Thomas Percy Translation (1770): [GYLFAGINNING]
George Dasant Translation (1842): [GYLFAGINNING]
Rasmus Björn Anderson Translation (1872): [PROLOGUE][GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
A. Brodeur Translation (1916): [PROLOGUE &GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
with enhanced footnotes
The translation below contains tales compiled from Scandinavian mythology. These stories have stood the test of time and intrigued thousands over the years. Both young and old, rich and poor— everyone has enjoyed these tales, even those working in a New York City cleaning service such as Janitorial Cleaning Services New York Inc., as you will too. 6-2014
Edda or Snorra Edda
The Prose Edda
ARTHUR GILCHRIST BRODEUR
Guðni Jónsson edition
The Poesy of the Skalds
1. Usually translated "Poetical Diction."
Chapters divisions are not part of the original text
and therefore do not correspond between editions.
Items highlighted in red are not found in the original text.
|1. Ægir sækir heim æsi.||Chapter 1|
Einn maðr er nefndr Ægir eða Hlér. Hann bjó í eyju þeiri, er
nú er kölluð Hlésey. Hann var mjök fjölkunnigr. Hann gerði ferð sína til
Ásgarðs, en æsir vissu fyrir ferð hans, ok var honum fagnat vel ok þó margir
hlutir gervir með sjónhverfingum. Ok um kveldit, er drekka skyldi, þá lét Óðinn
bera inn í höllina sverð ok váru svá björt, at þar af lýsti, ok var ekki haft
ljós annat, meðan við drykkju var setit.
I. A certain man was named Ægir, or Hlér. He
dwelt on the island which is now called Hlér's Isle, and was deeply versed in
black magic. He took his way to Ásgard, but the Æsir had foreknowledge of his
journey; he was received with good cheer, and yet many things were done by
deceit, with eye-illusions. And at evening, when it was time for drinking, Odin
had swords brought into the hall, so bright that light radiated from them: and
other illumination was not used while they sat at drinking. The n the Æsir came
in to their banquet, and in the high-seats sat them down those twelve Æsir who
were appointed to be judges; these were their names: Thor, Njördr, Freyr, Týr,
Heimdallr, Bragi, Vídarr, Váli, Ullr, Hœnir, Forseti, Loki; and in like manner
the Ásynjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Idunn, Gerdr, Sigyn, Fulla, Nanna. It seemed
glorious to Ægir to look about him in the hall: the wainscottings there were all
hung with fair shields; there was also stinging mead, copiously quaffed. The man
seated next to Ægir was Bragi, and they took part together in drinking and in
converse: Bragi told Ægir of many things which had come to pass among the Æsir.
1. Now Læssø.
|2. Þjazi jötunn rænti Iðunni.|
Hann hóf þar frásögn, at þrír æsir fóru heiman, Óðinn ok Loki ok
Hænir, ok fóru um fjöll ok eyðimerkr, ok var illt til matar. En er þeir
koma ofan í dal nakkvarn, sjá þeir öxnaflokk ok taka einn uxann ok snúa
til seyðis. En er þeir hyggja, at soðit mun vera, raufa þeir seyðinn, ok
var ekki soðit. Ok í annat sinn, er þeir raufa seyðinn, þá er stund var
liðin, ok var ekki soðit. Mæla þeir þá sín á milli, hverju þetta mun
Þá heyra þeir mál í eikina upp yfir sik, at sá, er þar sat, kvaðst ráða því, er eigi soðnaði á seyðinum. Þeir litu til, ok sat þar örn ok eigi lítill.
Þá mælti örninn: "Vilið þér gefa mér fylli mína af uxanum, þá mun soðna á seyðinum."
Þeir játa því. Þá lætr hann sígast ór trénu ok sezt á seyðinn ok leggr upp þegar it fyrsta lær uxans tvau ok báða bóguna.
Þá varð Loki reiðr ok greip upp mikla stöng ok reiðir af öllu afli ok rekr á kroppinn erninum. Örninn bregzt við höggit ok flýgr upp. Þá var föst stöngin við bak arnarins, en hendr Loka við annan enda stangarinnar. Örninn flýgr hátt svá, at fætr Loka taka niðr grjót ok urðir ok viðu, en hendr hans, hyggr hann, at slitna munu ór öxlum. Hann kallar ok biðr allþarfliga örninn friðar. En hann segir, at Loki skal aldri lauss verða, nema hann veiti honum svardaga at koma Iðunni út of Ásgarð með epli sín, en Loki vill þat. Verðr hann þá lauss ok ferr til lagsmanna sinna, ok er eigi at sinni sögð fleiri tíðendi um þeira ferð, áðr þeir koma heim.
En at ákveðinni stundu teygir Loki Iðunni út um Ásgarð í skóg nökkurn ok segir, at hann hefir fundit epli þau, er henni munu gripir í þykkja, ok bað, at hon skal hafa með sér sín epli ok bera saman ok hin. Þá kemr þar Þjazi jötunn í arnarham ok tekr Iðunni ok flýgr braut með ok í Þrymheim til bús síns.
He began the story at the point where three
of the Æsir, Odin and Loki and Hœnir, departed from home and were wandering over
mountains and wastes, and food was hard to find. But when they came down into a
certain dale, they saw a herd of oxen, took one ox, and set about cooking it.
Now when they thought that it must be cooked, they broke up the fire, and it was
not cooked. After a while had passed, they having scattered the fire a second
time, and it was not cooked, they took counsel together, asking each other what
it might mean. Then they heard a voice speaking in the oak up above them,
declaring that he who sat there confessed he had caused the lack of virtue in
the fire. They looked thither, and there sat an eagle; and it was no small one.
