they saw King Adils riding after them with his host all in armor, hoping to slay them. Then Hrólfr Kraki plunged his right hand down into the horn, grasped the gold, and strewed it all about the road. When the Swedes saw that, they leapt down out of their saddles, and each took up as much as he could lay hold of; but King Adils bade them ride on, and himself rode furiously . His horse was called Slöngvir, swiftest of all horses. Then Hrólfr Kraki saw that King Adils was drawing close up to him, took the ring, Pig of the Swedes, and threw it toward him, and bade him receive it as a gift. King Adils rode at the ring and thrust at it with his spear-point, and let it slide down over the shaft-socket. Then Hrólfr Kraki turned back and saw how he bent down, and spake: 'Now I have made him who is mightiest of Swedes stoop as a swine stoops.' Thus they parted. For this cause gold is called Seed of Kraki or of Fýri's Plain. Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:

God of the blade of battle,
We bear through Hákon's life-days
The Seed of Fýri's valley
On our arms, where sits the falcon.

Even as Thjódólfr sang:

The king sows the bright seed-corn
Of knuckle-splendid gold rings,
With the crop of Yrsa's offspring,
In his company's glad hand-grasp;
The guileless 'Land-Director
With Kraki's gleaming barley

Sprinkles my arms, the flesh-grown
Seat of the hooded falcon.

55. Frá Hölga konungi.  

Svá er sagt, at konungr sá, er Hölgi er nefndr, er Hálogaland er við kennt, var faðir Þorgerðar Hölgabrúðar. Þau váru bæði blótuð, ok var haugr Hölga kastaðr, önnur fló af gulli eða silfri - þat var blótféit - en önnur fló af moldu ok grjóti. Svá kvað Skúli Þorsteinsson:

125. Þá er ræfrvita Reifnis
rauð ek fyr Svölð til auðar,
herfylgins bar ek Hölga
haugþök saman baugum.

XLIV. "It is said that the king called Hölgi, from whom Hálogaland is named, was the father of Thorgerdr Hölgabrúdr; sacrifice was made to both of them, and a cairn was raised over Hölgi: one layer of gold or silver (that was the sacrificial money), and another layer of mould and stones. Thus sang Skúli Thorsteinsson:

When I reddened Reifnir's Roof-Bane,
The ravening sword, for wealth's sake
At Svöldr, I heaped with gold rings
Warlike Hölgi's cairn-thatch.

56. Enn frá gullskenningum.  
Í Bjarkarmálum inum fornum eru tölð mörg gullsheiti.
Svá segir þar:
126. Gramr inn gjöflasti
gæddi hirð sína
Fenju forverki,
Fáfnis Miðgarði,
Glasis glóbarri,
Grana fagrbyrði,
Draupnis dýrsveita,
dúni Grafvitnis.

127. Ýtti örr hilmir,
aldir við tóku,
Sifjar svarðfestum,
svelli dalnauðar,
tregum otrsgjöldum,
tárum Mardallar,
eldi Órunar,
Iðja glysmálum.

128. Gladdi gunnveitir,
gengum fagrbúnir,
Þjaza þingskilum
þjóðir hermargar,
Rínar rauðmalmi,
rógi Niflunga,
vísi inn vígdjarfi.
Varði hann Baldr þeygi.

In the ancient  Bjarkamál many terms for gold are told: it says there:

The king most gift-gracious
His guardsmen enriched

With Fenja's Labor,
With Fáfnir's Midgard,
Glasir's bright Needles,
Grani's fair Burden,
Draupnir's dear dripping,
Down of Grafvitnir.

The free-handed Lord gave,
The heroes accepted,
Sif's firm-grown tresses,
Ice of the bow-force,
Otter-gild unwilling,
Weeping of Mardöll,
Fire-flame of Órun,
Idi's fine Speeches.

The warrior rejoiced;
We walked in fair garments,
In Thjazi's counsels
The people's host-countless,
In the Rhine's red metal,
Wrangling of Niflungs,
The leader war-daring,
Warded Baldr not.

Gull er kallat í kenningum eldr handar eða liðs eða leggjar, því at þat er rautt, en silfr snær eða svell eða héla, því at þat er hvítt. Með sama hætti skal ok kenna gull eða silfr til sjóðs eða diguls eða lauðar, en hvárttveggja silfr ok gull má vera grjót handar eða hálsgjörð nökkurs þess manns, er títt var at hafa men. Men ok hringar eru bæði silfr ok gull, ef eigi er annan veg greint. Sem kvað Þorleikr fagri:

129. Kastar gramr á glæstar
gegn valstöðvar þegnum,
ungr vísi gefr eisu
armleggs, digulfarmi.

Ok sem kvað Einarr skálaglamm:

130. Liðbröndum kná Lundar
landfrækn jöfurr granda.
Hykka ek ræsis rekka
Rínar grjót of þrjóta.

Svá kvað Einarr Skúlason:

131. Blóðeisu liggr bæði
bjargs tveim megin geima
sjóðs, á ek sökkva stríði,
snær ok eldr, at mæra.

Ok enn sem hann kvað:

132.
Dægr þrymr hvert, en hjarta
hlýrskildir ræðr mildu
Heita blakks, of hvítum
hafleygr digulskafli.
Aldri má fyr eldi
áls hrynbrautar skála,
öll viðr folka fellir
framræði snæ bræða.

Hér er gull kallat eldr áls hrynbrautar, en silfr snær skálanna. Svá kvað Þórðr Mæraskáld:

133.
Sér á seima rýri,
sigðis látrs at átti,
hrauns glaðsendir handa,
Hermóðr föður góðan.

XLV. Gold is metaphorically termed Fire of the Hand, or of the Limb, or of the Leg, because it is red; but silver is called Snow, or Ice, or Hoar-Frost, because it is white. In like manner, gold or silver may be periphrased in metaphors of purse, or crucible, or lather, and both silver and gold may be called Hand-Stone, or Necklace, of any man who was wont to have a necklace. Necklaces and rings are both silver and gold, if no other distinction is raised.

As Thorleikr the Fair sang:

The kindly Prince the Load casts
Of Crucibles on the Hawk-Seats
Of thanes, the wrists embellished,--
Gives Embers of the Arm-joint.

And as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The land-strong King of Lurid
Breaks the golden Limb-Brands;
I think the Prince of Warriors
Lacks not the Rhine's bright Pebbles.

Thus sang Einarr Skúlason:

The Purse-Snow and the Sea-Fire
Lie on both sides of the axe-head
Blood-spilling; 't is my office
To praise our foemen's Scather.

And as he sang further:

The Sea-Glow each day standeth
O'er the Crucible's white Snow-Drift,
And the shield, ships' cheeks protecting,
Shelters a heart most lavish;
Ne'er can one melt the silver
Flagon-Snow in the Fire-Flame
Of the Eel's Stream-Road; the Feller
Of Hosts all feats performeth.

Here gold is called Fire of the Eel's Stream-Road; and silver, Snow of Flagons.

Thus sang Thórdr Mæri's Skald:

The glad Giver of the Hand-Waste
Of the Gold-Minisher perceiveth
That the Hermódr of the Snake's Lair
Hath had a lordly father.

57. Maðr kenndr til gulls  

Maðr er kallaðr brjótr gullsins, svá sem kvað Óttarr svarti:

134. Góðmennis þarf ek gunnar
glóð-brjótanda at njóta.
Hér er alnennin inni
inndrótt með gram svinnum.

Eða gullsendir, sem kvað Einarr skálaglamm:

135. Gullsendir lætr grundar,
glaðar þengill her drengja,
hans mæti kná ek hljóta,
hljót Yggs mjaðar njóta.

Gullvörpuðr, sem kvað Þorleikr:

136. Hirð viðr grams með gerðum
gollvörpuðr sér holla.

Gullstríðir, sem kvað Þorvaldr blönduskáld:

137. Gullstríðir verpr glóðum,
gefr auð konungr rauðan,
óþjóðar bregðr eyðir,
armleggs, Grana farmi.

Gullskati, sem hér er:

138. Gat ek gullskata;
gör er leygs of bör
götu gunnvita
gráps tögdrápa.

XLVI. "Man is called Breaker of Gold, even as Óttarr the Swarthy sang:

I needs must use the Breaker
Of the Battle-Glow of good men;
Here is the watch war-doughty
Of the Wise King assembled
.

Or Gold-Sender, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The Sender of Gold permitteth
The silent earth to hearken
To song; his gifts I gather:
The prince his young men gladdens.

Gold-Caster, as Thorleikr sang:

Gold-Caster makes loyal to him
His guard with kingly armor.

Gold's Adversary, as sang Thorvaldr Blending-Skald:

The gold's foe Hot Coals casteth
Of the Arm; the king gives red wealth;

The vile folk's Desolator
Dispenseth the Freight of Grani.

Gold-Towerer, as is written here:

The Gold-Towerer in friendship
I got, and of the Warrior,
Son of the glowing War-Blade,
I make a song of praise.

58. Kona kennd til gulls.  

 

Kona er kennd til gulls, kölluð selja gulls, sem kvað Hallar-Steinn:

139. Svalteigar mun selju
salts Viðblinda galtar
rafkastandi rastar
reyrþvengs muna lengi.

Hér er kallat hvalir Viðblinda geltir. Hann var jötunn ok dró hvali í hafi út sem fiska. Teigr hvala er sær, röf sævar er gull. Kona er selja gulls þess, er hon gefr, ok samheiti við selju er tré, sem fyrr er ritat, at kona er kennd við alls konar trjáheiti kvenkennd. Hon er ok lág kölluð þess, er hon gefr. Lág heitir ok tré þat, er fellr í skógi. Svá kvað Gunnlaugr ormstunga:

140. Alin var rýgr at rógi,
runnr olli því gunnar,
lág var ek auðs at eiga
óðgjarn, fira börnum.

Kona er kölluð mörk. Svá kvað Hallar-Steinn:

141. Ek hefi óðar lokri
ölstafna Bil skafna,
væn mörk skála, verki
vandr stef-knarrar branda.

Tróða, enn sem kvað Steinn:

142. Þú munt, fúrs, sem fleiri,
flóðs hirðisif, tróður,
grönn, við gæfu þinni
grjóts Hjaðninga brjótask.

Skorða, svá kvað Ormr Steinþórsson:

143. Skorða var í föt færð
fjarðbeins afar hrein.
Nýri slöng nadd-Freyr
nisting of mjaðar Hrist.

Stoð, sem Steinarr kvað:

144. Mens hafa mildrar Synjar
mjúkstalls logit allir,
sjá höfumk veltistoð stilltan
straumtungls, at mér draumar.

Björk, enn sem Ormr kvað:

145. Því at hols hrynbáls
hramma, þats ek berk fram,
Billings á burar full
bjarkar hefi ek lagit mark.

Eik, svá sem hér er:

146. Aura stendr fyr órum
eik fagrbúin leiki.

Lind, svá sem hér er:

147. Ógnrakkr, skalat okkur,
almr dynskúrar malma,
svá bauð lind í landi
líns, hugrekki dvína.

Woman is periphrased in metaphors of gold, being called Willow or Giver of Gold, as Hallarsteinn sang:

He who casts the Amber
Of Vidblindi's Boar's cool, salt Drink,
Long will recall the Willow
Of the Reed-Snake's golden River.

Here the whale is called Boar of Vidblindi; this Vidblindi was a giant who drew whales out of the sea like fishes. The Drink of Whales is the sea; Amber of the Sea is gold; woman is the Willow, or Dealer, of that gold which she gives; and the willow is a tree. Therefore, as is already shown, woman is periphrased with all manner of feminine tree-names: she is also called User of that which she gives; and the word for 'user' also signifies a log, the tree which falls in the forest.

Thus sang Gunnlaugr Serpent's-Tongue:

That dame was born to stir strife
Among the sons of men-folk;
The War-Bush caused that; madly
I yearned to have the Wealth-Log.

Woman is called Forest; so sang Hallarsteinn:

With the well-trained Plane of Singing,
The tongue, I have planed, my Lady,
Dame of the First Song's ale-vats,
Forest fair of Flagons.

Fagot, as Steinn sang:

Thou shalt, O fresh Sif-Tender
Of the Flood's gold Fire, like other
Fagots of Hjadnings' gravel,
Break with thy good fortune.

Prop, as Ormr Steinthórsson sang:

The Prop of Stone was clothèd
In garments clean and seemly:
A new cloak did the hero
Cast o'er the Mead's bright Valkyr.

Post, as Steinarr sang:

All my dreams of the gracious Goddess
Of the bracelet-girded soft arms
Have lied to me; the Stream-Moon's
Unsteadfast Prop beguiled me.

Birch, as Ormr sang:

For a mark of the Birch
Of the bright hollow ring,
The palm-flame, I laid
On the dwarf-flagon, my song.

Oak, even as stands here:

The fair shaped Oak of Riches
Stands, our mirth forestalling.

Linden, even as is written here:

O dreadful, towering Elm-Tree
Of the dinning shower of weapons,
Our courage shall not lessen:
So bade the Linen's Linden.

59. Maðr kenndr til viða.  

Maðr er kenndr til viða, sem fyrr er ritat, kallaðr reynir vápna eða víga, ferða ok athafnar, skipa ok alls þess, er hann ræðr ok reynir. Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:

148. En stirðþinull starði
storðar leggs fyr borði
fróns á folka reyni
fránleitr ok blés eitri.

Viðr ok meiðr, sem kvað Kormákr:

149. Meiðr er mörgum æðri
morðteins í dyn fleina;
hjörr fær hildibörrum
hjarl Sigurði jarli.

Lundr, svá kvað Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld:

150. Askþollum stendr Ullar
austr at miklu trausti
rækilundr inn ríki
randfárs brumaðr hári.

Hér er ok þollr nefndr. Búss, svá kvað Arnórr:

151. Rökr öndurt bað randir
reggbúss saman leggja,
rógskýja helt, Rygja,
regni haustnótt gegnum.

Askr, sem Refr kvað:

152. Gekk í gulli stokkna
gjöfrífr, Háars drífu
askr viðr ærinn þroska,
as-Freyr sæing meyjar.

Hlynr, sem hér er:

153. Heill kom þú, handar svella
hlynr kvaddi svá brynju.

Börr, sem Refr kvað:

154. Alls böðgæðis bjóða,
börr ræðr til þess hjörva,
ógnstöðvar hefi ek ægi
einráðit Þórsteini.

Stafr, sem Óttarr kvað:

155. Heltu, þar er hrafn né svalta,
hvatráðr ertu, láði,
ógnarstafr, fyr jöfrum,
ýgr, tveimr, við kyn beima.

Þorn, sem Arnórr kvað:

156. Hlóð, en hála téðu
hirðmenn ara grenni,
auðar þorn fyr örnu
ungr valköstu þunga.

Man is periphrased in tree-metaphors, as we have written before; he is called Rowan, or Tester, of Weapons, or of Combats, of Expeditions and of Deeds, of Ships, and of all that which he wields and tests; thus sang Úlfr Uggason:

But the flashing-eyed stiff Edge-Rope
Of the Earth stared past the gunwale
At the Rowan-Tree of the people
Of Stone, the Giant-Tester.

Tree and Beam, as Kormákr sang:

The Beam of the murdering Sword-Twig
Is taller than are many
In the Din of Darts; the sword wins.
The land for dauntless Sigurdr.

Grove, as sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald:

The Mighty Grove and Faithful
Of the Shield-Murderer, budded

With hair, stands in the Eastlands
Safe with Ullr's Ash-Warriors.

Here he is also called Ash.

Box, as Arnórr sang:

The Box of Ships bade the Rygir
Bring the shields together
At early dusk; through the spear-rain
Of strife-clouds held the autumn night.

Ash, as Refr sang:

The Strife-Lord, gracious Giver,
Sought the Maid's bed gold-sprinkled;
The Ash of Odin's War-Sleet
Won the estate of manhood.

Maple, as here:

Hail, Maple of the Ice-Lumps
Of the Hand!' So spake the Birnie.

Tree, as Refr sang:

Since I have appointed
To proffer Odin's Breast-Sea,
The War-God's Verse, to Thorsteinn;
The Tree of Swords so wills it.

Staff, as Óttarr sang:

Thou, fierce War-Staff, maintainedst
Maugre two kings, thy borders
With heroes' kin, where the ravens
Starved not; keen-hearted art thou.

Thorn, as Arnórr sang:

He gathered, the young Wealth-Thorn,
Many great heaps of corpses
For the eagles, and his henchmen
Guided and helped the hero.

60. Orrostukenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna orrostu? Svá, at kalla veðr vápna eða hlífa eða Óðins eða valkyrju eða herkonunga eða gný eða glym. Svá kvað Hornklofi:

157. Háði gramr, þar er gnúðu,
geira hregg við seggi,
rauð fnýstu ben blóði,
bengögl at dyn Sköglar.

Svá kvað Eyvindr:

158.
Ok sá halr
at Háars veðri
hösvan serk
hrísgrímnis bar.

Svá kvað Bersi:

159. Þótta ek, þá er æri,
ár, sagt er þat, várum,
hæfr at Hlakkar drífu
hyrrunnum vel gunnar.

Svá kvað Einarr:

160. Glymvindi lætr Göndlar,
gnestr hörr, taka mestum
Hildar segl, Þar er hagli,
hraustr þengill, drífr strengjar.

Sem kvað Einarr skálaglamm:

161.  Né sigbjarka serkir
sómmiðjungum rómu
Hárs við Högna skúrir
hléðut fast of séðir.

Svá sem hér:

162.  Odda gnýs við æsi
oddnets þinul setja.

Ok enn þetta:

163. Hnigu fjandr at glym Göndlar
grams und arnar hramma.

XLVII. "How should battle be periphrased? By calling it Storm of Weapons or of Sheltering Shields, or of Odin or the Valkyrs, or of Host-Kings; and Din and Clashing.

Thus sang Hornklofi:

The king hath held a Spear-Storm
With heroes, where the eagles
Screamed at the Din of Skögul;
The red wounds spat out blood.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

And that hero
At Háar's Tempest
Wore a sark
Of gray wolf-skin.

Thus sang Bersi:

In earlier days I seemed not
To Gunn's War-Bushes useful
In the Sleet of Hlökk, when younger
We were: so 't is said.

Thus sang Einarr:

The stark prince lets Hildr's Shield-Sails
Take the sternest crashing Storm-Wind
Of the Valkyr, where hail of bow-strings
Drives; the sword-blade hammers.

As Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The mail-sarks of the warriors,
Firm-woven, did not shelter
The seemly youths 'gainst Högni's
Showers of Hákon's onset.

Even as here:

They set the Point-Net's edge-band
Against the Point-Crash-Urger.

And again:

'Neath eagles' claws the king's foes
Sank at the Clash of Göndul.

61. Vápnakenningar ok herklæða.  

Vápn ok herklæði skal kenna til orrostu ok til Óðins ok valmeyja ok herkonunga, kalla hjálm hött eða fald, en brynju serk eða skyrtu, en skjöld tjald, ok skjaldborgin er kölluð höll ok ræfr, veggr ok gólf. Skildir eru kallaðir ok kenndir við herskip, sól eða tungl eða lauf eða blik eða garðr skipsins. Skjöldr er ok kallaðr skip Ullar eða kennt til fóta Hrungnis, er hann stóð á skildi. Á fornum skjöldum var títt at skrifa rönd þá, er baugr var kallaðr, ok eru við þann baug skildir kenndir. Höggvápn, öxar eða sverð, er kallat eldar blóðs eða benja. Sverð heita Óðins eldar, en öxar kalla menn trollkvinna heitum ok kenna við blóð eða benjar eða skóg eða við. Lagvápn eru vel kennd til orma eða fiska. Skotvápn eru mjök kennd til hagls eða drífu eða rotu. Öllum þessum kenningum er marga lund breytt, því at þat er flest ort í lofkvæðum, er þessar kenningar þarf við. Svá kvað Víga-Glúmr:

164. Lattisk herr með höttu
Hangatýs at ganga,
þóttit þeim at hætta
þekkiligt, fyr brekku.

Svá kvað Einarr skálaglamm:

165. Hjalmfaldinn bauð hildi
hjaldrörr ok Sigvaldi,
hinn er fór í gný Gunnar,
gunndjarfr Búi, sunnan.

Róða serkr, sem Tindr kvað:

166. Þá er hringfáum Hanga
hrynserk, viðum brynju
hruðusk riðmarar Róða
rastar, varð at kasta.

Hamðis skyrta, sem Hallfreðr kvað:

167. Ólítinn brestr úti
unndýrs frömum runnum
hart á Hamðis skyrtum
hryngráp Egils vápna.

Sörla föt, enn sem hann kvað:

168. Þaðan verða föt fyrða,
fregn ek görla þat, Sörla
rjóðask björt í blóði
benfúr méil-skúrum.

[Hlakkar tjöld], sem Grettir kvað:

169. Heldu Hlakkar tjalda
hefjendr saman nefjum
Hildar veggs ok hjuggusk
hregg-Nirðir til skeggjum.

Róða ræfr, sem Einarr kvað:

170. Eigi þverr fyrir augna
Óðs beðvinu Róða
ræfrs, eignisk sá, regni
ramsvell, konungr elli.

Hildar veggr, sem kvað Grettir ok áðr er ritat. Skipsól, sem Einarr kvað:

171. Leyg rýðr ætt á ægi
Óláfs skipa sólar.

Hlýrtungl, sem Refr kvað:

172. Dagr var fríðr, sá er fögru
fleygjendr alinleygjar
í hangferil hringa
hlýrtungli mér þrungu.

Garðr skips, sem hér er:

173. Svá skaut gegn í gögnum
garð steinfarinn barða,
sá var, gnýstærir geira,
gunnar æfr, sem næfrar.

Askr Ullar, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

174. Ganga él of yngva
Ullar skips með fullu,
þar er samnagla siglur
slíðrdúkaðar ríða.

Ilja blað Hrungnis, sem Bragi kvað:

175. Vilið, Hrafnketill, heyra,
hvé hreingróit steini
Þrúðar skal ek ok þengil
þjófs ilja blað leyfa?

Bragi skáld kvað þetta um bauginn á skildinum:

176. Nema svá at góð ins gjalla
gjöld baugnafaðs vildi
meyjar hjóls inn mæri
mögr Siguðar Högna.

Hann kallaði skjöldinn Hildar hjól, en bauginn nöf hjólsins. Baugjörð, sem Hallvarðr kvað:

177. Rauðljósa sér ræsir,
rít brestr sundr in hvíta,
baugjörð brodda ferðar,
bjúgrennd, í tvau fljúga.

Svá er enn kveðit:

178. Baugr er á beru sæmstr,
en á boga örvar.

Sverð er Óðins eldr, sem Kormákr kvað:

179. Svall, þá er gekk með gjallan
Gauts eld, hinn er styr belldi,
glaðfæðandi Gríðar,
gunnr. Komsk Urðr ór brunni

Hjálms eldr, sem kvað Úlfr Uggason:

180. Fullöflug lét fjalla
fram haf-Sleipni þramma
Hildr, en Hrofts of gildar
hjalmelda mar felldu.

Brynju eldr, sem kvað Glúmr Geirason:

181. Heinþynntan lét hvína
hryneld at þat brynju
foldar vörðr, sá er fyrðum
fjörn-harðan sik varði.

Randar íss ok grand hlífar, sem Einarr kvað:

182. Ráðvöndum þá ek rauðra
randa ís at vísa,
grand berum hjalms í hendi,
hvarmþey drifinn Freyju.

Öx heitir trollkona hlífa, sem Einarr kvað:

183. Sjá megu rétt, hvé, Ræfils
ríðendr, við brá Gríðar
fjörnis fagrt of skornir,
foldviggs, drekar liggja.

Spjót er ormr kallat, sem Refr kvað:

184. Kná myrkdreki marka
minn, þar er ýtar finnask,
æfr á aldar lófum
eikinn borðs at leika.

Örvar eru kallaðar hagl boga eða strengjar eða hlífa eða orrostu, sem Einarr kvað skálaglamm:

185. Brak-Rögnir skók bogna,
barg óþyrmir varga,
hagl ór Hlakkar seglum,
hjörs, rakkliga fjörvi.

Ok Hallfreðr:

186. Ok geir-Rótu götvar
gagls við strengjar hagli
hungreyðöndum hanga
hléðut járni séðar.

Ok Eyvindr skáldaspillir:

187. Lítt kváðu þik láta,
landvörðr, er brast, Hörða,
brynju hagl í benjum,
bugusk almar, geð falma.

XLVIII. "Weapons and armor should be periphrased in figures of battle, and with reference to Odin and the Valkyrs and host-kings: one should call a helmet Cowl, or Hood; a birnie, Sark, or Kirtle; a shield, Tent; and a shield-wall is termed Hall and Roof, Wall and Floor. Shields, periphrased in figures of warships, are called Sun, or Moon, or Leaf, or Sheen, or Garth, of the Ship; the shield is also called Ship of Ullr, or periphrased in terms of Hrungnir's feet, since he stood upon his shield. On ancient shields it was customary to paint a circle, which was called the 'ring,' and shields are called in metaphors of that ring. Hewing weapons, axes or swords, are called Fires of Blood, or of Wounds; swords are called Odin's Fires; but men call axes by the names of troll-women, and periphrase them in terms of blood or wounds or a forest or wood. Thrusting weapons are properly periphrased by calling them by names of serpents or fishes. Missile weapons are often metaphorically termed hail or sleet or storm. Variants of all these figures have been made in many ways, for they are used chiefly in poems of praise, where there is need of such metaphors.

So sang Víga-Glúmr:

With the Hanged-God's helmet
The hosts have ceased from going
By the brink; not pleasant
The bravest held the venture.

Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:

Helm-folded strife-bold Búi,--
Who from the south went forth
Into Gunn's Crash,--and din-swift
Sigvaldi offered battle.

Sark of Ródi, as Tindr sang:

When came the birnied Hákon
To cast away the ring-rent
Streaming Sark of Odin,
Ródi's rocking sea-steeds were cleared.

Hamdir's Kirtle, as Hallfredr sang:

The war-sleet hard and streaming
Of Egill's weapons breaketh
Fiercely on Hamdir's Kirtles
Of the foremost wave-deer's warriors.

Sörli's Garments, as he sang further:

Thence the bright Weeds of Sörli
In men's blood must be reddened;
I hear it clearly: Wound-Fire
In cutting showers of iron.

Shields are called Tents of Hlökk, as Grettír sang:

Hlökk's Tent-Raisers held their noses
Together, and the heroes
Of the Rain-Storm of Hildr's Shield-Wall
Hewed at each other's beards.

Ródi's Roof, as Einarr sang:

Ródi's Roof's great Ice-Lump
For the Rain of Freyja's Eyelids
Grows not less, my fair axe-head;
His age my lord so useth.

Wall of Hildr, as Grettír sang, and as we have written before.

Ship-Sun, as Einarr sang:

In the sea Ólafr's Kinsman
Reddens the flame of the Ship-Sun.

Moon of the Ship's Cheek, as Refr sang:

Fair was the day, when Scatterers
Of Arm-Fire thrust the clear Moon
Of the Cheek into my hand-clasp,
The coiling track of red rings.

Ship's Garth, as here:

The swift Sweller of the Spear-Crash
Shot through the stain-dyed Prow-Garth
As it were birch-bark; truly
He was a bitter battler.

Ash of Ullr, as here:

The Snow-Gusts of Ullr's Ash-Ship
Grimly o'er our Prince shoot
With fullness, where are tossing
The fearsome covered spike-spars.

Blade of Hrungnir's Foot-Soles, as Bragi sang:

Wilt hear, O Hrafnketill,
How I shall praise the Sole-Blade
Of Thrúdr's thief, stain-covered
With skill, and praise my king.

Bragi the Skald sang this concerning the ring on the shield:

Unless it be, that Sigurdr's
Renowned Son would have payment
In good kind for the ring-nave
Of the Ringing Wheel of Hildr.

He called the shield Wheel of Hildr, and the ring the Nave of the Wheel.

Ring-Earth, as Hallvardr sang:

The Chief of ranks of Combat
Sees the red-gleaming Ring-Earth
Fly in two parts; the white disk,
The pictured, bursts in sunder.

It is also sung:

A ring befits the shield best;
Arrows befit the bow.

A sword is Odin's Fire, as Kormákr sang:

The fight swelled, when the Warrior,
The Wolf's blithe Feeder, in tumult
Fared with Odin's ringing Fire-Flame;
Urdr came forth from the Well.

Fire of the Helm, as Úlfr Uggason sang:

The very mighty Maiden
Of the Mountain made the Sea-Horse
Roll forward, but the Champions
Of Odin's Helm-Fire felled her Wolf-Steed.

Fire of the Birnie, as Glúmr Geirason sang:

At that the Land-Protector
Let the Birnie's Streaming Fire whine,
Hone-whetted, he who warded
Him strongly 'gainst the warriors.

Ice of the Rim, and Hurt of Sheltering Weapons, as Einarr sang:

I received the Ice of Wed Rims,
With Freyja's golden Eye-Thaw,
From the upright prince high-hearted;
We bear in hand the Helm's Hurt.

An axe is called Troll-Woman of Sheltering Weapons, as Einarr sang:

Ræfill's Sea-Steed's Riders
May see how, richly carven,
The dragons close are brooding
'Gainst the brow of the Helm-Ogress.

A spear is called Serpent, as Refr sang:

My angry Murky Serpent
Of the markings of the Shield-Board
Savagely doth sport, in
My palms, where men in strife meet.

Arrows are called Hail of the Bow or Bowstring, or of the
Shelters, or of Battle, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The hammering King of Swords shook
From the Sails of Hlökk the Bow-Hail:
Bravely the Wolf's Supporter
Warded his life in battle.

And Hallfredr:

And the armor of the Spear-Sleet,
Knitted with iron, saved not

The saters of hungry ravens
From the Shaft-Hail of the Bowstring.

And Eyvindr Skald- Despoiler:

They said, O Hörds' Land-Warder,
Thy spirit little faltered,
When the Birnie's Hail in the wound burst;
Bent were the stringèd elm-bows.

62. Frá Hjaðningavígum.  

Orrosta er kölluð Hjaðninga veðr eða él ok vápn Hjaðninga eldr eða vendir, en saga er til þess.
Konungr sá, er Högni er nefndr, átti dóttur, er Hildr hét. Hana tók at herfangi konungr sá, er Heðinn hét Hjarrandason. Þá var Högni konungr farinn í konunga stefnu. En er hann spuðri, at herjat var í ríki hans ok dóttir hans í braut tekin, þá fór hann með sínu liði at leita Heðins ok spurði til hans, at hann fór norðr með landi. Þá er Högni konungr kom í Nóreg, spurði hann, at Heðinn hafði siglt vestr of haf. Þá siglir Högni eftir honum allt til Orkneyja, ok er hann kom þar, sem heitir Háey, þá var þar fyrir Heðinn með lið sitt.
Þá fór Hildr á fund föður síns ok bauð honum men at sætt af hendi Heðins, en í öðru orði sagði hon, at Heðinn væri búinn at berjast ok ætti Högni af honum engrar vægðar ván. Högni svarar stirt dóttur sinni. En er hon hitti Heðin, sagði hon honum, at Högni vildi enga sætt, ok bað hann búast til orrostu, ok svá gera þeir hvárirtveggju, ganga upp á eyna ok fylkja liðinu.
Þá kallar Heðinn á Högna, mág sinn, ok bauð honum sætt ok mikit gull at bótum.
Þá svarar Högni: "Of síð bauttu þetta, ef þú vill sættast, því að nú hefi ek dregit Dáinsleif, er dvergarnir gerðu, er mannsbani skal verða, hvert sinn er bert er, ok aldri bilar í höggvi ok ekki sár grær, ef þar skeinist af."
Þá mælti Heðinn: "Sverði hælir þú þar, en eigi sigri. Þat kallak gott hvert, er dróttinhollt er."
Þá hófu þeir orrostu þá, er Hjaðningavíg er kallat, ok börðust þann dag allan, ok at kveldi fóru konungar til skipa. En Hildr gekk of nóttina til valsins ok vakði upp með fjölkynngi alla þá, er dauðir váru. Ok annan dag gengu konungarnir á vígvöllinn ok börðust ok svá allir þeir, er fellu inn fyrra daginn. Fór svá sú orrosta hvern dag eftir annan, at allir, þeir er fellu, ok öll vápn, þau er lágu á vígvelli, ok svá hlífar, urðu, at grjóti. En er dagaði, stóðu upp allir dauðir menn ok börðust, ok öll vápn váru þá nýt. Svá er sagt í kvæðum, at Hjaðningar skulu svá bíða ragnaröks. Eftir þessi sögu orti Bragi skáld í Ragnars drápu loðbrókar.

[From  Sörla þátt eða Heðins sögu ok Högna]

 XLIX. "Battle is called Storm or Snow-Shower of the Hjadnings, and weapons are termed Fire or Wands of Hjadnings; and this is the tale thereof: that king who was called Högni had a daughter named Hildr: her King Hedinn, son of Hjarrandi, took as the spoils of war, while King Högni attended an assembly of kings. But when he learned that there had been raiding in his realm and his daughter had been borne off, he departed with his host to seek Hedinn, and heard tidings of him, that he was proceeding northward along the land. When Högni had come into Norway, he learned that Hedinn had sailed westward over the sea. Then Högni sailed after him, even to the Orkneys; and when he landed at the place called Hoy, Hedinn was already there before him with his host. Then Hildr went to meet her father, and offered him a necklace on Hedinn's behalf, for reconciliation and peace; but if it were not accepted, she said, Hedinn was ready to fight, and Högni might hope for no mercy at his hands."Högni answered his daughter harshly; and when she returned to Hedinn, she told him that Högni desired no reconciliation, and she bade him make ready for battle. So did both parties: they went to the island and marshalledtheir hosts. Then Hedinn called to Högni his father-in-law, offering him reconciliation and much gold in compensation. But Högni answered: 'Thou hast made this offer over-late, if thou wouldst make peace: for now I have drawn Dáinsleif, which the dwarves made, and which must cause a man's death every time it is bared, nor ever fails in its stroke; moreover, the wound heals not if one be scratched with it.' Then said Hedinn: 'Thou dost boast in the sword, but not in the victory; I call any sword good which is faithful to its lord.' Then they began that famous battle which is called the Hjadnings' Strife, and they fought all that day, but at evening the kings went to their ships. Now Hildr went to the slain by night, and with magic quickened all those that were dead. The next day the kings went to the battlefield and fought, and so did all those that had fallen on the day before. So the fight went one day after the other: all who fell, and all those weapons which lay on the field, and the shields also, were turned to stone; but when day dawned, up rose all the dead men and fought, and all weapons were renewed. It is said in songs that in this fashion the Hjadnings shall continue unto the Weird of the Gods. Bragi the Skald composed verses after this tale in Ragnarr Lodbrók's Song of Praise:


 

Ok ofþerris æða
ósk-Rán at þat sínum
til fárhuga færa
feðr veðr boga hugði,
þás hristi-Sif hringa
hals, in böls of fyllda,
bar til byrjar drösla
baug örlygis draugi.

Bauða sú til bleyði
bœti-Þrúðr at móti
malma mætum hilmi
men dreyrugra benja;
svá lét ey, þótt etti,
sem orrostu letti,
jöfrum ulfs at sinna
með algífris lifru.

Letrat lýða stillir
landa vanr á sandi,
þá svall heipt í Högna,
hönd[höð] glamma mun stöðva,
es þrimregin þremja
þróttig Heðin sóttu,
heldr an Hildar svíra
hringa þeir of fingi.

Ok fyr hönd í holmi
hveðru brynju Viðris
fengeyðandi fljóða
fordæða nam ráða;
allr gekk herr und hurðir
Hjarranda fram kyrrar
reiðr af Reifnis skeiði
raðaralfs mari bráðum.

Þá má sókn á Svölnis
salpenningi kenna;
Ræs göfumk reiðar mána
Ragnarr ok fjöld sagna.

And the belovèd Maiden
Of the veins' blood-letting
Purposed to bring, for wrath's sake,
The bow-storm to her father:
When the ring-wearing lady,
The woman full of evil,
Bore the neck-ring of War-Doom
To the Battler of the Wind's Steeds.

That gory Wound-Amender
To the glorious Monarch offered
The necklace not for fear's sake,
At the mote of fatal weapons:
Ever as restraining battle
She seemed, although she goaded
Warriors to walk the death-road
With the ravening Wolf's dire Sister.

The Prince of Folk, the Land-God,
Let not the fight, wolf-gladdening,
Halt, nor slaughter on the sands cease,--
Hate, deadly, swelled in Högni,
When the stern Lords of Sword-Din
Sought Hedinn with stern weapons,
Rather than receive
The necklet-rings of Hildr.