Then the eagle said: "If ye are willing to give me my fill of the ox, then it
will cook in the fire." They assented to this. Then he let himself float down
from the tree and alighted by the fire, and forthwith at the very first took
unto himself the two hams of the ox, and both shoulders. Then Loki was angered,
snatched up a great pole, brandished it with all his strength, and drove it at
the eagle's body. The eagle plunged violently at the blow and flew up, so that
the pole was fast to the eagle's back, and Loki's hands to the other end of the
pole. The eagle flew at such a height that Loki's feet down below knocked
against stones and rock-heaps and trees, and he thought his arms would be torn
from his shoulders. He cried aloud, entreating the eagle urgently for peace; but
the eagle declared that Loki should never be loosed, unless he would give him
his oath to induce Idunn to come out of Ásgard with her apples. Loki assented,
and being straightway loosed, went to his companions; nor for that time are any
more things reported concerning their journey, until they had come home.
But at the appointed time Loki lured Idunn out of Ásgard into a certain wood, saying that he had found such apples as would seem to her of great virtue, and prayed that she would have her apples with her and compare them with these. Then Thjazi the giant came there in his eagle's plumage and took Idunn and flew away with her, off into Thrymheimr to his abode.
|3. Loki náði Iðunni ok dráp Þjaza.|
En æsir urðu illa við hvarf Iðunnar, ok gerðust þeir brátt hárir ok gamlir. Þá áttu þeir æsir þing, ok spyrr hverr annan, hvat síðast vissi til Iðunnar, en þat var sét síðast, at hon gekk út ór Ásgarði með Loka. Þá var Loki tekinn ok færðr á þingit, ok var honum heitit bana eða píslum. En er hann varð hræddr, þá kvaðst hann mundu sækja eftir Iðunni í Jötunheima, ef Freyja vill ljá honum valshams, er hon á.
Ok er hann fær valshaminn, flýgr hann norðr í Jötunheima ok kemr einn dag til Þjaza jötuns. Var hann róinn á sæ, en Iðunn var ein heima. Brá Loki henni í hnotarlíki ok hafði í klóm sér ok flýgr sem mest.
En er Þjazi kom heim ok saknar Iðunnar, tekr hann arnarharminn ok flýgr eftir Loka, ok dró arnsúg í flugnum. En er æsirnir sá, er valrinn flaug með hnotina ok hvar örninn flaug, þá gengu þeir út undir Ásgarð ok báru þannig byrðar af lokarspánum. Ok þá er valrinn flaug inn of borgina, lét hann fallast niðr við borgarvegginn. Þá slógu æsirnir eldi í lokarspánuna, en örninn mátti eigi stöðva sik, er hann missti valsins. Laust þá eldinum í fiðri arnarins, ok tók þá af fluginn. Þá váru æsirnir nær ok drápu Þjaza jötun fyrir innan ásgrindr, ok er þat víg allfrægt.
En Skaði dóttir Þjaza jötuns, tók hjálm ok brynju ok öll
hervápn ok ferr til Ásgarðs at hefna föður síns. En æsir buðu henni sætt
ok yfirbætr ok it fyrsta, at hon skal kjósa sér mann af ásum ok kjósa at
fótum ok sjá ekki fleira af.
But the Æsir became straitened at the
disappearance of Idunn, and speedily they became hoary and old. Then
those, Æsir took counsel together, and each asked the other what had
last been known of Idunn; and the last that had been seen was that she
had gone out of Ásgard with Loki. Thereupon Loki was seized and brought
to the Thing, and was threatened with death, or tortures; when he had
become well frightened, he declared that he would seek after Idunn in
Jötunheim, if Freyja would lend him the hawk's plumage which she
possessed. And when he got the hawk's plumage, he flew north into
Jötunheim, and came on a certain day to the home of Thjazi the giant.
Thjazi had rowed out to sea, but Idunn was at home alone: Loki turned
her into the shape of a nut and grasped her in his claws and flew his
Now when Thjazi came home and missed Idunn, he took his eagle's plumage and flew after Loki, making a mighty rush of sound with his wings in his flight. But when the Æsir saw how the hawk flew with the nut, and where the eagle was flying, they went out below Ásgard and bore burdens of plane-shavings thither. As soon as the hawk flew into the citadel, he swooped down close by the castle-wall; then the Æsir struck fire to the plane-shavings. But the eagle could not stop himself when he missed the hawk: the feathers of the eagle caught fire, and straightway his flight ceased. Then the Æsir were near at hand and slew Thjazi the giant within the Gate of the Æsir, and that slaying is exceeding famous.
Now Skadi, the daughter of the giant Thjazi, took helm and birnie and all weapons of war and proceeded to Ásgard, to avenge her father. The Æsir, however, offered her reconciliation and atonement: the first article was that she should choose for herself a husband from among the Æsir and choose by the feet only, seeing no more of him. Then she saw the feet of one man, passing fair, and said: "I choose this one: in Baldr little can be loathly."
But that was Njördr of Nóatún.
She had this article also in her bond of reconciliation: that the Æsir must do a thing she thought they would not be able to accomplish: to make her laugh. Then Loki did this: he tied a cord to the beard of a goat, the other end being about his own genitals, and each gave way in turn, and each of the two screeched loudly; then Loki let himself fall onto Skadi's knee, and she laughed. Thereupon reconciliation was made with her on the part of the Æsir.
|4. Af ætt Þjaza.|
Svá er sagt, at Óðinn gerði þat til yfirbóta við Skaða, at
hann tók augu Þjaza ok kastaði upp á himin ok gerði af stjörnur tvær.
It is so said, that Odin did this by way
of atonement to Skadi: he took Thjazi's eyes and cast them up into the
heavens, and made of them two stars.
Then said Ægir: "It seems to me that Thjazi was a mighty man: now of what family was he?" Bragi answered: "His father was called Ölvaldi, and if I tell thee of him, thou wilt think these things wonders. He was very rich in gold; but when he died and his sons came to divide the inheritance, they determined upon this measure for the gold which they divided: each should take as much as his mouth would hold, and all the same number of mouthfuls. One of them was Thjazi, the second Idi, the third Gangr. And we have it as a metaphor among us now, to call gold the mouth-tale of these giants; but we conceal it in secret terms or in poesy in this way, that we call it Speech, or Word, or Talk, of these giants."
Then said Ægir: "I deem that well concealed in secret terms."
|5. Upphaf Suttungamjaðar.|
Ok enn mælti Ægir: "Hvaðan af hefir hafizt sú íþrótt, er þér kallið skáldskap?"
Bragi svarar: "Þat váru upphöf til þess, at goðin höfðu ósætt við þat fólk, er Vanir heita. En þeir lögðu með sér friðstefnu ok settu grið á þá lund, at þeir gengu hvárirtveggju til eins kers ok spýttu í hráka sínum. En at skilnaði þá tóku goðin ok vildu eigi láta týnast þat griðamark ok sköpuðu þar ór mann. Sá heitir Kvasir. Hann er svá vitr, at engi spyrr hann þeira hluta, er eigi kann hann órlausn.
Hann fór víða um heim at kenna mönnum fræði, ok þá er hann kom at heimboði til dverga nökkurra, Fjalars ok Galars, þá kölluðu þeir hann með sér á einmæli ok drápu hann, létu renna blóð hans í tvau ker ok einn ketil, ok heitir sá Óðrerir, en kerin heita Són ok Boðn. Þeir blendu hunangi við blóðit, ok varð þar af mjöðr sá, er hverr, er af drekkr, verðr skáld eða fræðamaðr. Dvergarnir sögðu ásum, at Kvasir hefði kafnat í mannviti, fyrir því at engi var þar svá fróðr, at spyrja kynni hann fróðleiks.
Þá buðu þessir dvergar til sín jötni þeim, er Gillingr heitir, ok konu hans. Þá buðu dvergarnir Gillingi at róa á sæ með sér. En er þeir fóru fyrir land fram, reru dvergarnir á boða ok hvelfðu skipinu. Gillingr var ósyndr, ok týndist hann, en dvergarnir réttu skip sitt ok reru til lands. Þeir sögðu konu hans þenna atburð, en hon kunni illa ok grét hátt. Þá spurði Fjalarr hana, ef henni myndi hugléttara, ef hon sæi út á sæinn, þar er hann hafði týnzt, en hon vildi þat. Þá mælti hann við Galar, bróður sinn, at hann skal fara upp yfir dyrrnar, er hon gengi út, ok láta kvernstein falla í höfuð henni, ok talði sér leiðast óp hennar. Ok svá gerði hann.
Þá er þetta spurði Suttungr jötunn, sonr Gillings, ferr hann til ok tók dvergana ok flytr á sæ út ok setr þá í flæðarsker. Þeir biðja Suttung sér lífsgriða ok bjóða honum til sættar í fóðurgjald mjöðinn dýra, ok þat verðr at sætt með þeim. Flytr Suttungr mjöðinn heim ok hirðir, þar sem heita Hnitbjörg, setr þar til gæzlu dóttur sína, Gunnlöðu. Af þessu köllum vér skáldskap Kvasis blóð eða dvergadrekku eða fylli eða nökkurs konar lög Óðreris eða Boðnar eða Sónar eða farskost dverga, fyrir því at sá mjöðr flutti þeim fjörlausn ór skerinu, eða Suttungamjöð eða Hnitbjargalögr."
Þá mælti Ægir: "Myrkt þykkir mér þat mælt at kalla skáldskap með þessum heitum. En hvernig kómuzt þér æsir at Suttungamiði?"
And again said Ægir: "Whence did this art, which ye call poesy, derive its beginnings?"
Bragi answered: "These were the beginnings thereof. The gods had a dispute with the folk which are called Vanir, and they appointed a peace-meeting between them and established peace in this way: they each went to a vat and spat their spittle therein. Then at parting the gods took that peace-token and would not let it perish, but shaped thereof a man. This man is called Kvasir, and he was so wise that none could question him concerning anything but that he knew the solution. He went up and down the earth to give instruction to men; and when he came upon invitation to the abode of certain dwarves, Fjalar and Galarr, they called him into privy converse with them, and killed him, letting his blood run into two vats and a kettle. The kettle is named Ódrerir, and the vats Són and Bodn; they blended honey with the blood, and the outcome was that mead by the virtue of which he who drinks becomes a skald or scholar. The dwarves reported to the Æsir that Kvasir had choked on his own shrewdness, since there was none so wise there as to be able to question his wisdom."Then these dwarves invited the giant who is called Gillingr to visit them, and his wife with him. Next the dwarves invited Gillingr to row upon the sea with them; but when they had gone out from the land, the dwarves rowed into the breakers and capsized the boat. Gillingr was unable to swim, and he perished; but the dwarves righted their boat and rowed to land. They reported this accident to his wife, but she took it grievously and wept aloud. Then Fjalar asked her whether it would ease her heart if she should look out upon the sea at the spot where he had perished; and she desired it. Then he spoke softly to Galarr his brother, bidding him go up over the doorway, when she should go out, and let a mill-stone fall on her head, saying that her weeping grew wearisome to him; and even so he did.