And that baleful Witch of Women,
Wasting the fruits of victory,
Took governance on the island
O'er the axe, the Birnie's Ruin;
All the Ship-King's war-host
Went wrathful 'neath the firm shields
Of Hjarrajidi, swift-marching
From Reifnir's fleet sea-horses.

On the fair shield of Svölnir
One may perceive the onslaught;
Ragnarr[1] gave me the Ship-Moon,
With many tales marked on it.

[1. See page 161.]

63. Orrosta kennd til Óðins.  

Orrosta er veðr Óðins, sem fyrr er ritat. Svá kvað Víga-Glúmr:

188. Rudda ek sem jarlar,
orð lék á því, forðum
með veðrstöfum Viðris
vandar mér til landa.

Viðris veðr er hér kallat orrusta, en vöndr vígs sverðit, en menn stafir sverðsins. Hér er bæði orrosta ok vápn haft til kenningar mannins. Þat er rekit kallat, er svá er ort. Skjöldr er land vápnanna, en vápn er hagl eða regn þess lands, ef nýgervingum er ort.

Battle is called Storm of Odin, as is recorded above; so sang Víga-Glúmr:

I cleared my way aforetime
Like earls to lands; the word went
Of this among the Storm-Staves,
The men of Vidrir's Sword-Wand.

Here battle is called Storm of Vidrir, and the sword is the Wand of Battle; men are Staves of the Sword. Here, then, both battle and weapons are used to make metaphors for man. It is called 'inlaying,' when one writes thus.

"The shield is the Land of Weapons, and weapons are Hail or Rain of that land, if one employs figures of later coinage.

64. Skipskenningar.  

Hvernig skal kenna skip? Svá, at kalla hest eða dýr eða skíð sækonunga eða sævar eða skipreiða eða veðrs. Báru fákr, sem Hornklofi kvað:

189. Hrjóðr lét hæstrar tíðar
harðráðr skipa börðum
báru fáks ins bleika
barnungr á lög þrungit.

Geitis marr, svá kvað Erringar-Steinn:

190. En þótt ófrið sunnan
öll þjóð segi skaldi,
hlöðum Geitis mar grjóti,
glaðir nennum vér, þenna.

Sveiða hreinar:

191. Súðlöngum komt sveiða,
sunds liðu dýr frá grundu,
sigrakkr, Sölsa bekkjar,
Sveins mögr, á tröð hreinum.

Svá kvað Hallvarðr. Hér er ok kölluð sunds dýr ok særinn Sölsa bekkr. Svá kvað Þórðr Sjáreksson:

192. Sveggja lét fyr Siggju
sólborðs goti norðan.
Gustr skaut Gylfa rastar
glaumi suðr fyr Aumar
En slóðgoti síðan
sæðings fyr skut bæði,
hestr óð lauks fyr Lista,
lagði Körmt ok Agðir.

Hér er skip kallat sólborðs hestr ok sær Gylfa land, sæðings slóð særinn ok hestr skipit ok enn lauks hestr. Laukr heitir siglutré. Ok enn sem Markús kvað:

193. Fjarðlinna óð fannir
fast vetrliði rastar.
Hljóp of húna gnípur
hvals rann íugtanni.
Björn gekk fram á fornar
flóðs hafskíða slóðir.
Skúrörðigr braut skorðu
skers glymfjötur bersi.

Hér er skip kallat björn rasta. Björn heitir vetrliði ok íugtanni ok bersi, ok björn skorðu er hér kallat. Skip er ok kallat hreinn, svá kvað Hallvarðr, sem áðr er ritat, ok hjörtr, sem kvað Haraldr konungr Sigurðarson:

194. Sneið fyr Sikiley víða
súð, várum þá prúðir.
Brýnt skreið vel til vánar
vengis hjörtr und drengjum.

Ok elgr, sem Einarr kvað:

195. Baugs, getr með þér þeygi,
þýðr, drengr vera lengi,
elg búum flóðs, nema fylgi,
friðstökkvir, því nökkut.

Otr, sem Máni kvað:

196. Hvat munt hafs á otri,
hengiligr, með drengjum,
karl, því at kraftr þinn förlask,
kinngrár, mega vinna?

Vargr, sem kvað Refr:

197. En hoddvönuðr hlýddi,
hlunnvitnis em ek runni
hollr til hermðar-spjalla
heinvandils, Þórsteini.

Ok oxi. Skip er kallat skíð eða vagn eða reið. Svá kvað Eyjólfr dáðaskáld:

198. Meita fór at móti
mjök síð of dag skíði
ungr með jöfnu gengi
útvers frömum hersi.

Svá kvað Styrkárr Oddason:

199. Ok eft ítrum stökkvi
ók Högna lið vögnum
hlunns á Heita fannir
hyrjar flóðs af móði.

Ok sem Þorbjörn kvað:

200. Hafreiðar var hlæðir
hlunns í skírnar brunni,
Hvíta-Krists sá er hæsta
hoddsviptir fekk giftu.

L. "How should the ship be periphrased? Call it Horse or Deer or Snowshoe of the Sea-King, or of Ship's Rigging, or of Storm. Steed of the Billow, as Hornklofi sang:

The Counsel-Stern Destroyer
Of the pale Steed of the Billow
When full young let the ships' prows
Press on the sea at flood-tide.

Geitir's Steed, as Erringar-Steinn sang:

But though to the skald all people
This strife from the south are telling,
We shall yet load Geitir's Sea-Steed
With stone; we voyage gladly.

Sveidi's Reindeer:

O Son of Sveinn strife-valiant,
Thou comest with Sveidi's Reindeer,
Long of seam, on the Seat of Sölsi;
The Sound-Deer from land glided.

So sang Hallvardr. Here the ship is also called Deer of the Sound; and the Sea is called Sölsi's Seat.

Thus sang Thórdr Sjáreksson:

The swift Steed of the Gunwale
Around Sigg veered from northward,
The gust shoved Gylfi's Stream's Mirth,
The Gull's Wake-Horse, to southward
Of Aumar, laying fleetly
Both Körmt and Agdir's coastline
Along the stern; by Listi
The Leek's Steed lightly bounded.

Here the ship is called Steed of the Gunwale; and the sea is Gylfi's Land; the sea is also called Gull's Wake. The ship is called Horse, and further, Horse of the Leek: for 'leek' means 'mast.'

And again, as Markús sang:

The Stream's Winterling waded
Stoutly the Firth-Snake's Snow-Heaps;
The Tusker of the Mast-Head
Leaped o'er the Whale's spurned House-Tops;
The Bear of the Flood strode forward
On the ancient paths of sea-ships;

The Stay's Bear, shower-breasting.
Broke the Reef's splashing Fetter.

Here the ship is called Winterling of the Stream: a bear cub is called a Winterling; and a bear is called Tusker; the Bear of the Stay is a ship.

The ship is also called Reindeer, and so Hallvardr sang, as we have written before; and Hart, as King Haraldr Sigurdarson sang:

By Sicily then widely
The Seam cut: we were stately;
The Sea-Hart glided swiftly
As we hoped beneath the heroes.

And Elk, as Einarr sang:

The ring's mild Peace-Dispenser,
The princely hero, may not
Long bide with thee, if something
Aid not; we boune the Flood's Elk.

And Otter, as Máni sang:

What, laggard carle with gray cheeks,
Canst do among keen warriors
On the Otter of the Sea-Waves?
For thy strength is ebbing from thee.

Wolf, as Refr sang:

And the Hoard-Diminisher hearkened
To Thorsteinn; true my heart is

To the Lord of the Wolf of Billows
In the baleful Wrath-Wand's conflict.

And Ox also. The ship is called Snowshoe, or Wagon, or Wain. Thus sang Eyjólfr the Valiant Skald:

Late in the day the young Earl
In the Snowshoe of Landless Waters
Fared with equal following
To meet the fearless chieftain.

Thus sang Styrkárr Oddason:

Högni's host drove the Wagons
Of Rollers o'er Heiti's snow-Heaps,
Angrily pursuing
The great Giver of Flood-Embers.

And as Thorbjörn sang:

The Freighter of Wave-Crests' Sea-Wain
Was in the font of christening,
Hoard-Scatterer, who was given
The White Christ's highest favor.

65. Kristskenningar.  

Hvernig skal Krist kenna? Svá, at kalla hann skapara himins ok jarðar, engla ok sólar, stýranda heims ok himinríkis ok engla, konung himna ok sólar ok engla ok Jórsala ok Jórdánar ok Gríklands, ráðandi postula ok heilagra manna. Forn skáld hafa kennt hann við Urðarbrunn ok Róm, sem kvað Eilífr Guðrúnarson:

201. Setbergs, kveða sitja
sunnr at Urðarbrunni,
svá hefir rammr konungr remmðan
Róms banda sig löndum.

Svá kvað Skafti Þóroddsson:

202. Máttr er munka dróttins
mestr, aflar goð flestu.
Kristr skóp ríkr ok reisti
Rúms höll veröld alla.

Himna konungr, sem Markús kvað:

203. Gramr skóp grund ok himna
glyggranns sem her dyggvan,
einn stillir má öllu
aldar Kristr of valda.

Svá kvað Eilifr kúlnasveinn:

204. Hróts lýtr helgum krúzi
heims ferð ok lið beima.
Sönn er en öll dýrð önnur
einn sólkonungr hreinni.

Máríu sonr, enn sem Eilífr kvað:

205. Hirð lýtr himna, dýrðar,
hvein Máríu sveini,
mátt vinnr mildingr dróttar,
maðr er hann ok goð, sannan.

Engla konungr, enn sem Eilífr kvað:

206. Máttr er en menn of hyggi
mætr goðs vinar betri.
Þó er engla gramr öllu
örr helgari ok dýrri.

Jórdánar konungr, sem kvað Sighvatr:

207. Endr réð engla senda
Jórdánar gramr fjóra,
fors þó hans á hersi
heilagt skoft, ór lofti.

Grikkja konungr, sem Arnórr kvað:

208. Bænir hefi ek fyr beini
bragna falls við snjallan
Grikkja vörð ok Garða.
Gjöf launak svá jöfri.

Svá kvað Eilífr kúlnasveinn:

209. Himins dýrð lofar hölða,
hann er alls konungr, stilli.

Hér kallaði hann fyrst Krist konung manna ok annat sinn alls konung. Enn kvað Einarr Skúlason:

210. Lét, sá er landfolks gætir,
líknbjartr himinríki
umgeypnandi opna
alls heims fyr gram snjöllum.

LI. "How should one periphrase Christ? Thus: by calling Him Fashioner of Heaven and Earth, of Angels, and of the Sun; Governor of the World and of the Heavenly Kingdom and of Jerusalem and Jordan and the Land of the Greeks; Counsellor of the Apostles and of the Saints. Ancient skalds have written of Him in metaphors of Urdr's Well and Rome; as Eilífr Gudrúnarson sang: 

So has Rome's Mighty Ruler
In the Rocky Realms confirmèd
His power; they say He sitteth
South, at the Well of Urdr.

Thus sang Skapti Thóroddssen:

The King of Monks is greatest
Of might, for God all governs;
Christ's power wrought this earth all,
And raised the Hall of Rome.

King of the Heavens, as Markús sang:

The King of the Wind-House fashioned
Earth, sky, and faithful peoples;
Christ, sole Prince of Mortals,
Hath power o'er all that liveth.

Thus sang Eilífr Kúlnasveinn:

The Host of the beaming World's Roof
And the Band of Illustrious bow down
To the Holy Cross; than all glory
Else the Sole Sun's King is brighter.

Son of Mary, as Eilífr sang further:

The bright Host of Heaven boweth
To Mary's Bairn: He winneth,
The Gentle Prince, of glory
The true might, God and man both.

King of Angels, as Eilífr sang again:

The goodly might of God's friend
Is better than men guess of;
Yet the Gracious King of Angels
Is dearer than all, and holier.

King of Jordan, as Sigvatr sang:

Four angels the King of Jordan
Sent long ago through aether
To earthward; and the stream washed
The holy head of the World's Lord.

King of Greeks, as Arnórr sang:

I have lodged for the hero's ashes
Prayers with the Lordly Warder
Of Greeks and men of Gardar:
Thus I pay my Prince for good gifts.

Thus sang Eilífr Kúlnasveinn:

The Glory of Heaven praises
Man's Prince: He is King of all things.

Here he called Christ, first, King of Men, and again, King of All. Eínarr Skúlason sang:

He who compasseth, Bright in Mercy,
All the world, and gently careth
For all, caused the realm of Heaven
To ope for the valiant ruler.

   

66. Konungakenningar ok fyrirmanna.

Þar koma saman kenningar, ok verðr sá at skilja af stöð, er ræðr skáldskapinn, um hvárn kveðit er konunginn, því at rétt er at kalla Miklagarðskeisara Grikkjakonung, ok svá þann konung, er ræðr Jórsalalandi, at kalla Jórsalakonung, svá ok at kalla Rómskonung Rómaborgarkeisara, eða Englakonung, þann er Englandi ræðr. En sú kenning, er áðr var ritat, at kalla Krist konung manna, þá kenning má eiga hverr konungur. Konunga alla er rétt at kenna svá at kalla þá landráðendr eða landsvörðu eða landssæki eða hirðstjóra eða vörð landsfólks. Svá kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:

211.
Farmatýs
fjörvi næmðu
jarðráðendr
á Öglói.

Ok sem Glúmr kvað Geirason:

212. Hilmir rauð und hjalmi
heina laut á Gautum.
Þar varð í gný geira
grundar vörðr of fundinn.

Sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

213. Hár skyli hirðar stjóri
hugreifr sonum leifa
arf ok óðaltorfu,
ósk mín er þat, sína.

 

Sem Einarr kvað:

214. Snáks berr fald of fræknu
folkvörðr, konungs Hörða
frama telr greppr fyr gumnum,
geðsnjallr skarar fjalli.

Rétt er ok um hann konung, er undir honum eru skattkonungar, at kalla hann konung konunga. Keisari er æðstr konunga, en þar næst er konungr sá, er ræðr fyrir þjóðlandi, jafn í kenningum öllum hverr við annan í skáldskap. Þar næst eru þeir menn, er jarlar heita eða skattkonungar, ok eru þeir jafnir í kenningum við konung, nema eigi má þá kalla þjóðkonunga, er skattkonungar eru. Ok svá kvað Arnórr jarlaskáld of Þorfinn jarl:

215. Nemi drótt, hvé sjá sótti
snarlyndr konungr jarla.
Eigi þraut við ægi
ofvægjan gram bægja.

Þar næst eru í kenningum í skáldskap þeir menn, er hersar heita. Kenna má þá sem konung eða jarl, svá at kalla þá gullbrjóta ok auðmildinga ok merkismenn ok fólksstjóra eða kalla hann oddvita liðsins eða orrostu, fyrir því at þjóðkonungr hverr, sá er ræðr mörgum löndum, þá setr hann til landstjórnar með sér skattkonunga ok jarla at dæma landslög ok verja land fyrir ófriði í þeim löndum, er konungi liggja fjarri, ok skulu þeir dómar ok refsingar vera þar jafnréttir sem sjálfs konungs. En í einu landi eru mörg heruð, ok er þat háttr konunga at setja þar réttara yfir svá mörg heruð sem hann gefr til valds, ok heita þeir hersar eða lendir menn í danskri tungu, en greifar í Saxlandi, en barúnar í Englandi. Þeir skulu ok vera réttir dómarar ok réttir landvarnarmenn yfir því ríki, er þeim er fengit til stjórnar. Ef eigi er konungr nær, þá skal fyrir þeim merki bera í orrostum, ok eru þeir þá jafnréttir herstjórar sem konungar eða jarlar.

 

Þar næst eru þeir menn, er hölðar heita. Þat eru búendr þeir, er gildir eru at ættum ok réttum fullum. Þá má svá kenna at kalla þá veitanda fjár ok gætanda ok sætti manna. Þessar kenningar megu ok eiga höfðingjar.

Konungar ok jarlar hafa til fylgðar með sér þá menn, er hirðmenn heita ok húskarlar, en lendir menn hafa ok sér handgengna menn, þá er í Danmörku ok í Svíðjóð eru hirðmenn kallaðir, en í Nóregi húskarlar, ok sverja þeir þó eiða svá sem hirðmenn konungum. Húskarlar konunga váru mjök hirðmenn kallaðir í forneskju.

Svá kvað Þorvaldr blönduskáld:

216. Konungr heill ok svá snjallir
sókn-örr, við lof görvan
óð hafa menn í munni
mínn, húskarlar þínir.

Þetta orti Haraldr konungr Sigurðarson:

217. Fullafli bíðr fyllar,
finn ek oft at drífr minna,
hilmis stóls, á hæla
húskarla lið jarli.

Hirðmenn ok húskarla höfðingja má svá kenna at kalla þá inndrótt eða verðung eða heiðmenn. Svá kvað Sighvatr:

218. Þat frá ek víg á vatni
verðung jöfurs gerðu,
nadda él en, nýla,
næst tel ek engi in smæstu.

Ok enn þetta:

219. Þági var sem þessum
þengils á jó strengjar
mjöð fyr malma kveðju
mær heiðþegum bæri.

Heiðfé heitir máli ok gjöf, er höfðingjar gefa. Svá kvað Óttarr svarti:

220. Góðmennis þarf ek gunnar
glóðbrjótanda at njóta.
Hér er alnennin inni
inndrótt með gram svinnum.

 

 

Jarlar ok hersar ok hirðmenn eru svá kenndir, kallaðir konungs rúnar eða málar eða sessar. Svá kvað Hallfreðr:

221. Grams rúni lætr glymja
gunnríkr, hinn er hvöt líkar,
Högna hamri slegnar
heiftbráðr of sik váðir.

Sem Snæbjörn kvað:

222.
Stjórnviðjar lætr styðja
stáls buðlinga máli
hlemmisverð við harðri
húflagan skæ dúfu.

Svá kvað Arnórr:

223. Bera sýn of mik mínir
morðkennds taka enda
þess of þengils sessa
Þung mein synir ungir.

Konungs spjalli, sem Hallfreðr kvað:

224. Ráð lukusk, at sá, síðan,
snjallráðr konungs spjalli
átti eingadóttur
Ónars viði gróna.

Svá skal menn kenna við ættir, sem Kormákr kvað:

225. Heyri sonr á, Sýrar,
sannreynis, fentanna
örr greppa lætk uppi
jast-Rín, Haralds, mína.

Hann kallaði jarlinn sannreyni konungsins, en Hákon jarl son Sigurðar jarls. En Þjóðólfr kvað svá um Harald:

226. Vex Óláfs feðr
járnsaxa veðr,
harðræði hvert
svá at hróðrs er vert.

Ok enn svá:

227. Jarizleifr of sá,
hvert jöfri brá.
Hófsk hlýri fram
ins helga grams.

Ok enn kvað hann:

228. Andaðr er sá,
er of alla brá,
haukstalla konr,
Haralds bróðursonr.

Enn kvað svá Arnórr í Rögnvaldsdrápu:

229. Réð Heita konr hleyti
herþarfr við mik gerva.
Styrk lét oss of orkat
jarls mægð af því frægðar.

Ok enn kvað hann of Þorfinn jarl:

230. Bitu sverð, en þar þurðu,
þunngör fyr Mön sunnan
Rögnvalds kind, und randir
ramlig folk, ins gamla.

 

Ok enn kvað hann:

231. Ættbæti firr ítran
allríks, en ek bið líkna
trúra tyggja dýrum,
Torf-Einars goð meinum.