"Now when the giant Suttungr, Gillingr's son, learned of this, he went over and took the dwarves and carried them out to sea, and set them on a reef which was covered at high tide. They besought Suttungr to grant them respite of their lives, and as the price of reconciliation offered him the precious mead in satisfaction of his father's death. And that became a means of reconciliation between them. Suttungr carried the mead home and concealed it in the place called Hnitbjörg, placing his daughter Gunnlöd there to watch over it. Because of this we call poesy Kvasir's Blood or Dwarves' Drink, or Fill, or any kind of liquid of Ódrerir, or of Bodn, or of Són, or Ferry-Boat of Dwarves--since this mead brought them life--ransom from the reef--or Suttungr's Mead, or Liquor of Hnitbjörg."
Then Ægir said: "These seem to me dark sayings, to call poesy by these names. But how did ye Æsir come at Suttungr's Mead?"
|6. Hversu Óðinn komst at miðinum.|
Bragi svarar: "Sjá saga er til þess, at Óðinn fór heiman ok kom þar, er þrælar níu slógu hey. Hann spyrr, ef þeir vili, at hann brýni ljá þeira. Þeir játa því. Þá tekr hann hein af belti sér ok brýndi ljána, en þeim þótti bíta ljárnir miklu betr ok föluðu heinina, en hann mat svá, at sá, er kaupa vildi, skyldi gefa við hóf. En allir kváðust vilja ok báðu hann sér selja, en hann kastaði heininni í loft upp. En er allir vildu henda, þá skiptust þeir svá við, at hverr brá ljánum á háls öðrum.
Óðinn sótti til náttstaðar til jötuns þess, er Baugi hét, bróðir Suttungs. Baugi kallaði illt fjárhald sitt ok sagði, at þrælar hans níu höfðu drepizt, en talðist eigi vita sér ván verkmanna. En Óðinn nefndist fyrir honum Bölverkr. Hann bauð at taka upp níu manna verk fyrir Bauga, en mælti sér til kaups einn drykk af Suttungamiði. Baugi kvaðst einskis ráð eiga at miðinum, sagði, at Suttungr vildi einn hafa, en fara kveðst hann mundu með Bölverki, ok freista, ef þeir fengi mjöðinn.
Bölverkr vann um sumarit níu manna verk fyrir Bauga, en at vetri beiddi hann Bauga leigu sínnar. Þá fara þeir báðir til Suttungs. Baugi segir Suttungi, bróður sínum, kaup þeira Bölverks, en Suttungr synjar þverliga hvers dropa af miðinum. Þá mælti Bölverkr til Bauga, at þeir skyldu freista véla nökkurra, ef þeir megi ná miðinum, en Baugi lætr þat vel vera. Þá dregr Bölverkr fram nafar þann, er Rati heitir, ok mælti, at Baugi skal bora bjargit, ef nafarrinn bítr. Hann gerir svá. Þá segir Baugi, at gegnum er borat bjargit, en Bölverkr blæss í nafarsraufina, ok hrjóta spænirnir upp í móti honum. Þá fann hann, at Baugi vildi svíkja hann, ok bað bora gegnum bjargit. Baugi boraði enn, en er Bölverkr blés annat sinn, þá fuku inn spænirnir. Þá brást Bölverkr í ormslíki ok skreið inn í nafarsraufina, en Baugi stakk eftir honum nafrinum ok missti hans.
Fór Bölverkr þar til, sem Gunnlöð var, ok lá hjá henni þrjár
nætr, ok þá lofaði hon honum at drekka af miðinum þrjá drykki. Í inum
fyrsta drykk drakk hann allt ór Óðreri, en í öðrum ór Boðn, í inum
þriðja ór Són, ok hafði hann þá allan mjöðinn. Þá brást hann í arnarham
ok flaug sem ákafast.
Bragi answered: "That tale runs thus: Odin departed
from home and came to a certain place where nine thralls were mowing
hay. He asked if they desired him to whet their scythes, and they
assented. Then he took a hone from his belt and whetted the scythes; it
seemed to them that the scythes cut better by far, and they asked that
the hone be sold them. But he put such a value on it that whoso desired
to buy must give a considerable price: nonetheless all said that they
would agree, and prayed him to sell it to them. He cast the hone up into
the air; but since all wished to lay their hands on it, they became so
intermingled with one another that each struck with his scythe against
the other's neck."
Odin sought a night's lodging with the giant who is called Baugi, Suttungr's brother. Baugi bewailed his husbandry, saying that his nine thralls had killed one another, and declared that he had no hope of workmen. Odin called himself Bölverkr in Baugi's presence; he offered to undertake nine men's work for Baugi, and demanded for his wages one drink of Suttungr's Mead. Baugi declared that he had no control whatever over the mead, and said that Suttungr was determined to have it to himself, but promised to go with Bölverkr and try if they might get the mead.
During the summer Bölverkr accomplished nine men's work for Baugi, but when winter came he asked Baugi for his hire. Then they both set out for Suttungr's. Baugi told Suttungr his brother of his bargain with Bölverkr; but Suttungr flatly refused them a single drop of the mead. Then Bölverkr made suggestion to Baugi that they try certain wiles, if perchance they might find means to get at the mead; and Baugi agreed readily. Thereupon Bölverkr drew out the auger called Rati, saying that Baugi must bore the rock, if the auger cut. He did so. At last Baugi said that the rock was bored through, but Bölverkr blew into the auger-hole, and the chips flew up at him. Then he discovered that Baugi would have deceived him, and he bade him bore through the rock. Baugi bored anew; and when Bölverkr blew a second time, then the chips were blown in by the blast. Then Bölverkr turned himself into a serpent and crawled into the auger-hole, but Baugi thrust at him from behind with the auger and missed him.