Ok enn kvað Einarr skálaglamm:

232. Né ættstuðill ættar
ógnherði mun verða,
skyldr em ek hróðri at halda,
Hilditanns in mildri.

LII. "There the metaphors coincide; and he who interprets the language of poesy learns to distinguish which king is meant; for it is correct to call the Emperor of Constantinople King of Greeks, and similarly to call the king who rules over the land of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem, and also to call the Emperor of Rome King of Rome, and to call him King of Angles'[1] who governs England. But that periphrasis which was cited but now, which called Christ King of Men, may be had by, every king. It is proper to periphrase all kings by calling them Land-Rulers, or Land-Warders, or Land-Attackers, or Leader of Henchmen, or Warder of the People.

Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:

Who filled the ravens
From life was reft
By the Earth-Rulers
At Ögló.[2]

1. The reverse of Gregory's pun: "Non Angli sed angeli." ["Not angles but angels"]  2. See page 98.

And as Glúmr Geirason sang:

The Prince beneath the helmet
Reddened the sword hone-hollowed

On the Geats: there the Land-Warder
Was found in the grinding spear-din.

As Thjódólfr sang:

'T is my wish that the glorious Leader
Of Henchmen, the Glad-hearted,
Should leave his sons the heritage
And the sod of his fair freehold.

As Einarr sang:

The valiant-souled Earth-Warder
On his stern head the helm bears;
The bard before heroes telleth
The fame of the King of Hördland.

It is right also to call him King of Kings, under whom are tributary kings. An emperor is highest of kings, and next under him is that king who reigns over a nation; and each of these is equal to the other in the periphrases made of them in poesy. Next to them are those men who are called earls or tributary kings: and they are equal in periphrasis with a king, save that one may not term them kings of nations. And thus sang Arnórr Earl's Skald concerning Earl Thorfinnr:

Let the men hear how the Earl's King,
Hardy of mind, the sea sought:
The overwhelming Ruler
Failed not to thwart the ocean.

Next to these in the figures of poesy are those men who are called chiefs: one may periphrase them as one might a king or an earl, calling them Dispensers of Gold, Wealth Munificent, Men of the Standards, and Captains of the Host, or Van-Leaders of the Array or of Battle; since each king of a nation, who rules over many lands, appoints tributary kings and earls in joint authority with himself, to administer the laws of the land and defend it from attack in those parts which lie far removed from the king. And in those parts they shall be equal with the king's self in giving judgment and meting punishment. Now there are many districts in one land; and it is the practice of kings to appoint justiciars over as many districts as one chooses to give into their hands. These justiciars are called chiefs or landed men in the Danish tongue, reeves in Saxony, and barons in England. They are also to be righteous judges and faithful warriors over the land which is entrusted to them for governance. If the king is not near, then a standard shall be borne before them in battle; and then they are quite as lawful war-captains as kings or earls.

"Next under them are those men who are called franklins: they are those freeholders who are of honorable kindred, and possessed of full rights. One may periphrase them by calling them Wealth-Givers, and Protectors, and Reconcilers of Men; headmen also may have these titles.

"Kings and earls have as their following the men called henchmen and house-carles; landed-men also have in their service those who are called henchmen in Denmark and Sweden, and house-carles in Norway, and these men swear oaths of service to them, even as henchmen do to kings. The house-carles of kings were often called henchmen in the old heathen time.

Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending Skald:

Hail, King, swift in the onset!
And thy sturdy house-carles with thee!
In their mouths men have my verses,
Made for a song of praising.

King Haraldr Sigurdarson composed this:

The man full mighty waiteth
The filling of the King's seat;

Oft, I find, to the Earl's heels
Throngs my host of house-carles.

Henchmen and house-carles may be periphrased by calling them House-Guard, or Wage-Band, or Men of Honor: thus sang Sigvatr:

I learned the Warrior's Wage-Band
On the water fought that battle
Newly: 't is not the smallest
Snow-shower of Shields I tell of.

And thus also:

When on the Steed of Cables
The clashing steel was meeting,
'T was not as when a maid bears
The Chief's mead to the Honor-Winners.

The service-fee which headmen give is called wages and gifts; thus sang Óttarr the Swarthy:

I needs must use the Breaker
Of the Battle-Glow of good men;
Here is the watch war-doughty
Of the Wise King assembled.[1]

[1. See page 176.]

Earls and chiefs and henchmen are periphrased by calling them Counsellors or Speech-Friends or Seat-Mates of the King, as Hallfredr sang:

The Counsellor battle-mighty
Of the Prince, whom boldness pleases,
Lets the feud-fiery weeds of Högni,
Hammer-beaten, clash upon him.

As Snaebjörn sang:

The Speech-Friend of Kings letteth
The long-hulled steer-rope's Race-Horse
Steady the swordlike steel beak
Of the ship against the stern wave.

Thus sang Arnórr:

My young sons do bear for my sake
Grave sorrow for the slaughter
Of the Earl, destroyed by murder,
The Bench-Mate of our Monarch.

King's Counsel-Friend, as Hallfredr sang:

In council 't was determined
That the King's Friend, wise in counsel,
Should wed the Land, sole Daughter
Of Ónarr, greenly wooded[1]

[1] See page 136.

One should periphrase men by their kindred; as Kormákr sang:

Let the son of Haraldr's true friend
Give ear, and hearken to me:
I raise my song, the Yeast-Stream
Of Sýr's snow-covered Monsters.

He called the Earl True Friend of the King, and Hákon, Son of Earl Sigurdr. And Thjódólfr sang thus concerning Haraldr:

About Ólafr's sire
Waxed the steel-knife-storm's ire,
That of wightness each deed
Is worthy fame's meed.

And again:

Jarizleifr could espy
Where the king passed by:
The brave, sainted lord's kin
Stoutly praise did win.

And again he sang:

Breath-bereft is he
Who o'er all bore the gree,--
Of chiefs kinsman mild,
Haraldr's brother's child.

Arnórr also sang thus in  Rögnvaldr's Song of Praise:

Heiti's war-good kinsman
Made wedlock-kindred with me:
The earl's strong tie of marriage
Made honor to us rendered.

And again, concerning Earl Thorfinnr, he sang:

The thin-made swords bit keenly
Old Rögnvaldr's kin, to southward

Of Man, where rushed the strong hosts
Under the sheltering shield-rims.

And he sang further:

O God, guard the glorious
Kin-Betterer of great Turf-Einarr
From harm; I pray, show mercy
To him whom faithful chiefs love.

And Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The House-Prop of the Kindred
Of Hilditönn shall not lack
Hardihood more munificent;
I am bound to maintain praises.

67. Skáldskaparheiti.  

Hvernig er ókennd setning skáldskapar? Svá, at nefna hvern hlut sem heitir. Hver eru ókennd nöfn skáldskaparins? Hann heitir bragr ok hróðr, óðr, mærð, lof. Þetta kvað Bragi inn gamli, þá er hann ók um skóg nökkurn síð um kveld. Þá stefjaði trollkona á hann ok spurði, hverr þar fór:

233. Troll kalla mik
tungl sjöt-rungnis,
auðsug jötuns,
élsólar böl,
vílsinn völu,
vörð nafjarðar,
hvélsvelg himins.
Hvat er troll, nema þat?

Hann svarði svá:

234. Skald kalla mik
skapsmið Viðurs,
Gauts gjafrötuð,
grepp óhneppan,
Yggs ölbera,
óðs skapmóða,
hagsmið bragar.
Hvat er skald, nema þat?

Ok sem Kormákr kvað:

235. Hróðr geri ek of mög mæran
meir Sigröðar fleira;
haftsænis geld ek hánum
heið. Sitr Þórr í reiðu.

Ok sem kvað Þórðr Kolbeinsson:

236. Mjök lét margar snekkjur,
mærðar örr, sem knörru,
óðr vex skalds, ok skeiðar
skjaldhlynr á brim dynja.

Mærð, sem Úlfr Uggason kvað:

237. Þar kemr á, en æri
endr bar ek mærð af hendi,
ofra ek svá, til sævar,
sverðregns, lofi þegna.

Hér er lof kallat skáldskapr.


LIII. "How are the uninvolved terms of poesy made? By calling each thing by its proper name. What are the simple terms for poesy? It is called Poetry, Glorifying, Song, Laud, and Praise. Bragi the Old sang this, when he was travelling through a forest late at evening: a troll woman hailed him in verse, asking who passed:

'Trolls do call me
Moon's . . .
. . . of the giant,
Storm-sun's (?) bale,
Fellow-in-misery of the sibyl,
Warder of the circled ring-earth,
Wheel-devourer of the heaven.
What is the troll but that?"[1]

1. "Eru tröll-kenningar, sumar myrkar." ["Troll-kennings, some obscure"] Jónsson, p. 403.

He answered thus:

'Skalds do call me
Vidurr's Shape-Smith,
Gautr's Gift-Finder,
Bard not faulty,
Yggr's Ale-Bearer,
Song's Arrayer,
Skilled Smith of Verse:
What is the Skald but this?'

And as Kormákr sang:

I make more Glorifying
By far o'er Hákon's great son:
I pay him the song-atonement
Of the gods. In his wain Thor sitteth.

And as Thórdr Kolbeinsson sang:

The Shield-Maple let many swift ships
And merchant-craft, and speedy
War-boats o'er the sea pour;
The skald's ready Song of Laud waxed.

Laud, as Úlfr Uggason sang:

Now the stream to the sea cometh;
But first the Laud I sang forth
Of the Messenger of Sword-Rain:
Thus I raise the praise of warriors.

Here poesy is called praise also.

68. Goðaheiti.  

Hvernig eru nöfn goðanna? Þau heita bönd, sem kvað Eyjólfr dáðaskáld:

238. Dregr land at mun banda
Eiríkr und sik geira
veðmildr ok semr hildi.

Ok höft, sem kvað Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski:

239. Tormiðlaðr var tívum
tálhreinn meðal beina.
Hvat kvað hafta snytrir
hjalmfaldinn því valda.

Rögn, sem Einarr kvað skálaglamm:

240. Rammaukin kveð ek ríki
rögn Hákunar magna.

Jólnar, sem Eyvindr kvað:

241. Jólna sumbl
enn vér gátum,
stillis lof,
sem steina brú.

Díar, sem Kormákr kvað:

242. Eykr með ennidúki
jarðhljótr día fjarðar
breyti, hún sá er, beinan,
bindr. Seið Yggr til Rindar.

LIV. "How are the gods named? They are called Fetters, as Eyjólfr the Valiant Skald sang:

Eiríkr draws the lands beneath him
At the pleasure of the Fetters,
And fashions the Spear-Battle.

And Bonds, as Thjódólfr of Hvin sang:

The skilful God-Deceiver
To the Bonds proved a stern sharer
Of bones: the Helmet-Hooded
Saw somewhat hindered seething.[1]

Powers, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

I say, the Mighty Powers
Magnify Hákon's empire.

Jólnar,[2] as Eyvindr sang:

We have fashioned
The Feast of Jólnar,
The Prince's praise-song,
Strong as a stone bridge.

Deities,[3] as Kormákr sang:

1. See page 130, where it is translated slightly differently.  
2. This word, in the singular, is one of the names of Odin. I can find no etymology for it.

3. A rare and doubtful word. According to Cl.-Vig., the word occurs only twice:
Yngl. S., ch. ii, and here. Cl.-Vig. holds that the word probably meant priests: "The díar of the Yngl. S. were probably analogous to the Icel. godi, from god (deus
)" (p. 100).

The Giver of Lands, who bindeth
The sail to the top, with gold-lace
Honors him who pours Deities' verse-mead;
Odin wrought charms on Rindr.[1]

[1. See page 100.]

69. Himins heiti, sólar ok tungls.  

Þessi nöfn himins eru rituð, en eigi höfum vér fundit í kvæðum öll þessi heiti. En þessi skáldskaparheiti sem önnur þykkir mér óskylt at hafa í skáldskap, nema áðr finni hann í verka höfuðskálda þvílík heiti.
Himinn: hlýrnir, heiðþorrnir, hreggmímir, andlangr, ljósfari, drífandi, skatyrnir, víðfeðmir, vetmímir, leiftr, hrjóðr, víðbláinn.
Sól: sunna, röðull, eyglóa, alskír, sýni, fagrahvél, líknskin, Dvalins leika, álfröðull, ifröðull, mylin.
Tungl: máni, ný, nið, ártali, mulinn, fengari, glámr, skyndir, skjálgr, skrámr.

LV. "These names of the heavens are recorded (but we have not found all these terms in poems; and these skaldic terms, even as others, are not meet for use in skaldic writing, methinks, unless one first find such names in the works of Chief Skalds): Heaven, Hlýrnir, Heidthornir, Storm Mímir, Long-Lying, Light-Farer, Driving, Topmost Sky, Wide-Fathom, Vet-Mímir, Lightning, Destroyer, Wide-Blue. The solar planet is called Sun, Glory, Ever-Glow, All-Bright, Sight, Fair Wheel, Healing Ray, Dvalinn's Playmate, Elfin-Beam, Doubtful-Beam, Luminary. The lunar planet is called Moon, Waxer, Waner, Year-Teller, Mock-Sun, Fengari,[2] Glamour, Haster, Crescent, Glare.

2. "Byzant. Φεγγάρι [Moon]; an άπ, λεγ " (Cl.-Vig., p. 151 s.v. fengari.)]

70. Jarðarheiti.  

Hver eru jarðarheiti? Hon heitir jörð, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

243. Jarl lætr odda skúrar
oft herðir gör verða
hrings, áðr hann of þryngvi,
hörð él, und sik jörðu.

Fold, sem Óttarr kvað:

244. Fold verr folk-Baldr,
fár má konungr svá,
örnu reifir Óleifr,
er framr Svía gramr.

Grund, sem Hallfreðr kvað:

245. Grund liggr und bör bundin
breið holmfjöturs leiðar,
heinlands hoddum grandar
Höðr, eitrsvélum naðri.

Hauðr, sem Einarr kvað:

246. Verja hauðr með hjörvi
hart döglinga bjartra
hjalmr springr oft fyr olmri
egghríð, framir seggir.

Land, sem Þórðr Kolbeinsson kvað:

247. En eft víg frá Veigu,
vant er orð at styr, norðan
land eða lengra stundu
lagðisk suðr til Agða.

Láð, sem Óttarr kvað:

248. Heltu, þar er hrafn né svalta,
hvatráðr ertu, láði
ógnar stafr, fyr jöfrum,
ýgr, tveimr, við kyn beima.

Hlöðyn, sem kvað Völu-Steinn:

249. Man ek þat, er jörð við orða
endr myrk Danar sendi
grænnar gröfnum munni
gein Hlöðynjar beina.

Frón, sem kvað Úlfr Uggason:

250. En stirðþinull starði
storðar leggs fyr borði
fróns á folka reyni
fránleitr ok blés eitri.

Fjörgyn, sem hér er kveðit:

251. Örgildi var ek, Eldis,
áls Fjörgynjar, mála,
dyggr, sé heiðr ok hreggi,
hrynbeðs, áar steðja.


LVI. "Which are the simple terms for Earth? She is called Earth, as Thjódólfr sang:

The hardy Point-Rain's Urger
Oft caused the harsh sword-shower,
Ere under him the broad Earth
With battle he subjected.

Field, as Óttarr sang:

The Prince guards the Field:
Few kings are so mighty;

Óleifr fattens the eagle,
Foremost is the Swedes' King.

Ground, as Hallvardr sang:

The broad Ground, 'neath the venom-cold Adder
Bound, lies subject to the Warrior
Of the Island-Fetter's heaped gold;
The Hone-Land's Lord the hoard dispenseth.

Haudr,[1] as Einarr sang:

Brave heroes are defending
The hard Haudr of famous princes
With the sword; oft splits the helmet
Before the furious edge-storm.

1. "Etymology not known" (Cl.-Vig., p. 241).

Land, as Thórdr Kolbeinsson sang:

The Land, after the battle,
Was laid low from Veiga northward
To Agdir south, or farther:
Hard is song in conflict.

Fief, as Óttarr sang:

Thou, fierce War-Staff, maintainedst
The Fief despite two Monarchs
With heroes' kin. where the ravens
Starved not; keen-hearted art thou.[2]


2. See pages 180, 181.

Hlödyn,[1] as Völu-Steinn sang:

I remember how murky earth yawned
With graven mouth for the Sender
Of the Gold-Words of the Giant
Of the hard bones of Green Hlödyn.

Country, as Úlfr Uggason sang:

But the flashing-eyed stiff Edge-Rope
Of the Earth stared past the gunwale
At the Rowan-Tree of the Country
Of Stone, the Giant-Tester.[2]

Fjörgyn,[3] as is said here:

I was faithful to the free Payer
Of the stream-bed of Fjörgyn's Serpent;
May honor be closely guarded
By the Giver of the Giant's Stream-gold.

1. A personification.  2. See page 179.  3. Cf. Goth. fairguni (= a mountain) and A.-S. fyrgen. A personification: Fjörgynn is father of Frigg and of Jörd (Earth). 
71. Úlfs heiti, bjarnar ok hjartar.  

Vargr heitir dýr. Þat er rétt at kenna við blóð eða hræ, svá at kalla verð hans eða drykk. Eigi er rétt at kenna svá við fleiri dýr. Vargr heitir ok úlfr, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

252. Gera var gisting byrjuð
gnóg, en ulf ór skógi
sonr á sár at spenja
Sigorðar kom norðan.

Hér er hann ok geri kallaðr. Freki, sem Egill kvað:

253. Þá er oddbreki,
sleit und freki,
gnúði hrafni
á höfuðstafni.

Vitnir, sem Einarr kvað:

254. Elfr varð unda gjalfri
eitrköld roðin heitu.
Vitnis fell með vatni
varmt ölðr í men Karmtar.

Ylgr, sem Arnórr kvað:

255. Svalg áttbogi ylgjar
ógóðr, en varð blóði
græðir grænn at rauðum,
grandauknum ná, blandinn.

Vargr, sem Illugi kvað:

256. Vargs var munr þat, er margan,
menskerðir stakk sverði
myrkaurriða markar,
minn dróttinn rak flótta.

Þetta er enn vargs heiti, sem Hallr kvað:

257. Heiðingja sleit hungri,
hárr gylðir naut sára,
granar rauð gramr á fenri,
gekk ulfr í ben drekka.

Ok enn sem Þórðr kvað:

258. Óð, en ærnu náði
íms sveit freka hveiti,
gera ölðra naut gylðir,
Gjalpar stóð í blóði.

Björn heitir fetvíðnir, húnn, vetrliði, bersi, fress, íugtanni, ifjungr, glúmr, jölfuðr, vilskarpr, bera, jórekr, riti, frekr, blómr, ysjungr.
Hjörtr heitir mótroðnir, dalarr, dalr, Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Duraþrór.

LVII. "It is correct to periphrase blood or carrion in terms of the beast which is called Strangler,"[4] by calling them his Meat and Drink; it is not correct to express them in terms of other beasts. The Strangler is also called Wolf.

4. Vargr; cf. A.-S. wearg, Ger.-würgen.

As Thjódólfr sang:

Enough guesting to the Ravener
Was given, when the Son of Sigurdr

came from the North, the Wolf
To lure from the wood to the wound.

Here he is called Ravener also.

Greedy One, as Egill sang:

The Greedy One gashed
Grisly wounds, when plashed
The red Point-Creek
On the raven's beak.

Witch-Beast, as Einarr sang:

The Götha, cold with venom,
With hot Wound-Gush was reddened;
The Witch-Beast's warm drink, mingled
With the water, in the sea poured.

She-Wolf, as Arnórr sang:

The She-Wolf's evil Kindred
Swallowed the corpse, harm-swollen,
When the green sea was turnèd
To red, with gore commingled.

Strangler, as Illugi sang:

There was happiness for the Strangler
When my lord pursued hosts full many;
With the sword the Necklet-Minisher
Pierced the swart Snake of the Forest.

Thus sang Hallr:

He sated the Heath-Beasts' Hunger:
The hoar howler in wounds gladdened;
The king reddened the Wild One's mouth-hairs,--
The Wolf went to drink of the wound.

And again, as Thórdr sang:

In blood Gjálp's Stud-Horse waded,
The dusty pack got fullness
Of the Greedy One's Wheat; the howler
Enjoyed the Ravener's Gore-Drink.

The bear is called Wide-Stepper, Cub, Winterling, Ourse, Gib-Cat, Tusker, Youngling, Roarer, Jölfudr,[1] Wilful-Sharp, She-Bear, Horse-Chaser, Scratcher, Hungry One, Blómr,[1] Bustler. The hart is called Módrödnir,[2] Dalarr,[3] Dalr,[3] Dáinn,[4] Dvalinn,[4] Duneyrr,[4] Durathrór.[4]

1. Meaning?  2. Angry-minded?  3. Meaning?  4. These are the names of the harts that feed on the leaves of the Ash Yggdrasill. See Gylfag., ch. xvi. 

72. Hestaheiti.  

Þessi eru hesta heiti talið í Þorgrímsþulu:

259. Hrafn ok Sleipnir,
hestar ágætir,
Valr ok Léttfeti,
var þar Tjaldari,
Gulltoppr ok Goti,
getit heyrðak Sóta,
Mór ok Lungr með Mari.



260. Vigg ok Stúfr
var með Skævaði.
Þegn knátti Blakkr bera,
Silfrtoppr ok Sinir,
svá heyrðak Fáks of getit,
Gullfaxi ok Jór með goðum.


261. Blóðughófi hét hestr,
er bera kváðu
öflgan Atriða,
Gísl ok Falhófnir,
Glær ok Skeiðbrimir,
þar var ok Gyllis getit.

Þessir eru enn talðir í Kálfsvísu:

262. Dagr reið Drösli,
en Dvalinn Móðni,
Hjalmr Háfeta,
en Haki Fáki,
reið bani Belja
Blóðughófa,
en Skævaði
skati Haddingja.

263. Vésteinn Vali,
en Vífill Stúfi,
Meinþjófr Mói,
en Morginn Vakri,
Áli Hrafni,
er til íss riðu,
en annarr austr
und Aðilsi
grár hvarfaði,
geiri undaðr.


264. Björn reið Blakki,
en Bjárr Kerti,
Atli Glaumi,
en Aðils Slöngvi,
Högni Hölkvi,
en Haraldr Fölkvi,
Gunnarr Gota,
en Grana Sigurð.

Árvakr ok Alsviðr draga sólina, sem fyrr er ritat. Hrímfaxi eða Fjörsvartnir draga nóttina. Skinfaxi eða Glaðr fylgja deginum.

These are the names of horses enumerated in the  Rhymes of Thorgrímr:[5]

Hrafn[6] and Sleipnir,
The famous horses;
Valr[7] and Léttfeti;
Tjaldari[8] a was there too;
Gulltopr and Goti;[9]
I heard Sóti[10] told of;
Mór[11] and Lungr[12] with Marr.[13]

5. For meanings not given in footnotes, see Gylfag., ch. xv, and Skálds., ch. xvii. 
6. Raven.  7. Hawk.  8. Racer? (Cl.-Vig, p. 635). 
9. 10. Soot-Colored. 
11. Dark-Gray. 
12. 13. a Steed.

Vigg[1] and Stúfr[2]
Were with Skævadr;[3]
Blakkr[4] could well bear Thegn;
Silfrtoppr and Sinir;[5]
I heard Fákr[6] spoke of;
Gullfaxi and Jór[7] with the Gods were.

Blódughófi[8] hight a horse
That they said beareth
The strength-eminent Atridi;
Gísl[9] and Falhófnir;[10]
Glær[11] and Skeidbrimir;[12]
Mention, too, was made of Gyllir.[13]

These also are recorded in  Kálfsvísa:

Dagr rode Drösull,[14]
And Dvalinn rode Módnir;[15]
Hjálmthér, Háfeti;[16]
Haki rode Fákr;
The Slayer of Beli
Rode Blódughófi,
And Skævadr was ridden
By the Ruler of Haddings.

Vésteinn rode Valr,
And Vifill rode Stúfr;
Meinthjófr rode Mór,

1. Carrier. 2. Stump.  3. Hoof-Tosser.  4. Black.  5. Sinewy.  6. Jade. 
7. Horse, Steed.  8. Bloody-Hoof.  9. Hostage.  10. Hollow-Hoof. 
11. Shining. 12. Swift-Runner. 13. Golden.  14. Roamer.  15. Spirited.
16. High-Heels.

And Morginn on Vakr;[1]
Áli rode Hrafn,
They who rode onto the ice:
But another, southward,
Under Adils,
A gray one, wandered,
Wounded with the spear.

Björn rode Blakkr,
And Bjárr rode Kertr;[2]
Atli rode Glaumr,[3]
And Adils on Slöngvir;[4]
Högni on Hölvir,[5]
And Haraldr on Fölkvir;[6]
Gunnarr rode Goti,[7]
And Sigurdr, Grani.[8]

Arvakr[9] and Alsvidr[10] draw the Sun, as is written before; Hrímfaxi[11] or Fjörsvartnir[12] draw the Night; Skinfaxi[13] and Gladr[14] are the Day's horses.

1. Watchful, Nimble, Ambling, or perhaps Hawk.
2. Related to Kerti = a candle? 3. Tumult.  4. Slinger. 
5. Horse; etymology? 6. ?  7. Goth. 8. Shining-Lip? (Jónsson).
9. Early-Wake. 10. All-Swift. 11. Frosty-Mane. 12. Swart-Life.
13. Shining-Mane.  14. Bright, or Glad. 15. Red.
73. Öxn, ormar, sauðir, svín.  
Þessi öxnaheiti eru í Þorgrímsþulu: "These names of oxen are in Thorgrímr's Rhymes:

265. Gamalla öxna nöfn
hefi ek görla fregit
þeira Rauðs ok Hæfis,
Rekinn ok Hýrr,
Himinhrjóðr ok Apli,
Arfr ok Arfuni.

Of all oxen the names
Have I accurately learned,--
Of these: Raudr[15] and Hœfir,[16]
Rekinn[17] and Hýrr,[18]
Himinhrjódr[1] and Apli,[2]
Arfr[3] and Arfuni.[4]

1

6. Meet.  17. Driven.  18. Gentle.
1. Heaven-Bellowing, or perhaps Heaven-Destroyer. 

2. Calf.

3. Bull; properly = cattle,
pecus, fee; hence, inheritance.
4
. Heir; cf. with 3. 

Þessi eru orma heiti: dreki, Fáfnir, Jörmungandr, naðr, Níðhöggr, linnr, naðra, Góinn, Móinn, Grafvitnir, Grábakr, Ófnir, Sváfnir, grímr.

Naut: kýr, kálfr, yxni, kvíga, vetrungr, griðungr, boli.

Sauðr: hrútr, bekri, ær, lamb, veðr.

Svín: sýr, gylta, runi, göltr, gríss.
These are names of serpents: Dragon, Fáfnir, Mighty Monster, Adder, Nídhöggr, Lindworm, She-Adder, Góinn,[5] Móinn,[5] Grafvitnir,[5] Grábakr,[5] Ófnir,[5] Sváfnir,[5] Hooded One.

Neat-Cattle: Cow, calf, oxen, heifer, yearling, steer, bull.

Sheep: Ram, buck, ewe, lamb, wether.

Swine: Sow, she-pig, boar, hog, suckling.


5. For these names and their meanings, see Gylfag., ch. xvi.

 

74. Heiti lofts ok veðra.  

Hver eru heiti lofts ok veðranna? Loft heitir ginnungagap ok meðalheimr, foglheimr, veðrheimr. Veðr heitir hregg, byrr, glygg, hret, gjósta, vindr. Svá segir í Alsvinnsmálum:

266. Vindr heitir með mönnum,
en vönsuðr með goðum,
kalla gneggjuð ginnregin,
æpi jötnar,
en alfar gnýfara,
heitir í helju hlömmuðr.

Veðr heitir ok gustr.

LVIII. "What are the names of the air and of the winds? Air is called Yawning Void and Middle World, Bird-Abode, Wind-Abode. Wind is called Storm, Breeze, Gale, Tempest, Gust, Blowing. Thus does one read in Alsvinnsmál:

Wind 't is called among menfolk,
And Waverer with the gods,--
Neigher the great powers name it;
Shrieker the giants,
And Shouter elves call it;
In Hel Clamorer 't is called.

The Wind is also called Blast.

75. Hrafnsheiti ok arnar.  

Tveir eru fuglar þeir, er eigi þarf at kenna annan veg en kalla blóð eða hræ drykk þeira eða verð. Þat er hrafn ok örn. Alla aðra fugla karlkennda má kenna við blóð eða hræ, ok er þat þá nafn örn eða hrafn, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

267.
Blóðorra lætr barri
bragningr ara fagna.
Gauts berr sigð á sveita
svans örð konungr Hörða.
Geirs oddum lætr greddir
grunn hvert stika sunnar
hirð, þat er hann skal varða,
hrægamms ara sævar.

Þessi eru nöfn hrafns: krákr, Huginn, Muninn, borginmóði, árflognir, ártali, holdboði. Svá kvað Einarr skálaglamm:

268. Fjallvönðum gaf fylli,
fullr varð, en spjör gullu,
herstefnandi hröfnum,
hrafn á ylgjar tafni.

Svá kvað Einarr Skúlason:

269. Dolgskára kná dýrum
dýrr magnandi stýra,
Hugins fermu bregðr harmi
harmr, bliksólar garmi.

 

Ok enn sem hann kvað:

270. En við hjaldr, þar er hölðar,
hugþrútit svellr, lúta,
Muninn drekkr blóð ór benjum
blásvartr, konungs hjarta.

Sem kvað Víga-Glúmr:

271. Þá er dynfúsir dísar
dreyra mens á eyri,
bráð fekk borginmóði
blóðs, skjaldaðir stóðum.

Sem Skúli kvað Þorsteinsson:

272. Myndit efst, þar er undir
árflogni gaf ek sárar,
Hlökk í hundraðs flokki
Hvítinga mik líta.

 

Örn heitir svá: ari, gemlir, hreggskornir, eggðir, ginnarr, undskornir, gallópnir. Sem Einarr kvað:

273.  Sámleitum rauð sveita,
sleit örn gera beitu,
fekksk arnar matr járnum,
Járnsöxu grön faxa.

Sem Óttarr kvað:

274. Örn drekkr, undarn
ylgr fær, af hræum sylg,
oft rýðr ulfr köft,
ari getr verð þar.

Sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

275. Segjöndum fló sagna
snótar ulfr at móti
í gemlis ham gömlum
glamma ó fyr skömmu.

Ok sem hér er:

276. Hreggskornis vil ek handa
háleitan mjöð vanda.

 

Ok enn sem Skúli kvað:

277. Vaki ek þat er val heltk ekka
víðis áðr ok síðan,
greppr hlýðir þá góðu,
gallópnis vel, spjalli.

LIX. "Two are those birds which there is no need to periphrase otherwise than by calling blood and corpses their Drink and Meat: these are the raven and the eagle. All other male birds may be periphrased in metaphors of blood or corpses; and then their names are terms of the eagle or the raven. As Thjódólfr sang:

The Prince with Eagle's Barley
Doth feed the bloody moor-fowl:
The Hörd-King bears the sickle
Of Odin to the gory Swan's crop;
The Sater of the Vulture
Of the Eagle's Sea of corpses
Stakes each shoal to the southward
Which he wards, with the spear-point.

These are names of the raven: Crow, Huginn,[1] Muninn,[1] Bold of Mood, Yearly Flier, Year-Teller, Flesh-Boder.

1. For the meaning of these names (which are those of Odin's Ravens), see Gylfag., ch. xxxviii.

Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:

With flesh the Host-Convoker
Filled the feathered ravens:
The raven, when spears were screaming,
With the she-wolf's prey was sated.

Thus sang Einarr Skúlason:

He who gluts the Gull of Hatred,
Our precious lord, could govern
The sword; the hurtful raven
Of Huginn's corpse-load eateth.

And as he sang further:

But the King's heart swelleth,
His spirit flushed with battle,

Where heroes shrink; dark Muninn
Drinks blood from out the wounds.

As Víga-Glúmr sang:

When stood the shielded Maidens
Of the gory sword, strife-eager,
On the isle; the Bold of Mood then
Received the meat of wound-blood.

As Skúli Thorsteinsson sang:

Not the hindmost in the hundred
Might Hlökk of horns have seen me,
Where to the Yearly Flier
I fed the wounds full grievous.

The erne is called Eagle, Old One, Storm-Shearer, Inciter, Soarer, Wound-Shearer, Cock. As Einarr sang:

With blood the lips he reddened
Of the black steed of Járnsaxa;
With steel Erne's meat was furnished:
The Eagle slit the Wolf's Bait.

As Ottarr sang:

The Erne swills corpse-drink,
The She-wolf is sated,
The Eagle there feedeth,
Oft the wolf his fangs reddens.

As Thjódólfr sang:

The Spoiler of the Lady
Swiftly flew with tumult
To meet the high God-Rulers,
Long hence, in Old One's plumage.[1]

1. See Page 130, where it is translated slightly differently.

And as stands here:

With skill will I rehearse
Of the Storm-Shearer my verse.

And again as Skúli sang:

Early and late with sobbing
I wake, where well is sated
The hawk of the Cock's blood-ocean:
Then the bard heareth good tidings.

76. Sævarheiti.  

Hver eru sævar heiti? Hann heitir: marr, ægir, gymir, hlér, haf, leið, ver, salt, lögr, græðir. Sem Arnórr kvað ok fyrr var ritat:

278. Nemi drótt, hvé sæ sótti
snarlyndr konungr jarla.
Eigi þraut við ægi
óvæginn gram bægja.

 

 

Hér er nefndr sær ok svá ægir. Marr, sem Hornklofi kvað:

279. Þá er út á mar mætir
mannskæðr lagar tanna
ræsinaðr til rausnar
rak vébrautar Nökkva.

Lögr er ok hér nefndr. Svá kvað Einarr:

280. Lögr þvær flaust, en fagrir,
flóðs vaskar brim stóðum,
þar er sær á hlið hvára
hlymr, veðrvitar glymja.

 

Hér er ok flóð kallat. Svá kvað Refr, sem fyrr var ritat:

281. Færir Björn, þar er bára
brestr, undinna festa
oft í ægis kjafta
úrsvöl Gymis völva.

 

 

Haf, sem Halvarðr kvað:

282. Vestr lézt í haf, hristir,
harðviggs, sikulgjarðar,
umbands allra landa,
íss, framstafni vísat.

Leið, sem hér er:

283. Erum á leið frá láði
liðnir Finnum skriðnu.
Austr sé ek fjöll af flausta
ferli geisla merluð.

Ver, sem Egill kvað:

284. Vestr fór ek of ver,
en ek Viðris ber
munstrandar mar,
svá er mitt of far.

Marr, sem Einarr kvað:

285. Kaldr þvær marr und mildum
margt dægr viðu svarta,
grefr élsnúin, jöfri,
almsorg Manar þjalma.

Salt, sem Arnórr kvað:

286. Salt skar húfi héltum
hraustr þjóðkóngr austan
Báru brimlogs rýri
brún veðr at Sigtúnum.

Græðir, sem Bölverkr kvað:

287. Leiðangr bjótt af láði,
lögr gekk of skip, fögru,
gjalfrstóðum reist græði
glæstum, ár it næsta.

Hér er ok gjálfr kallat særinn. Víðir, sem kvað Refr:

288. Barðristinn nemr brjósti
borðheim drasill skorðu,
nauð þolir viðr, en víði
verpr inn of þröm stinnan.

Húmr, sem Brennu-Njáll kvað:

289. Senn jósum vér, svanni,
sextán, en brim vexti,
dreif á hafskips húfa
húm, í fjórum rúmum.

Þessi eru enn sævar heiti, svá at rétt er at kenna til skip eða gull. Rán, er sagt, at var kona Ægis, svá sem hér er:

290. Hrauð í himin upp glóðum
hafs, gekk sær af afli.
Börð, hygg ek, at ský skerðu.
Skaut Ránar vegr mána.

 

 

Dætr þeira Ægis ok Ránar eru níu, ok eru nöfn þeira fyrr rituð: Himinglæva, Dúfa, Blóðughadda, Hefring, Uðr, Hrönn, Bylgja, Dröfn, Kólga. Einarr Skúlason talði í þessi vísu:


291. Æsir hvasst at hraustum
Himinglæva þyt sævar,

 

sex nöfn þeira, [himinglæva, Uðr, Dúfa, Blóðughadda, Kólga, Hefring].