Bölverkr proceeded to the place where Gunnlöd was, and lay with her three nights; and then she gave him leave to drink three draughts of the mead. In the first draught he drank every drop out of Ódrerir; and in the second, he emptied Bodn; and in the third, Són; and then he had all the mead. Then he turned himself into the shape of an eagle and flew as furiously as he could; but when Suttungr saw the eagle's flight, he too assumed the fashion of an eagle and flew after him. When the Æsir saw Odin flying, straightway they set out their vats in the court; and when Odin came into Ásgard, he spat up the mead into the vats. Nevertheless he came so near to being caught by Suttungr that he sent some mead backwards, and no heed was taken of this: whosoever would might have that, and we call that the poetaster's part. But Odin gave the mead of Suttungr to the Æsir and to those men who possess the ability to compose. Therefore we call poesy Odin's Booty and Find, and his Drink and Gift, and the Drink of the Æsir."
2. See Burns, The Kirk's Alarm, 11th stanza, for a similar idea.
|7. Einkenni skáldskapar.|
Þá mælti Ægir: "Hversu á marga lund breytið þér orðtökum
skáldskapar, eða hversu mörg eru kyn skáldskaparins?"
Then said Ægir: "In how many ways are the
terms of skaldship variously phrased, or how many are the essential
elements of the skaldic art?" Then Bragi answered: "The elements into
which all poesy is divided are two." Ægir asked: "What two?" Bragi said:
"Metaphor and metre." "What manner of metaphor is used for skaldic
writing?" "Three are the types of skaldic metaphor." "Which?" "Thus:
[first], calling everything by its name; the second type is that which
is called 'substitution;' the third type of metaphor is that which is
called 'periphrasis,' and this type is employed in such manner: Suppose
I take Odin, or Thor, or Týr, or any of the Æsir or Elves; and to any of
them whom I mention, I add the name of a property of some other of the
Æsir, or I record certain works of his. Thereupon he becomes owner of
the name, and not the one whose name was applied to him: just as when we
speak of Victory-Týr, or Týr of the Hanged, or Týr of Cargoes: that then
becomes Odin's name: and we call these periphrastic names. So also with
the title Týr of the Wain.
3. Týr. See discussion in Cl.-Vig., p. 647. This word as a proper name refers to the one-armed God of War; but, especially in compounds, it has the sense of God, the God, and is usually applied to Odin. The compounds mentioned here by Snorri are all epithets of Odin. See Gylfaginning, p. 30 [chapter 20].]
|8. Orðum beint til ungra skálda.|
En þetta er nú at segja ungum skáldum, þeim er girnast at nema mál skáldskapar ok heyja sér orðfjölða með fornum heitum eða girnast þeir at kunna skilja þat, er hulit er kveðit, þá skili hann þessa bók til fróðleiks ok skemmtunar. En ekki er at gleyma eða ósanna svá þessar frásagnir at taka ór skáldskapinum fornar kenningar, þær er höfuðskáld hafa sér líka látit. En eigi skulu kristnir menn trúa á heiðin goð ok eigi á sannyndi þessa sagna annan veg en svá sem hér finnst í upphafi bókar.
|"But now one thing must be said to young skalds, to such as yearn to attain to the craft of poesy and to increase their store of figures with traditional metaphors; or to those who crave to acquire the faculty of discerning what is said in hidden phrase: let such an one, then, interpret this book to his instruction and pleasure. Yet one is not so to forget or discredit these traditions as to remove from poesy those ancient metaphors with which it has pleased Chief Skalds to be content; nor, on the other hand, ought Christian men to believe in heathen gods, nor in the truth of these tales otherwise than precisely as one may find here in the beginning of the book.|
|9. Óðinsheiti ok Óðinskenningar.|
Nú skal láta heyra dæmin, hvernig höfuðskáldin hafa látit sér sóma at yrkja eftir þessum heitum ok kenningum, svá sem segir Arnórr jarlaskáld, at Óðinn heiti Alföðr:
1. Nú hykk slíðrhugaðs segja,
Hér kallar hann ok skáldskapinn hrostabrim Alföður. Hávarðr halti kvað svá:
2. Nú er jódraugum ægis
Svá kvað Víga-Glúmr:
3. Lattisk herr með höttu
Svá kvað Refr:
4. Oft kom, jarðar leiftra
Svá kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:
5. Ok Sigurð
Svá kvað Glúmr Geirason:
6. Þar var, þrafna byrjar
Svá kvað Eyvindr enn:
7. Göndul ok Skögul
Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:
8. Ríðr at vilgi víðu
Svá kvað Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski:
9. Valr lá þar á sandi,
Þat kvað Hallfreðr:
10. Sannyrðum spenr sverða
Hér er þess dæmi, at jörð er kölluð kona Óðins í skáldskap. Svá er hér sagt, at Eyvindr kvað:
Svá kvað Kormákr:
Svá kvað Steinþórr:
13. Forngörvan á ek firnum
Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:
14. Þar hykk sigrunni svinnum
Svá kvað Egill Skalla-Grímsson:
15. Blætk eigi af því
Hér er hann kallaðr goðjaðarr ok Míms vinr ok úlfs bági. Svá kvað Refr:
17. Þér eigu vér veigar,
Svá kvað Einarr skálaglamm:
18. Hljóta mun ek, né hlítir,
Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:
19. Kostigr ríðr at kesti,
Svá er sagt í Eiríksmálum:
20. Hvat er þat drauma, kvað Óðinn,
Þat kvað Kormákr:
21. Algildan bið ek aldar
Þat kvað Þórálfr:
22. Sagði hitt, er hugði,
Svá kvað Eyvindr:
23. Hinn, er Surts
Svá kvað Bragi:
24. Þat erumk sýnt, at snimma
Svá kvað Einarr:
25. Því at fjölkostigr flestu
Svá kvað Þorvaldr blönduskáld:
26. Nú hef ek margt
II. Now you may hear
examples of the way in which Chief Skalds have held it becoming to compose,
making use of these simple terms and periphrases: as when Arnórr Earls' Skald
says that Odin is called Allfather:
Now I'll tell men the virtue
Here, moreover, he calls poesy the Song-Surf of Allfather. Hávardr the Halt sang thus:
Now is the flight of eagles
Thus sang Viga-Glúmr:
With the Hanged-God's helmet
Thus sang Refr:
At the holy cup of the Raven-God;
The king of the stem-ploughed sea's gold
From the skald in death is sundered.
Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:
Thus sang Glúmr Geirason:
There the Týr of Triumph
Thus sang Eyvindr:
Göndull and Skögull
Thus sang Úlfr Uggason:
Swiftly the Far-Famed rideth,
Thus sang Thjódólfr of Hvin:
The slain lay there
Hallfredr sang thus:
The doughty ship-possessor
Here is an example of this metaphor, that in poesy the earth is called the Wife of Odin. Here is told what Eyvindr sang:
Hermódr and Bragi,
Go ye to greet the Prince;
Thus sang Kormákr:
Thus sang Steinthórr:
Much have I to laud
Thus sang Úlfr Uggason:
There I think the Valkyrs
Thus sang Egill Skallagrímsson:
No victims for this
Yet has Mímir's friend
He has given me the art
Here he is called High God, and Friend of Mímir, and Adversary of the Wolf.
Thus sang Refr:
Swift God of Slain, that
Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:
'T is mine to pour the liquor
Thus sang Úlfr Uggason:
His steed the lordly Heimdallr
This is said in Eiríksmál:
What dream is that? quoth
Kormákr sang this:
I pray the precious Ruler
Thórálfr sang this:
The Mighty One of Hlidskjálf
Thus sang Eyvindr:
The mead which forth
So sang Bragi:
'Tis seen, on my shield's
Thus sang Eínarr:
Since less with Bestla's
Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending-Skald:
Now have I much
Hér skal heyra, hvé skáldin hafa kennt skáldskapinn eftir þessum heitum, er áðr eru rituð, svá sem er at kalla Kvasis dreyra ok dverga skip, dverga mjöð, jötna mjöð, Suttunga mjöð, Óðins mjöð, ása mjöð, föðurgjöld jötna, lögr Óðreris ok Boðnar ok Sónar ok fyllr, lögr Hnitbjarga, fengr ok fundr ok farmr ok gjöf Óðins, svá sem hér er kveðit, er orti Einarr skálaglamm:
Ok sem kvað Einarr enn skálaglamm:
28. Ullar gengr of alla
Svá sem kvað Ormr Steinþórsson:
29. At væri borit bjórs
Ok sem Refr kvað:
30. Grjót-aldar ték gildi
Svá sem kvað Egill:
31. Buðumk hilmir löð,
Ok sem kvað Glúmr Geirason:
32. Hlýði, hafta beiðis
Ok sem kvað Eyvindr:
33. Vilja ek hljóð
Svá sem Einarr kvað skálaglamm:
34.Eisar vágr fyr vísa,
Ok enn sem hann kvað:
35. Nú er þats Boðnar bára,
Ok sem kvað Eilífr Guðrúnarson:
36. Verðið ér, alls orða
Svá sem kvað Völu-Steinn:
37. Heyr Míms vinar mína,
Svá kvað Ormr Steinþórsson:
38. Seggir þurfut ala ugg,
Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:
39. Haldrgegnis ték Hildar
Skáldskapr er kallaðr sjár eða lögr dverganna, fyrir því at Kvasis blóð var lögr í Óðreri, áðr mjöðrinn væri gerr, ok þar gerðist hann í katlinum, ok er hann kallaðr fyrir því hverlögr Óðins, svá sem kvað Eyvindr ok fyrr var ritat:
40. Meðan hans ætt
Enn er kallaðr skáldskaprinn far eða líð dverganna. Líð heitir öl, ok líð heitir skip. Svá er tekit til dæma, at skáldskapr er nú kallaðr fyrir því skip dverga, svá sem hér segir:
41. Bæði á ek til brúðar
III. "Now you shall hear how the skalds have termed
the art of poesy in these metaphorical phrases which have been recorded before:
for example, by calling it Kvasir's Gore and Ship of the Dwarves, Dwarves' Mead,
Mead of the Æsir, Giants' Father-Ransom, Liquor of Ódrerir and of Bodn and of
Són, and Fullness of these, Liquor of Hnitbjörg, Booty and Find and Gift of
Odin, even as has been sung in these verses which Einarr Tinkling-Scale wrought:
I pray the high-souled Warder
And as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang further:
O'er all the dauntless shield-host
Of him who speeds the fury
Of the shield-wall's piercing sword-bane.
And my dead be borne
Into one hall; the Drink
Of Dvalinn, Franklins, hear.
Of the Rock-Folk to Thorsteinn;
The Billow of the Dwarf-Crag
Plashes; I bid men hearken.
And bound his praise to pour,
Odin's Mead I bore
To English shore.
I hold the God-King's liquor.
While we sing the loss of thanes.
For the High One's Liquor,
While I utter
While his kin
In the Kettle-Brewing
Of the Gallows-Lord
To the gods I trace.
Of Ódrerir's Sea a billow
'Gainst the tongue's song-glade crashes;
Aye our King's works are goodly.
Bodes forth will straight be uttered:
Let the War-King's host make silence
In the hall, and hear the Dwarves' Ship.
Since grows of Són the Seedling
In our tongue's fertile sedge-bank:
True praise of our High Lord.
Of Odin beat in cadence
'Gainst my palate's skerry;
The God's Spoil to me is given.
No mockery I intertwine
In Odin's Spoil; my skill is sure
In forging songs of praise.
The Heart-Fjord's Shoal of Odin,--
My song: him do I summon
To hear the Gift of Grímnir.