Hrönn, sem Valgarðr kvað:

292.
Lauðr var lagt í beðja,
lék sollit haf golli,
en herskipum hrannir
höfuð ógurlig þógu.

 

 

 

 

 

Bylgja, sem Óttarr svarti kvað:

293. Skáruð sköfnu stýri,
skaut, sylgháar bylgjur,
lék við hún á hreini
hlunns, þat er drósir spunnu.

Dröfn, sem Ormr kvað:

294. Hrosta drýgir hvern kost
hauk lúðrs gæiþrúðr,
en drafnar loga Lofn
löstu rækir vinföst.

Bára, sem Þorleikr fagri kvað:

295. Sjár þýtr, en berr bára
bjart lauðr of við rauðan,
gránn þar er gulli búnum
gínn hlunnvísundr munni.

Lá, sem Einarr kvað:

296. Né framlyndir fundu
fyrr, hykkat lá kyrrðu,
þar er sjár á, við varra,
vini óra fell stórum.

Fyllr, sem Refr kvað:

297. Hrynja fjöll á fyllar,
fram æsisk nú Glamma
skeið vetrliði skíða,
skautbjörn Gusis nauta.

Boði, sem hér er:

298. Boði fell of mik bráðla.
Bauð heim með sér geimi.
Þá ek eigi löð lægis.

 

Breki, sem Óttarr kvað:

299. Braut, en breki þaut,
borð, óx viðar morð,
meðr fengu mikit veðr,
mjó fyrir ofan sjó.

Vágr, sem Bragi kvað:

300. Vildit vröngum ofra
vágs byrsendir ægi,
hinn er mjótygil máva
mærar skar fyr Þóri.

Sund, sem Einarr kvað:

301. Skar ek súðum sund
fyr sunnan Hrund,
mín prýddisk mund
við mildings fund.

Fjörðr, sem Einarr kvað:

302. Næst sé ek orm á jastar
ítrserki vel merkðan,
nemi bjóðr hvé ek fer, flæðar,
fjarðbáls of þat máli.

Sægr, sem Markús kvað:

303. Sægs mun ek síðr en eigi,
sá er illr, er brag spillir,
sólar sverri málan,
sliðráls reginn, níða.
LX. "What are the names of the Sea? It is called Ocean, Main, Wintry, Lee, Deep, Way, Weir, Salt, Lake, Furtherer. As Arnórr sang, and as we have written above:

Let men hear how the Earls' King,
Hardy of mind, the Sea sought;
The overwhelming Ruler
Failed not to resist the Main.[2]

2. See page 198.

Here it is named Sea, and Main also.

"Ocean, as Hornklofi sang:

When the man-scathing Meeter
Of the Mansion of the Rock-Reefs

Thrust the Forecastle-Adder
And the skiff out on the Ocean.

In the following verse it is called Lake as well: thus sang Einarr:

The Lake doth bathe the vessel,
Where the sea 'gainst each side beateth,
And the bright wind-vanes rattle;
The surf washes the Flood-Steeds.

Here it is called Flood also. Thus sang Refr, as was said before:

Wintry One's[1] wet-cold Spae-Wife
Wiles the Bear of Twisted Cables
Oft into Ægir's wide jaws,
Where the angry billow breaketh.[2]

1. Gymir. See Gering, Die Edda, p. 53, note 2. [probably refers to the 1892 edition]
2. See page 139,
Gymir= "Wintry One".

Deep, as Hallvardr sang:

The Sword-Shaker bids be pointed
The prow of the hardy ship-steed
Westward in the girdle
Of all lands, the Watery Deep.

Way, as here:

On our course from land we glided;
On the Way to the coast of Finland:
I see from the Ship's Road, eastward,
The fells with radiance gleaming.

Weir, as Egill sang:

 

I sailed o'er the Weir
To the West: I bear
Odin's Heart-Sea.
So it stands with me.

Ocean, as Einarr sang:

Many a day the cold Ocean
Washes the swarthy deck-planks
'Neath the gracious Prince; and Snow-Storm
Furrows Mona's Girdle.

Salt, as Arnórr sang:

The hardy King the Salt plowed
From the east with hull ice-laden:
Brown tempests tossed the Lessener
Of Surf-Gold toward Sigtún.

Furtherer, as Bölverkr sang:

Thou didst summon from fair Norway
A levy the next season,
With Din-Surf's ships the Furtherer
Didst shear; o'er decks the sea poured.
Here the sea is called Din-Surf also.

Wide One, as Refr sang:

To its breast the Stay's steed taketh
The Home of Planks, beak-furrowed,
And tosses the Wide One over
The hard side; the wood suffers.

Dusky One, as Njáll of the Burning sang:

We sixteen pumped, my Lady,
In four oar-rooms, but the surge waxed:
The Dusky One beat over
The hull of the driven sea-ship.

These are other names for the Sea, such as it is proper to use in periphrasing ships or gold.

"Rán, it is said, was Ægir's wife, even as is written here:

To the sky shot up the Deep's Gledes,
With fearful might the sea surged:
Methinks our stems the clouds cut,--
Rán's Road to the moon soared upward.

The daughters of Ægir and Rán are nine, and their names are recorded before: Himinglæva,[1] Dúfa,[2] Blódughadda,[3] Hefring,[4] Udr, [5] Hrönn,[6] Bylgja,[7] Dröfn,[8] Kólga.[9] Einarr Skúlason recorded the names of six of them in this stanza, beginning:

1. That through which one can see the heaven (Jónsson). 2. The Pitching One (Jónsson). 3 Bloody-Hair.  4 Riser.  5. Frothing Wave.   6. Welling Wave.  7. Billow.  8. Foam-Fleck. 9. Poetical term for Wave. "The Cool One" (Jónsson).

Himinglæva sternly stirreth,
And fiercely, the sea's wailing.

Their names are six [himinglæva, Uðr, Dúfa, Blóðughadda, Kólga, Hefring].

 

Welling Wave,[10] as Valgardr sang:

Foam rested in the Sea's bed:
Swollen with wind, the deep played,

And the Welling Waves were washing
The awful heads of the war-ships.

 

 10.  In the following stanzas, for the sake of consistency, I have been obliged to translate the names, since they are employed in the stanzas as common nouns, rather than as proper names. It is beyond my ability to translate Himinglæva briefly.

Billow, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:

Ye shear with shaven rudder
Billows moisty-deep; the broad sheet,
Which girls spun, on the mast-head
With the Roller's Reindeer sported.

Foam-Fleck, as Ormr sang:

The hawk-like, heedful Lady
Has every virtue: Lofn
Of the Foam-Fleck's flame-gold, faithful
As a friend, all faults renounceth.

Wave-Borne, as Thorleikr the Fair sang:

The sea walls, and the Wave-Borne
Bears bright froth o'er the red wood,
Where gapes the Roller's Brown Ox,
With mouth gold-ornamented.

Shoal, as Einarr sang:

Nor met the Forward-Minded,
Where the fierce sea on our friends falls;
I think the Shoal becalmed not
The Ship, Wood of the Waters.

Fullness, as Refr sang:

Downward the Fells of Fullness
Fall on the Bear of Tackle:
Now forward Winterling, stirreth,
The ship, on Glammi's sea-path.

Comber,[1] as here:

The Comber fell headlong o'er me;
The Main called me home unto it:
I accepted not the Sea's bidding.

1. So Cl.-Vig. Literally, the word means ominous, foreboder. [The Cleasby-Vigfusson Dictonary translates boði as: 1. messenger 2. breaker.]
+

Breaker, as Óttarr sang:

In burst the ship-sides thin;
Rushed the Breaker downward; flushed
Stood the wind, bane of the wood;
Men endured wild tempest then.

Wave, as Bragi sang:

The Giver of the Wave's Coals,
Who cut Thor's slender tackle,
The Line of the Land of Sea-Mews,
Loved not to fight the wroth sea.

Sound, as Einarr sang:

I sheared the Sound
From Hrund south-bound;
My hand was gold-wound
When the Giver I found.

Fjord, as Einarr sang:

Next I see a serpent
Carved well on the splendid ale-horn:
Let the Fjord-Fire's Dispenser
Learn how for that I pay him.

Wetness, as Markús sang:

I'll not lampoon the Chatterer,
Lord of the fearful sword-blade,
Who squanders the Sun of Wetness:
Ill is he who spoileth verses.

77. Eldsheiti.  

Hver eru elds heiti? Svá sem hér er:

304. Eldr brennat sjá sjaldan,
svíðr dyggr jöfurr byggðir,
blása rönn fyr ræsi
reyk, er Magnús kveykvir.

Logi, sem Valgarðr kvað:

305. Snarla skaut ór sóti,
sveyk of hús ok reykir
stóðu stopðir síðan,
steinóðr logi glóðum.

Bál, sem hér er:

306. Haki var brenndr á báli,
þar er brimslóðir óðu.

Glæðr, sem Grani kvað:

307. Glæðr hygg ek Glamma slóðar,
gramr eldi svá, felldu.

Eisa, sem Atli kvað:

308. Öx rýðsk, eisur vaxa,
allmörg, loga hallir,
hús brenna, gim geisar,
góðmennit fellr blóði.

Hér er ok gim gallat eldrinn. Eimr, sem hér er:

309. Brunnu allvalds inni,
eldr, hygg ek, at sal felldi,
eimr skaut á her hrími,
halfgör við Nið sjalfa.

Hyrr, sem Arnórr kvað:

310. Eymðit ráð við Rauma
reiðr Eydana meiðir.
Heit dvínuðu Heina,
hyrr gerði þá kyrra.

Funi, sem Einarr kvað:

311. Funi kyndisk fljótt,
en flýði skjótt
Hísingar herr,
sá er hafði verr.

Brími, sem Valgarðr kvað:

312. Bjartr sveimaði brími,
brutu víkingar fíkjum,
vísa styrks of virki,
varp sorg á mey, borgar.

Leygr, sem Halldórr skvaldri kvað:

313. Ér knáttuð þar þeira,
þú vart aldrigi, skjaldar
leygr þau of sjöt, sigri
sviptr, gersimum skipta.

LXI. "What are the names of fire? Even as is written here:

Not seldom does the fire blaze
Which Magnús sets: the stalwart
Ruler burns habitations:
Houses blow reek before him.

Glow, as Valgardr sang:

Fierce Glow, with red-hot embers,
Swiftly from the soot flared,
Straight o'er the tottering dwellings
Stood up the dense smoke-columns.

Bale, as here:

Haki was burned on Bale,
Where the sea's broad wake weltered.

Gledes, as Grani sang:

I think the Gledes diminished . . .
Glammi's tracks; thus the king kindled.

Embers, as Atli sang:

With blood the axe is reddened,
Embers wax, burn many houses,
Halls stand aglow; now rages
The Gem; good men are falling.

Here fire is called Gem also.

Vapor, as here:

Half-built, by the Nid's side
Burn the All-Ruler's dwellings;
I think fire razed the hall's pride:
Vapor shot rime on the people.

Hot Ashes, as Arnórr sang:

The Isle-Danes' wrathful Harmer
With the Raumar spared not hard counsel:
Hot Ashes made them calmer;
The Heinir's threatening words hushed.

Flames, as Einarr sang:

Flame soon was alight,
And swiftly took flight
All Hísing's host:
The fight they lost.

Flare, as Valgardr sang:

The sturdy king's bright Flare soared
Above the castle's bulwark;
The vikings burst in grimly:
Grief on the maid descended.

Lowe, as Haldórr sang:

There did ye share their jewels,
While o'er the host the Shield's Lowe,
The sword, shrieked fiercely: never
Wert thou spoiled of conquest.

78. Heiti stundanna.  

Þessi eru nöfn stundanna: öld, forðum, aldr, fyrir löngu, ár, misseri, vetr, sumar, vár, haust, mánuðr, vika, dagr, nótt, morginn, aftann, kveld, árla, snemma, síðla, í sinn, fyrra dag, í næst, í gær, á morgun, stund, mél. Þessi eru enn heiti nætrinnar í Alsvinnsmálum:

314. Nótt heitir með mönnum,
en njóla með goðum,
kalla grímu ginnregin,
ósorg kalla jötnar,
alfar svefngaman,
dvergar draumnjörun.

Frá jafndægri er haust, til þess er sól sezt í eykðarstað. Þá er vetr til jafndægris. Þá er vár til fardaga. Þá er sumar til jafndægris. Haustmánuðr heitir inn næsti fyrir vetr, fyrstr í vetri heitir gormánuðr, þá er frermánuðr, þá er hrútmánuðr, þá er þorri, þá gói, þá einmánuðr, þá gaukmánuðr ok sáðtíð, þá eggtíð ok stekktíð, þá er sólmánuðr ok selmánuðr, þá eru heyannir, þá er kornskurðarmánuðr.

LXII. "These are time-names: Cycle, Days of Yore, Generation, Lang-Syne, Year, Season, Winter, Summer, Spring, Autumn, Month, Week, Day, Night, Morning, Eve, Twilight, Early, Soon, Late, Betimes, Day before Yesterday, Yester Eve, Yesterday, To-morrow, Hour, Moment. These are more names of Night in Alsvinnsmál:

Night 't is called among men,
And among the gods, Mist-Time;
Hooded Hour the Holy Powers know it;
Sorrowless the giants,
And elves name it Sleep-joy;
The dwarves call it Dream-Weaver.

["It is autumn from the equinox till the time when the sun sets three hours and a half after noon; then winter endures till the equinox; then it is spring till the moving-days;[1] then summer till the equinox. The month next before winter is called Harvest-Month; the first in winter is the Month of Cattle-Slaughter; then Freezing Month, then Rain-Month, then the Month of Winter's Wane, then Gói;[2] then Single Month, then Cuckoo-Month and Seed-Time, then Egg-time and Lamb-Weaning-Time; then come Sun-Month and Pasture Month, then Haying-Season; then Reaping Month.][3]

1. In May.  2. I cannot find the meaning of this word.  3. "This passage, which U lacks, is clearly a later addition." Jónsson, Copenhagen ed. (1900), p. 138, footnote.

79. Konungaheiti.  

Hver eru manna heiti ókennd? Maðr er hverr fyrir sér; it fyrsta ok it æðsta heiti manns, er kallaðr er maðr keisari, því næst konungr, þar næst jarl. Þessir þrír menn eigu saman þessi heiti öll. Allvaldr, svá sem hér er kveðit:

315. Allvalda kann ek alla
austr ok suðr of flausta,
Sveins er sonr at reyna,
setr, hverjum gram betri.

Hér er ok gramr kallaðr. Því heitir hann allvaldr, at hann er einvaldi alls ríkis síns. Fylkir, sem Gizurr kvað:

316. Fylkir gleðr í folki
flagðs blakk ok svan Hlakkar,
Óláfr of viðr élum
Yggs gögl fegin Sköglar.

Fyrir því er fylkir kallaðr konungr, at hann skipar í fylkingar herliði sínu. Vísi, sem kvað Óttarr svarti:

317. Vísi tekr, víg-Freys,
víst austr munlaust,
aldar hefir allvaldr,
óskvíf, gótt líf.

Harri eða herra, sem kvað Arnórr:

318. Harri fekk í hverri
Hjaltlands þrumu branda,
greppr vill grams dýrð yppa,
gagn, sá er hæstr var bragna.

Hertogi heitir jarl, ok er konungr svá kallaðr ok, fyrir því er hann leiðir her til orrostu. Svá kvað Þjóðólfr:

319. Ok hertoga hneykir
herfingnum lét stinga,
leyfð ber ek hans, ór höfði
haugs skundaði augu.

Sinjór eða senjór, sem Sighvatr kvað:

320. Lát auman nú njóta,
Nóregs, ok gef stórum,
mál halt, svá sem sælan,
sínjór, laga þinna.

Mildingr, sem Markús kvað:

321. Mildingr fór of óþjóð eldi,
auðit varð þá flotnum dauða.
Hæstan kynduð, hlenna þrýstir
hyrjar ljóma suðr at Jómi.

Mæringr, sem Hallvarðr kvað:

322. Erat und jarðar höslu,
orðbrjótr Dönum forðar
moldreks, munka valdi
mæringr en þú næri.

Landreki, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

323. Eyss landreki ljósu
lastvarr Kraka barri,

sem fyrr var ritat. Því heitir hann svá, at hann rekr her um land annarra konunga eða rekr her ór sínu landi.


LXIII. "What are the simple terms for men? Each, in himself, is Man; the first and highest name by which man is called is Emperor; next to that, King; the next thereto, Earl: these three men possess in common all the following titles: All-Ruler, as this song showeth:

I know all All-Rulers
East and south, o'er the Ships' seat
Sveinn's son in proof is better
Than any other War-Prince.

Here he is called War-Prince also; for this reason he is called All-Ruler, that he is sole Ruler of all his realm.

Host-Arrayer, as Gizurr sang:

The Host-Arrayer feedeth
The wolf and the raven in folk-mote;
Óláfr gladdens, in Skögul's sharp showers
Of battle, the geese of Odin.

"A King is called Host-Arrayer because he divides his war-host into companies.

Leader, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:

The Leader taketh
Odin's loved Wife,
The lordless land;
His a warrior's life.

Lord or Lording, as Arnórr sang:

The Lord of Hjaltland, highest
Of heroes, gained the victory
In every thunderous sword-clash:
The bard will extol his glory.

An earl is called Host-Duke, and a king also is so termed, forasmuch as he leads his host to battle. Thus sang Thjódólfr:

He who put to shame the Host-Duke
Thrust out the eyes of prisoners,--
He who speeds the sacrifices;
In song I chant his praises.

Signor, or Señor, as Sigvatr sang:

O Norway's gracious Signor,
Grant the wretched, as the happy,

May now enjoy thy wise laws;
Give greatly, hold thy word!

Munificent One, as Markús sang:

The Munificent Prince brought fire's destruction
O'er the base people; to the pirates
Death was fated: Thief-Compeller,
South at Jóm highest flame-glow kindle!

Illustrious One, as Hallvardr sang:

No Illustrious One nearer
Under Earth's Hazel liveth
Than thou, O Monks' Upholder:
The Gold-Minisher Danes protecteth.

Land-Driver, as Thjódólfr sang:

The guileless Land-Driver sprinkles
Kraki's gleaming barley,

as was written before;[1] he is called so because he drives his host about the lands of other kings, or drives a host out of his own land.

1. See page 173, where these two lines are translated slightly differently.

80. Frá Halfdani gamla ok konungaættum.  

Konungr er nefndr Hálfdan gamli, er allra konunga var ágætastr. Hann gerði blót mikit at miðjum vetri ok blótaði til þess, at hann skyldi lifa í konungdómi sínum þrjú hundruð vetra. En hann fekk þau andsvör, at hann myndi lifa ekki meir en einn mikinn mannsaldr, en þat myndi þó vera þrjú hundruð vetra, er engi myndi vera í ætt hans kona eða ótiginn maðr. Hann var hermaðr mikill ok fór víða um Austrvegu.

 

Þar drap hann í einvígi þann konung, er Sigtryggr hét. Þá fekk hann þeirar konu, er kölluð er Alvig in spaka, dóttir Emundar konungs ór Hólmgarði. Þau áttu sonu átján ok váru níu senn bornir. Þeir hétu svá: Einn var Þengill, er kallaðr var Manna-Þengill, annarr Ræsir, þriði Gramr, fjórði Gylfi, fimmti Hilmir, sétti Jöfurr, sjaundi Tyggi, átti Skyli eða Skúli, níundi Harri eða Herra. Þessir níu bræðr urðu svá ágætir í hernaði, at í öllum fræðum síðan eru nöfn þeira haldin fyrir tignarnöfn, svá sem konungs nafn eða jarls. Þeir áttu engi börn ok fellu allir í orrostum. Svá kvað Óttarr svarti:

324. Þengill var þegar ungr
þreksgörr vígörr.
Haldask bið ek hans aldr,
hann tel ek yfirmann.

Svá kvað Markús:

325. Ræsir lét af roðnum hausi
Rínar sól á marfjöll skína.

Svá kvað Egill:

326. Gramr hefir gerðihömrum
grundar upp of hrundit.

Svá kvað Eyvindr:

327. Lék við ljóðmögu,
skyldi land verja,
gylfi inn glaðværi,
stóð und gullhjalmi.

 

Svá kvað Glúmr Geirason:

328. Hilmir rauð und hjalmi
beina laut á Gautum.

 

 

 

Svá kvað Óttarr svarti:

329. Jöfurr heyri upphaf,
ofrask mun konungs lof,
háttu nemi hann rétt
hróðrs mín, bragar síns.

 

Sem Stúfr kvað:

330. Tíreggjaðr hjó tyggi
tveim höndum lið beima,
reifr gekk herr und hlífar,
hizig suðr fyr Nizi.

 

Svá kvað Hallfreðr:

331. Skiliðr em ek við skylja,
skaldmöld hefir því valdit.
Vætta virða dróttins
vil er mest ok dul flestum.

Svá kvað Markús:

332. Harra kveð ek at hróðrgörð dýrri
hauklundaðan Dana grundar.

Enn áttu þau Hálfdan aðra níu sonu, er svá heita; Hildir, er Hildingar eru frá komnir, annarr Nefir, er Niflungar eru frá komnir, þriði Auði, er Öðlingar eru frá komnir, fjórði Yngvi, er Ynglingar eru frá komnir, fimmti Dagr, er Döglingar eru frá komnir, sétti Bragi, er Bragningar eru frá komnir. Þat er ætt Hálfdanar ins milda. Sjaundi Buðli, er Buðlungar eru frá komnir. Af Buðlungaætt kom Atli ok Brynhildr. Átti er Lofði. Hann var herkonungr mikill. Honum fylgði þat lið, er Lofðar váru kallaðir. Hans ættmenn eru kallaðir Lofðungar. Þaðan er kominn Eylimi, móðurfaðir Sigurðar Fáfnisbana. Níundi Sigarr, þaðan eru komnir Siklingar. Þat er ætt Siggeirs, er var mágr Völsungs, ok ætt Sigars, er hengði Hagbarð. Af Hildinga ætt var kominn Haraldr inn granrauði, móðurfaðir Hálfdanar svarta. Af Niflunga ætt var Gjúki, af Öðlinga ætt var Kjárr, af Ylfinga ætt var Eiríkr inn málspaki.
Þessar eru ok konunga ættir ágætar: frá Yngva, er Ynglingar eru frá komnir, frá Skildi í Danmörk, er Skjöldungar eru frá komnir, frá Völsungi á Fraklandi, þeir heita Völsungar. Skelfir hét einn herkonungr, ok er hans ætt kölluð Skilfinga ætt. Sú kynslóð er í Austrvegum. Þessar ættir, er nú eru nefndar, hafa menn sett svá í skáldskap, at halda öll þessi fyrir tignarnöfn. Svá sem Einarr kvað:

333. Frá ek við holm at heyja
hildingar fram gingu,
lind varð græn, inn grána
geirþing, í tvau springa.

Sem Grani kvað:

334. Döglingr fekk at drekka
danskt blóð ara jóði.

Sem Gamli kvað Gnævaðarskáld:

335. Öðlingr drap sér ungum
ungr naglfara á tungu
innan borðs ok orða
aflgerð meðalkafla.

Sem Jórunn kvað:

336. Bragningr réð í blóði,
beið herr konungs reiði,
hús lutu oft fyr eisum,
óþjóðar slög rjóða.

Svá kvað Einarr:

337. Beit buðlungs hjörr,
blóð fell á dörr.
[Raufsk Hildar ský
við Hvítabý.]

Svá kvað Arnórr:

338. Siklinga venr snekkjur
sjálútar konr úti.
Hann litar herskip innan,
hrafns góð er þat, blóði.

Sem Þjóðólfr kvað:

339. Svá lauk siklings ævi
snjalls, at vér ’rom allir,
lofðungr beið inn leyfði
lífs grand, í stað vöndum.

Lofða konungi fylgði þat lið, er Lofðar heita. Sem Arnórr kvað:

340.
Skjöldungr mun þér annarr aldri
æðri, gramr, und sólu fæðask.

Völsungr, sem kvað Þorkell hamarskáld:

341. Mér réð senda
of svalan ægi
Völsunga niðr
vápn gullbúit.

Ynglingr, sem kvað Óttarr svarti:

342. Engi varð á jörðu
ógnbráðr, áðr þér náði,
austr sá er eyjum vestan
Ynglingr und sik þryngvi.

Yngvi, þat er ok konungs heiti, sem Markús kvað:

343. Eiríks lof verðr öld at heyra,
engi maðr veit fremra þengil,
Yngvi helt við orðstír langan
jöfra sess, í veröld þessi.

Skilfingr, sem Valgarðr kvað:

344. Skilfingr helt, þar er skulfu
skeiðr, fyr lönd in breiðu,
eydd varð, suðr, of síðir
Sikiley, liði miklu.

Sínjór, sem Sighvatr kvað ok fyrr var ritat:

345. Lát auman nú njóta
Nóregs ok gef stórum.
LXIV. "There was a king named Hálfdan the Old, who was most famous of all kings. He made a great sacrificial feast at mid-winter, and sacrificed to this end, that he might live three hundred years in his kingdom; but he received these answers: he should not live more than the full life of a man, but for three hundred years there should be no woman and no man in his line who was not of great repute. He was a great warrior, and went on forays far and wide in the Eastern Regions:[2]

  
2. That is, in the lands bordering the Baltic.

 There he slew in single combat the king who was called Sigtryggr. Then he took in marriage that woman named Alvig the Wise, daughter of King Eymundr of Hólmgardr:[1] they had eighteen sons, nine born at one birth. These were their names: the first, Thengill,[2] who was called Manna-Thengill;[2] the second, Ræsir;[3] the third, Gramr;[3] the fourth, Gylfi;[3] the fifth, Hilmir;[3] the sixth, Jöfurr;[3] the seventh, Tyggi;[3] the eighth, Skyli[3] or Skúli;[3] the ninth, Harri[3] or Herra.[3] These nine brothers became so famous in foraying that, in all records since, their names are used as titles of rank, even as the name of King or that of Earl. They had no children, and all fell in battle. Thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy:

In his youth stalwart Thengill
Was swift and staunch in battle:
I pray his line endureth;
O'er all men I esteem him.

1. Russia.
2. This word means Prince or King;
Manna-Thengill = Prince of Men.
3. All of these words are poetic names for a Prince or King.

Thus sang Markus:

The Ræsir let the Rhine's Sun shimmer
From the reddened Skull's ship on the Sea-Fells.

Thus sang Egill:

The Gramr the hood hath lifted
From the hair-fenced brows of the Singer.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

He played with the land-folk
Who should have defended;

Gylfi the gladsome
Stood 'neath the gold helmet.

Thus sang Glúmr Geirason:

Hilmir beneath the helmet
Reddened the sword hone-hollowed.[1]

1. See page 197, Hilmir=The Prince

Thus sang Óttarr the Swarthy:

Let Jöfurr hear the beginning
Of his laud: all the king's praises
Shall be maintained, and justly
Let him mark my praise-song's measures.

As Stúfr sang:

The glory-ardent Tyggi
South before Niz with two hands
Beat down the band of heroes:
Glad beneath their shields the host went.

Thus sang Hallfredr:

From Skyli I am parted:
This age of swords hath caused it.
'T is greatest of all self-mockings
To hope that the king's guard cometh.

Thus sang Markús:

I bid the hawklike Danish Harri
Hark to my cunning web of praises.

"Hálfdan and his wife had nine other sons also; these were Hildir, from whom the Hildings are come; Nefir, from whom the Niflungs sprang; Audi, from whom the Ödlungs are come; Yngvi, from whom the Ynglings are descended; Dagr, from whom come the Döglings; Bragi, from whom the Bragnings are sprung (that is the race of Hálfdan the Munificent); Budli, from whom the Budlungs are come (from the house of the Budlungs Atli and Brynhildr descended); the eighth was Lofdi, who was a great war-king (that host who were called Lofdar followed him; his kindred are called Lofdungs, whence sprang Eylimi, Sigurdr Fáfnisbani's mother's sire); the ninth, Sigarr, whence come the Siklings: that is the house of Siggeirr, who was son-in-law of Völsungr,--and the house of Sigarr, who hanged Hagbardr. From the race of Hildings sprang Haraldr the Red-Bearded, mother's father of Hálfdan the Swarthy. Of the Niflung's house was Gjúki; of the house of Ödlings, Kjárr; of the house of the Ylfings was Eiríkr the Wise in Speech. These also are illustrious royal houses: from Yngvi, the Ynglings are descended; from Skjöldr in Denmark, the Skjöldungs are come; from Völsungr in the land of Franks, those who are called Völsungs. One war-king was named Skelfir; and his house is called the House of Skilfings: his kindred is in the Eastern Region. "These houses which were named but now have been used in skaldship for titles of rank. Even as Einarr sang:

I learned that the Hildings sallied
To hold the Spear-Assembly
On the Gray Isle; the broad shields,
Green lindens, burst in sunder.

As Grant sang:

The Dögling to eagle's kindred
For drink gave Danish blood.

As Gamli Gnævadar-Skald sang:

Not long since, the young Ödling
With ship's deck and with sword-blade
Joined battle, waging fiercely
Of points the bitter tempest.

As Jórunn sang:

The Bragning bade the weapons
Be dyed in blood of vile folk;
The people endured his anger:
Houses bowed before red embers.

Thus sang Einarr:

The Budlung's blade sheared,
Blood on darts was smeared;
The storm-cloud of Hildr
At Whitby spilled.

Thus sang Arnorr:

The Kin of Siklings inureth
To the waves the ships sea-tossing;
With blood he dyes the warships
Within: 't is the weal of ravens.

As Thjódólfr sang:

Thus the doughty Sikling ended
His life; in dire straits were we:
The glorious Lofdung waited
Bravely surcease of living.

The folk who were called Lofdar followed King Lofdi.
As Arnórr sang:

Chief, another Skjöldung higher
Than thou shall ne'er be born 'neath sun's light.

Völsung, as Thorkell Hamar-Skald sang:

The Kin of Völsungs
Gave counsel to send me
The gold-decked weapon
O'er the cool waters.

Yngling, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:

In the East no mighty Yngling
To earth fell, ere o'ertook thee
He who subjected to him
The Sea-isles from the westward.

Yngvi: that too is a king's title, as Markús sang:

The age shall hear the praise of Eiríkr:
None in the world a prince hath known of
Lordlier; thou holdest, Yngvi,
The Seat of Kings with long-kept glory.

Skilfing, as Valgardr sang:

The Skilfing kept a great host
Southward in the broad lands,
Where the swift ships shivered:
Sicily soon was desolated.

Signor, as Sigvatr sang:

O Norway's gracious Signor,
Let the poor enjoy; give greatly.[1]

1. See page 216,

 

where it is translated slightly differently.

81. Mannaheiti.  

Skáld heita greppar, ok rétt er í skáldskap at kalla svá hvern mann, er vill. Rekkar váru kallaðir þeir menn, er fylgðu Hálfi konungi, ok af þeirra nafni eru rekkar kallaðir hermenn, ok er rétt at kalla svá alla menn. Lofðar heita ok menn í skáldskap, sem fyrr er ritat. Skatnar váru þeir menn kallaðir, er fylgðu þeim konungi, er Skati mildi var kallaðr. Af hans nafni er skati kallaðr hverr, er mildr er. Bragnar heita þeir, er fylgðu Braga konungi inum gamla. Virðar heita þeir menn, er meta mál manna. Fyrðar ok firar ok verar heita landvarnarmenn. Víkingar ok flotnar, þat er skipa herr. Beimar, svá hétu þeir, er fylgðu Beimuna konungi. Gumnar eða gumar heita flokkstjórar, svá sem gumi er kallaðr í brúðför. Gotnar eru kallaðir af heiti konungs þess, er Goti er nefndr, er Gotland er við kent. Hann var kallaðr af nafni Óðins ok dregit af Gauts nafni, því at Gautland eða Gotland var kallat af nafni Óðins, en Svíþjóð af nafni Sviðurs. Þat er ok heiti Óðins. Í þann tíma var kallat allt meginland, þat er hann átti, Reiðgotaland, en eyjar allar Eygotaland. Þat er nú kallat Danaveldi ok Svíaveldi.

 

 

 

Drengir heita ungir menn búlausir, meðan þeir afla sér fjár eða orðstír, þeir fardrengir, er milli landa fara, þeir konungsdrengir, er höfðingjum þjóna, þeir ok drengir, er þjóna ríkum mönnum eða bóndum. Drengir heita vaskir menn ok batnandi. Seggir eru kallaðir ok kníar ok liðar, þat eru fylgðarmenn. Þegnar ok hölðar, svá eru búendr kallaðir. Ljónar heita þeir menn, er ganga of sættir manna. Þeir menn eru, er svá eru kallaðir: kappar, kenpur, garpar, snillingar, hreystimenn, harðmenni, afarmenni, hetjur. Þessi heiti standa hér í mót at kalla mann blauðan, veykan, þjarfan, þirfing, blotamann, skauð, skræfu, skrjáð, vák, vám, læra, sleyma, teyða, dugga, dási, dirokkr, dusilmenni, ölmusa, auvirð, vílmögr.

Örr maðr heitir mildingr, mæringr, skati, þjóðskati, gullskati, mannbaldr, sælingr, sælkeri, auðkýfingr, ríkmenni, höfðingi. Hér í mót er svá kallat: hnöggvingr, glöggvingr, mælingr, vesalingr, féníðingr, gjöflati. Heitir spekingr ráðvaldr. Heitir ok óvitr maðr fífl, afglapi, gassi, ginningr, gaurr, glópr, snápr, fóli, ærr, óðr, galinn. Snyrtimaðr ofláti, drengr, glæsimaðr, stertimaðr, prýðimaðr. Heitir hraumi, skrápr, skrokkr, skeiðklofi, flangi, slinni, fjósnir, slápr, dröttr.
Lýðr heitir landfólk eða ljóðr. Heitir ok þræll kefsir, þjónn, önnungr, þirr.

LXV. "Skalds are called bards; and in skaldship it is correct to call any man so whom one will. Those men who served King Hálfr were called Champions.[2] and from their name warriors are called champions; and it is correct to call all men so. In skaldship men are called Lofdar also, as is written above.[3] Those men were called Skatnar[4] who served the king named Skati the Munificent: from his name every one who is munificent is called Skati. They who followed Bragi the Old were called Bragnar.[5] They who assess the transactions of men are called taxers. Fyrdar[6] and Firar[7] are they called who defend the land. Vikings and fleet-men form a ship-army. They who followed King Beimuni were called Beimar.[8] Captains of companies are called Grooms, even as he is called who carries home a bride. The Goths are named after that king who was called Goti, from whom Gotland is named: he was so called after Odin's name, derived from the name Gautr for Gautland or Gotland was named after Odin's name, and Sweden from the name of Svidurr, which is also a title of Odin's. At that time all the mainland which he possessed was called Reid-Gotaland, and all the islands, Ey-Gotaland: that is now called the Realm of Danes or of Swedes.

2. Rekkar.
3. See page 232.
4. Plural of Skati = lordly, towering.
5. Heroes.

6, 7. Cf. A.-S.
fyrd, firas.