In the Kettle-Brewing
Of the Gallows-Lord
To the gods I trace.
[1. See page 105.]Moreover, poesy is called Ship or Ale of the Dwarves: ale is líð, and lið is a word for ships; therefore it is held that it is for this reason that poesy is now called Ship of the Dwarves, even as this verse tells:
In swelling wind-like fullness,
And the everlasting Dwarves' Ship
I own, to send the same road.
"I have already both swollen wind-of-rock-earl's [giant's] bride [troll-wife's wind is 'thought'] and unforgetable dwarves' ship to send the same way."
Hvernig skal kenna Þór? Svá, at kalla hann son Óðins ok Jarðar, faðir Magna ok Móða ok Þrúðar, verr Sifjar, stjúpfaðir Ullar, stýrandi ok eigandi Mjöllnis ok megingjarða, Bilskirrnis, verjandi Ásgarðs, Miðgarðs, dólgr ok bani jötna ok trollkvinna, vegandi Hrungnis, Geirröðar, Þrívalda, dróttinn Þjálfa ok Rösku, dólgr Miðgarðsorms, fóstri Vingnis ok Hlóru.
Svá kvað Bragi skáld:
42. Vaðr lá Viðris arfa
Svá kvað Ölvir hnúfa:
43. Æstisk allra landa
Svá kvað Eilífr:
44. Vreiðr stóð Vrösku bróðir,
Ok sem kvað Eysteinn Valdason:
45. Leit á brattrar brautar
Enn kvað Eysteinn:
46. Sín bjó Sifjar rúni
Ok enn kvað hann:
47. Svá brá viðr, at, sýjur,
Svá kvað Bragi:
48. Hamri fórsk í hægri
Svá kvað Gamli:
49. Þá er gramr, hinn er svik samðit,
Svá kvað Þorbjörn dísarskáld:
50. Þórr hefir Yggs með árum
Svá kvað Bragi:
51. Ok borðróins barða
Enn kvað Bragi:
52. Vel hafið yðrum eykjum
Svá kvað Eilífr:
53. Þröngvir gein við þungum
Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:
54. Þjokkvöxnum kvaðsk þykkja
Ok enn þetta:
55. Fullöflugr lét fellir
Enn kvað Úlfr:
Víðgymnir laust Vimrar
Hér er hann kallaðr jötunn Vimrar vaðs. Á heitir Vimur, er Þórr óð, þá er hann sótti til Geirröðargarða.
Ok svá kvað Vetrliði skáld:
57. Leggi brauzt þú Leiknar,
Ok svá kvað Þorbjörn dísarskáld:
58. Ball í Keilu kolli,
IV. "What figures should be employed to periphrase
the name of Thor? Thus: one should call him Son of Odin and of Jörd, Father of
Magni and Módi and Thrúdr, Husband of Sif, Stepfather of Ullr, Wielder and
Possessor of Mjöllnir and of the Girdle of Strength, and of Bilskirnir; Defender
of Ásgard and of Midgard, Adversary and Slaver of Giants and Troll-Women, Smiter
of Hrungnir, of Geirrödr and of Thrívaldi, Master of Thjálfi and Röskva, Foe of
the Midgard Serpent. Foster-father of Vingnir and Hlóra.
So sang Bragi the Skald:
The line of Odin's Offspring
Thus sang Ölvir Cut-Nose-and-Crop-Ears:
The encírcler of all regions
Thus sang Eilífr:
And Magni's Sire wrought bravely:
With terror Thor's staunch heart-stone
Trembled not, nor Thjálfi's.
And thus sang Eysteinn Valdason:
With glowing eyes Thrúdr's Father
Swiftly Sif's Husband bouned him
Again he sang:
The earth-fish tugged so fiercely
Thus sang Bragi:
The strong fiend's Terrifier
Thus sang Gamli:
While the Lord of high Bilskirnir,
Thus sang Thorbjörn Lady's-Skald:
Bravely Thor fought for Ásgard
Thus sang Bragi:
And the vast misshapen circler
Again sang Bragi:
Well hast Thou, Hewer-in-Sunder
Of the people of the Giants
Grasped with ready fore-arms
At the heavy red-hot iron.
A fearful peril called it,
At the great draught wondrous heavy
Drawn up by the Lord of he-goats.
Of the Mountain-Man brought crashing
His fist on Hymir's temple:
That was a hurt full deadly.
'Gainst the waves smote featly
The glittering Serpent's head off.
With old tales the hall was gleaming.
Didst cause to stoop Starkadr,
Didst bruise Thrívaldi,
Didst stand on lifeless Gjálp.
Smash Kjallandi altogether,
Didst spill the blood of Búseyra;
Didst hold back Hengjankjapta,
Hyrrokkin died before;
Yet sooner in like fashion
Svívör from life was taken.
Hvernig skal kenna Baldr? Svá, at kalla hann son Óðins ok Friggjar, ver Nönnu, faðir Forseta, eigandi Hringhorna ok Draupnis, dólgr Haðar, Heljar sinni, Gráta-goð. Úlfr Uggason hefir kveðit eftir sögu Baldrs langt skeið í Húsdrápu, ok ritat er áðr dæmi til þess, er Baldr er svá kenndr.
|V. "How should one periphrase Baldr? By calling him Son of Odin and Frigg, Husband of Nanna, Father of Forseti, Possessor of Hringhorni and Draupnir, Adversary of Hödr, Companion of Hel, God of Tears. Úlfr Uggason, following the story of Baldr, has composed a long passage in the Húsdrápá and examples are recorded earlier to the effect that Baldr is so termed.|
Hvernig skal kenna Njörd? Svá, at kalla hann Vanaguð eða Vananið eða Van ok föður Freys ok Freyju, fégjafa guð.