8. Heroes, Men.


"Young men not householders are called Drengs, while they are acquiring wealth and glory: sea-faring Drengs are they who voyage from land to land; King's Drengs are they who serve rulers. They also are Drengs who serve wealthy men or franklins; valiant and ambitious men are called Drengs. Warriors are also called Champions and Troops: these are soldiers. Freeholders are called Thanes and Yeomen; those men who go about reconciling men are called Day-Men. These men are they who are called Champions, Kemps, Men of War, Brave Men, Valiant Men, Hardy Men, Overpowerers, Heroes. Over against these are the following terms: Soft, Weak, Unleavened, Leavenless, Melting One, Sheath, Coward, Skulker, Weakling, Qualmish, Caitiff, Scamp, Vile One, Dog, Lout, Feeble One, Paltry' One, Imbecile, Bungler, Son of Wretchedness."A good man of his hands is called Munificent, Illustrious, Towerer, Mighty Towerer, Towering Gold-Giver, Prince of Men, Wealthy One, Prosperous, Heaper-Up of Riches, Mighty Man, Chieftain. In contrast to these are they who are called Niggard, Miser, Calculator, Wretched One, Wealth-Hiding, Gift-Tardy One. A man wise in Counsel is called Wielder of Counsel. A witless man is called Clown, Oaf, Gander, Dupe, Boor, Idiot, Dolt, Fool, Madman, Maniac, Moon-Struck. One who thinks much of dress is called Gaudy, Dreng, Glittering One, Careful of Attire, Tricked-Out. A noisy fellow is called Shark-Skin, Braggart, Sheath-Cleaner, Fawner, Brawler, Good-for-Naught, Worthless One.
Common-folk are called Country-folk or People. A thrall is called Kept-Man, Serf, Laborer, Servant.
82. Hópaheiti.  
Maðr heitir einn hverr,
tá, ef tveir eru,
þorp, ef þrír eru,
fjórir eru föruneyti,
flokkr eru fimm menn,
sveit, ef sex eru,
sjau fylla sögn,
átta bera ámælisskor,
nautar eru níu,
dúnn, ef tíu eru,
ærir ro ellifu,
toglöð er,
ef tólf fara,
þyss eru þrettán,
ferð fjórtán,
fundr er þá,
er fimmtán hittask,
seta eru sextán,
sókn eru sautján,
ærnir þykkja óvinir,
þeim er átján mætir,
neyti hefir sá,
er nítján menn hefir,
drótt eru tuttugu menn.
Þjóð eru þrír tigir,
fólk eru fjórir tigir,
fylki eru fimm tigir,
samnaðr eru sex tigir,
sörvar eru sjau tigir,
öld eru átta tigir,
herr er hundrað.
LXVI. "Each one singly is called man; 't is twain if they are two; three are a thorp; four are a group; a band is five men; if there are six, it is a squad; seven complete a crew; eight men make a panel; nine are 'good fellows;' ten are a gang; eleven form an embassy; it is a dozen if twelve go together; thirteen. are a crowd; fourteen are an expedition; it is a gathering, when fifteen meet; sixteen make a garrison; seventeen are a congregation; to him who meets eighteen, they seem enemies enough. He who has nineteen men has a company; twenty men are a posse; thirty are a squadron; forty, a community; fifty are a shire; sixty are an assembly; seventy are a line;[1] eighty are a people; one hundred is a host.

 

1. Sörvar, plural of sörvi, a lady's necklace.

 

83. Viðkenningar ok sannkenningar.  

Enn eru þau heiti, er menn láta ganga fyrir nöfn manna. Þat köllum vér viðkenningar eða sannkenningar eða fornöfn. Þat eru viðkenningar at nefna annan hlut réttu nafni ok kalla þann, er hann vill nefna, eiganda eða svá at kalla hann þess, er hann nefndi, föður eða afa. Ái er inn þriði. Heitir ok sonr ok arfi, arfuni, barn, jóð ok mögr, erfingi. Heitir ok bróðir, blóði, barmi, hlýri, lifri. Heitir ok niðr, nefi, áttungr, konr, kundr, frændi, kynstafr, niðjungr, ættstuðill, ættbarmr, kynkvísl, ættbogi, afkvæmi, afspringr, höfuðbaðmr, ofsköft. Heita ok mágar, sifjungar, hleytamenn. Heitir ok vinr ok ráðunautr, ráðgjafi, máli, rúni, spjalli, alda þófti, einkili, sessi, sessunautr. Þófti er hálfrýmisfélagi. Heitir ok óvinr, dólgr, andskoti, fjandi, sökkvi, skaðamaðr, banamaðr, þröngvir, sökkvir, ósvífruðr. Þessi heiti köllum vér viðkenningar ok svá, þótt maðr sé kenndr við bæ sinn eða skip sitt, þat er nafn á, eða eign sína, þá er einkarnafn er gefit. Þetta köllum vér sannkenningar, at kalla menn spekimann, ætlunarmann, orðspeking, ráðsnilling, auðmilding, óslækinn, gæimann, glæsimann. Þetta eru fornöfn.


LXVII. "Beside these there are those terms which men prefix to the names of men: we call such terms epithets of possession,[2] or true terms, or surnames. It is an epithet of possession when one names a thing by its true name, and calls him whom one desires to periphrase Owner of that thing; or Father or Grandfather of that which was named; Grandsire is a third epithet. Moreover, a son is also called Heir, Heritor, Bairn, Child and Boy, Inheritor. A blood-kinsman is called Brother, Twin, Germane, Consanguine; a relation is also called Nephew, Kinsman, Kin, Kith, Friend, Kin-Stave, Descendant, Family-Prop, Family-Stem, Kin-Branch, Family-Bough, Offshoot, Offspring, Head-Tree, Scion. Kinsmen by marriage are further called Sib-folk, Minglers of Blood. A friend is called Counsel-Mate, Counsel-Giver, Adviser, Secret-Sharer, Converser, Bench-Fellow, Fondling, Seat-Mate; bench-fellow also means Cabin-Mate. A foe is called Adversary, Shooter Against One, Hater, Attacker, Scather, Slayer, Hard Presser, Pursuer, Overbearer.

"These terms we call epithets of possession; and so also if a man is known by his dwelling or his ship, which has a name of its own, or by his estate, when a name of its own is given to it.

"This we call true terms: to call a man Wise Man, Man of Thought, Wise in Speech, Sage in Counsel, Wealth Munificent, Not Slack, Endower, Illustrious One; these are surnames. 

2. Vidhenningar: literally, by-periphrases.

84. Kvennaheiti.  

Þessi eru kvenna heiti ókennd í skáldskap: Víf ok brúðr ok fljóð heita þær konr, er manni eru gefnar. Sprund ok svanni heita þær konr, er mjök fara með dramb ok skart. Snótir heita þær, er orðnæfrar eru. Drósir heita þær, er kyrrlátar eru, svarri ok svarkr þær, er mikillátar eru. Ristill er kölluð sú kona, er sköruglynd er. Rýgr heitir sú, er ríkust er. Feima er sú kölluð, er ófröm er, svá sem ungar meyjar eða þær konur, er ódjarfar eru. Sæta heitir sú kona, er búandi hennar er af landi farinn.

Hæll er sá kona kölluð, er búandi hennar er veginn. Ekkja heitir sú, er búandi hennar varð sóttdauðr. Mær heitir fyrst hver, en kerlingar er gamlar eru. Eru enn þau kvenna heiti, er til lastmælis eru, ok má þau finna í kvæðum, þótt þat sé eigi ritat. Þær konur heita eljur, er einn mann eigu. Snör heitir sonarkván. Sværa heitir vers móðir. Heitir ok móðir, amma, þriðja edda. Eiða heitir móðir. Heitir ok dóttir ok barn, jóð. Heitir ok systir, dís, jóðdís. Kona er ok kölluð beðja, mála, rúna búanda síns, ok er þat viðrkenning.


LXVIII. "These are simple terms for women in skaldship: Wife and Bride and Matron are those women who are given to a man. Those who walk in pomp and fine array are called Dame and Lady. They who are witty of speech are called Women of Wisdom.[1] They who are gentle are called Girls; they who are of high countenance are called Proud and Haughty Ones. She who is of noble mind is called Gentlewoman;[2] she who is richest, Lady. She who is bashful, as young -maids are, or those women who are modest, is called Lass. The woman whose husband has departed from the land is called Stay-at-Home.

That woman whose husband is slain is called War-Widow: Widow is the term for her whose husband has died of sickness. Maid means, first, every woman, and then carlines that are old. Then there are those terms for women which are libellous: one may find them in songs, though they be not ill writing. Those women who have one husband in common are called Concubines. A son's wife is termed Daughter-in-law; the husband's mother is called Mother-in-law. A woman may also be called Mother, Grand mother, Great-Grandmother; a Mother is called Dam. Woman is further called Daughter, Bairn, and Child. She is also called Sister, Lady,[1] and Maiden.[1] Woman is also called Bed-Fellow, Speech-Mate, and Secret-Sharer of her husband; and that is an epithet of possession.

1. Snót (plural, Snótir) = a gentlewoman. Cf. Snotr = wise. A popular etymology.
2. Literally = Plowshare. (See Cl.-Vig, p. 498,
s.v. ristill)
85. Höfuð ok hlutar þess.  

Höfuð heitir á manni. Þat skal svá kenna at kalla erfiði háls eða byrði, land hjálms ok hattar ok heila, hárs ok brúna, svarðar, eyrna, augna, munns. Heimdallar sverð, ok er rétt at nefna hvert sverðsheiti, er vill, ok kenna við eitt hvert nafn Heimdallar. Höfuð heitir ókennt hauss, hjarni, kjannr, kollr. Augu heita sjón ok lit eða viðrlit, örmjót. Þau má svá kenna at kalla sól eða tungl, skjöldu ok gler eða gimsteina eða stein brá eða brúna, hvarma eða ennis. Eyru heita hlustir ok heyrn. Þau skal svá kenna at kalla land eða jarðarheitum nökkurum eða munn eða rás eða sjón eða augu heyrnarinnar, ef nýgervingar eru. Munn skal svá kenna at kalla land eða hús tungu eða tanna, orða eða góma, varra eða þvílíkt, ok ef nýgervingar eru, þá kalla menn munninn skip, en varrarnar borðit, tunga ræðit eða stýrit. Tennr eru stundum kallaðar grjót eða sker orða, munnr eða tunga. Tunga er oft kölluð sverð máls eða munns. Skegg heitir barð, grön eða kanpar, er stendr á vörrum. Hár heitir lá, haddr þat, er konr hafa. Skoft heitir hár. Hár er svá kennt at kalla skóg eða viðarheiti nökkuru, kenna til hauss eða hjarna eða höfuðs, en skegg kenna við höku eða kinnr eða kverkr.

LXIX. "A man's head is termed thus: [thus should it he periphrased: call it Toil or Burden of the Neck; Land of the Helm, of the Hood, and of the Brain, of the Hair and Brows, of the Scalp, of Ears, Eves, and Mouth; Sword of Heimdallr, arid it is correct to name any term for sword which one desires; and to periphrase it in terms of every one of the names of Heimdallr][2] the Head, in simple terms, is called Skull, Brain, Temple, Crown. The eyes are termed Vision or Glance, and Regard, Swift-Appraising; [they may he so periphrased as to call them Sun or Moon, Shields and Glass or Jewels or Stones of the Eyelids, of the Brows, the Lashes, or the Forehead]. The ears are called Listeners[3] or Hearing;[3] [one should periphrase them by calling them Land, or any earth-name, or Mouth, or Canal, or Vision, or Eyes of Hearing, if the metaphors employed are new-coined. The mouth one should periphrase by calling it Land or House of the Tongue or of the Teeth, of Words or of the Palate, of the Lips, or the like; and if the metaphors used are not traditional, then men may call the mouth Ship, and the lips the Planks, and the tongue Oar or Tiller of the Ship. The teeth are sometimes called Gravel or Rocks of Words, of the Mouth, or of the Tongue. The tongue is often called Sword of Speech or of the Mouth]. The hair which stands on the lips is called Beard, Moustache, or Whiskers. Hair is called Nap; the hair of women is called Tresses. Hair is termed Locks. [One may periphrase hair by calling it Forest, or by some tree-name; one may periphrase it in terms of the skull or brain or head; and the beard in terms of chin or cheeks or throat.]

1. Dís; properly = sister. For discussion of these words, see under dís in Cl.-Vig., p. 100
2. This and other pages in brackets are probably spurious. 
3. These are the literal meanings; the meaning
s, in general usage, coincide: both words signify the inner parts of the ear (Cl.-Vig.),
[hlustir ok heyrn]
86. Hjarta, brjóst, hugr.  

Hjarta heitir negg. Þat skal svá kenna, kalla korn eða stein eða epli eða hnot eða mýl eða líkt ok kenna við brjóst eða hug, kalla má ok hús eða jörð eða berg hugarins. Brjóst skal svá kenna at kalla hús eða garð eða skip hjarta, anda eða lifrar, eljunar land, hugar ok minnis. Hugr heitir sefi ok sjafni, ást, elskhugi, vili, munr. Huginn skal svá kenna at kalla vind trollkvenna, ok rétt at nefna til hverja, er vill, ok svá at nefna jötnana, eða kenna þá til konu eða móður eða dóttur þess. Hugr heitir ok geð, þokki, eljun, þrekr, nenning, minni, vit, skap, lund, tryggð. Heitir ok hugr reiði, fjandskapr, fár, grimmð, böl, harmr, tregi, óskap, grellskap, lausung, ótryggð, geðleysi, þunngeði, gessni, harðgeði, óðværi.

LXX. The heart is called grain-sheaf; [one should periphrase it by terming it Grain or Stone or Apple or Nut or Ball, or the like, in figures of the breast or of feeling. More over, it may be called House or Earth or Mount of Feeling. One should periphrase the breast by calling it House or Garth or Ship of the Heart, of Breath, or of the Liver; Land of Energy, of Feeling, and of Memory]. Feeling is affection and emotion, love, passion, desire, love-longing. [Passion should be periphrased by calling it Wind of Troll Women; also it is correct to name what one soever is desired, and to name giants, periphrasing giantesses as Woman or Mother or Daughter of the Giants.] Feeling is also called mood, liking, eagerness, courage, activity, memory, understanding, temper, humor, good faith. It is also wrath, enmity, mischievousness, grimness, balefulness, grief, sorrow, ill-will, spite, falseness, faithlessness, fickleness, light-mindedness, baseness, hasty temper, violence.
87. Hönd, fótr.  

Hönd má kalla mund, arm, lám, hramm. Á hendi heitir ölnbogi, armleggr, úlfliðr, liðr, fingr, greip, hreifi, nagl, gómr, jaðarr, kvikva. Hönd má kalla jörð vápna eða hlífa, við axlar ok ermar, lófa ok hreifa, gullhringa jörð ok vals ok hauks ok allra hans heita, ok í nýgervingum fót axlar, bognauð. Fætr má kalla tré ilja, rista, leista eða þvílíkt, renniflein brautar eða göngu, fets. Má kalla fótinn tré eða stoð þessa. Við skíð ok skúa ok brækr eru fætr kenndir. Á fæti heitir lær, kné, kálfi, bein, leggr, rist, jarki, il, tá. Við þetta allt má fótinn kenna ok kalla hann tré, ok kallat er sigla ok rá fótrinn, ok kenna við þessa hluti.

LXXI. "The hand and fore-arm may be called hand, arm, paw, palm. Parts of the arm are called elbow, upper arm, wolf's joint,[1] finger, grip, wrist, nail, finger-tip, hand-edge, quick. [One may term the hand Earth of Weapons or of Defensive Armor; and together with shoulder and arm, the hollow of the hand and the wrist, it may, be called Earth of Gold Rings, of the Falcon and the Hawk, and of all the equivalents thereof; and in new-coined metaphors, Leg of the Shoulder-joint, and Force of the Bow. The legs may be called Tree of the Soles, of the Insteps, of the Ankles, or the like; Running Shaft of the Road or of the Way or the Pace; one may call the leg Tree or Post of all these. The legs are periphrased in metaphors of snowshoes, shoes, and breeks.] The parts of the legs are called thigh, knee, calf, lower leg, upper leg, instep, arch, sole, toe; [one may periphrase the leg in terms of all these, calling it Tree, Mast, and Yard thereof; and in metaphors of them all].

 [1. This is the wrist-joint.] 
88. Mál ok vit.

Mál heitir ok orð ok orðtak ok orðsnilli, tala, saga, senna, þræta, söngr, galdr, kveðandi, skjal, bifa, hjaldr, hjal, skvál, glaumr, þjarka, gyss, þraft, skálp, hól, skraf, dælska, ljóðæska, hégómi, afgelja. Heitir ok rödd, hljómr, rómr, ómun, þytr, göll, gnýr, glymr, þrymr, rymr, brak, svipr, svipun, gangr. Vit heitir speki, ráð, skilning, minni, ætlun, hyggjandi, tölvísi, langsæi, bragðvísi, orðspeki, skörungskapr. Heitir undirhyggja, vélræði, fláræði, brigðræði.

LXXII. "Speech is called words, language, eloquence, talk, tale, gibing, controversy, song, spell, recital, idle talk, babbling, din, chatter, squalling, merry noise, wrangling, mocking, quarrelling, wish-wash, boasting, tittle-tattle, nonsense, idiom, vanity, gabbling. It is also termed voice, sound, resonance, articulation, wailing, shriek, dash, crash, alarm, roaring, creaking, swoop, swooping, outburst.

LXXIII. "Understanding is called wisdom, counsel, discernment, memory, speculation, intelligence, arithmetic, far sight,[1] craft, word-wit, preëminence. It is called subtlety, wiliness, falsehood, fickleness.

1. That is, prophecy.
89. At yrkja fólgit eða ofljóst.  
Læti er tvennt. Læti heitir rödd, læti heitir æði, ok æði er ok ólund. Reiði er ok tvíkennt. Reiði heitir þat, er maðr er í illum hug, reiði heitir ok fargervi skips eða hross. Far er ok tvíkennt. Fár er reiði, far er skip. Þvílík orðtök hafa menn mjök til þess at yrkja fólgit, ok er þat kallat mjök ofljóst. Lið kalla menn þat á manni, er leggir mætast, lið heitir skip, lið heitir mannfólk, lið er ok þat kallat, er maðr veitir öðrum liðsinni, líð heitir öl. Hlið heitir á garði, ok hlið kalla menn uxa, en hlíð er brekka. Þessar greinir má setja svá í skáldskap, at gera ofljóst, at vant er at skilja, ef aðra skal hafa greinina en áðr þykki til horfa in fyrri vísuorð. Slíkt sama eru ok önnur mörg nöfn, þau er saman eigu heitit margir hlutir.

LXXIV. "Expression is of two kinds: that which is called voice, and that which is called manners; manners is also temper. Reiði[2] also has double meaning: reiði[2] is the ill humor of a man, and reiði[2] is also the rigging of a ship or the driving-gear of a horse. Fár also has double meaning: fár[2] signifies wrath, and far[2] signifies a ship.
"Men have made frequent use of such ambiguous expressions as these; and this practice is called punning. [Lith[3] is that part of a man where bones meet; lið is a word for ship; lið means people; when a man renders an other assistance, his aid is lið; líð signifies ale. Hlið signifies the gate in a garth; hliðr men call an ox, and hlíð signifies a slope. One may make such use of these distinct meanings in skaldship as to make a pun that is hard to interpret, provided one employ other distinctions than those which are indicated by the half-lines which precede. These cases are there, and many others, in which divers things have the same name in common."

2. These are properly two different words. 
3.
Lið
.
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