Svá segir Þórðr Sjáreksson:
59. Varð sjalf suna,
Hér er þess getit, er Skaði gekk frá Nirði, sem fyrr er ritat.
VI. "How should one periphrase Njördr? By calling him
God of the Vanir, or Kinsman of the Vanir, or Wane, Father of Freyr and Freyja,
God of Wealth-Bestowal.
So says Thórdr Sjáreksson:
Gudrun's self by ill
Here it is recorded that Skadi departed from Njördr, as has already been written.
Hvernig skal kenna Frey? Svá, at kalla hann son Njarðar,
bróður Freyju ok enn Vanaguð ok Vananið ok Vanr ok árguð ok fégjafa. Svá kvað
Freyr er kallaðr Belja dólgr, svá sem kvað Eyvindr
61. Þá er útröst
62. Ívalda synir
Svá segir Úlfr Uggason:
63. Ríðr á börg til borgar
Hann heitir ok Slíðrugtanni.
VII. "How should one periphrase Freyr? Thus: by
calling him Son of Njördr, Brother of Freyja, and also God of Vanir, and Kinsman
of the Vanir, and Wane, and God of the Fertile Season, and God of Wealth-Gifts.
Thus sang Egill Skallagrímsson:
For that Grjótbjörn
Freyr is called Adversary of Beli, even as Eyvindr Spoiler of Skalds sang:
When the Earl's foe
He is the possessor of Skídbladnir and of that boar which is called Gold-Bristle, even as it is told here:
Thus speaks Úlfr Uggason:
First on the golden-bristled
Of Baldr, and leads the people.
The boar is also called Fearful-Tusk.
Hvernig skal Heimdall kenna? Svá, at kalla hann son níu mæðra eða vörð goða, svá
sem fyrr er ritat, eða hvíta ás, Loka dólg mensækir Freyju. Heimdallar höfuð
heitir sverð. Svá er sagt, at hann var lostinn mannshöfði í gegnum. Um þat er
kveðit í Heimdallar galdri, ok er síðan kallat höfuð mjötuðr Heimdallar. Sverð
heitir manns mjötuðr. Heimdallr er eigandi Gulltopps. Hann er ok tilsækir
Vágaskers ok Singasteins. Þá deilði hann við Loka um Brísingamen. Hann heitir ok
Vindlér. Úlfr Uggason kvað í Húsdrápu langa stund eftir þeiri frásögu, ok er
þess þar getit, at þeir váru í selalíkjum. Hann er ok sonr Óðins.
VIII. "How should one periphrase Heimdallr? By calling him Son of Nine Mothers, or Watchman of the Gods, as already has been written; or White God, Foe of Loki, Seeker of Freyja's Necklace. A sword is called Heimdallr's Head: for it is said that he was pierced by a man's head. The tale thereof is told in Heimdalar-galdr; and ever since a head is called Heimdallr's Measure; a sword is called Man's Measure. Heimdallr is the Possessor of Gulltoppr; he is also Frequenter of Vágasker and Singasteinn, where he contended with Loki for the Necklace Brísinga-men, he is also called Vindlér. Úlfr Uggason composed a long passage in the Húsdrápa on that legend, and there it is written that they were in the form of seals. Heimdallr also is son of Odin.
|Hvernig skal kenna Tý? Svá, at kalla hann einhenda ás ok úlfs fóstra, víga guð, son Óðins.||
IX. "How should one periphrase Týr? By calling him the One-handed God, and Fosterer of the Wolf, God of Battles, Son of Odin.
||X. "How should one periphrase Bragi? By calling him Husband of Idunn, First Maker of Poetry, and the Long-bearded God (after his name, a man who has a great beard is called Beard-Bragi) and Son of Odin.|
|Hvernig skal kenna Víðar? Hann má kalla inn þögla ás, eiganda járnskós, dólg ok bana Fenrisúlfs, hefniás goðanna, byggviás föðurtófta ok son Óðins, bróður ásanna.||XI. "How should one periphrase Vídarr? He maybe called the Silent God, Possessor of the Iron Shoe, Foe and Slayer of Fenris-Wolf, Avenger of the Gods, Divine Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers, Son of Odin, and Brother of the Æsir.|
Hvernig skal kenna Vála? Svá, at kalla hann son Óðins ok Rindar,
stjúpson Friggjar, bróður ásanna, hefniás Baldrs, dólg Haðar ok bana
hans, byggvanda föðurtófta.
||XII. "How should Váli be periphrased? Thus: by calling him Son of Odin and Rindr, Stepson of Frigg, Brother of the Æsir, Baldr's Avenger, Foe and Slayer of Hödr, Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers.|
|Hvernig skal kenna Höð? Svá, at kalla hann blinda ás, Baldrs bana, skjótanda Mistilteins, son Óðins, Heljar sinna, Vála dólg.||XIII. "How should one periphrase Hödr? Thus: by calling him the Blind God, Baldr's Slayer, Thrower of the Mistletoe, Son of Odin, Companion of Hel, Foe of Váli.|
|Hvernig skal kenna Ull? Svá, at kalla hann son Sifjar, stjúp Þórs, öndurás, bogaás, veiðiás, skjaldarás.||
XIV. "How should Ullr be periphrased? By calling him Son of Sif, Stepson of Thor, God of the Snowshoe, God of the Bow, Hunting-God, God of the Shield.
|Hvernig skal kenna Hæni? Svá, at kalla hann sessa eða sinna eða mála Óðins ok inn skjóta ás ok inn langa fót ok aurkonung.||
XV. "How should Hoenir be periphrased? By calling him Bench-Mate
or Companion or Friend of Odin, the Swift of God, the Long-Footed, and
King of Clay. (1)
[1. ? Aur-konung.]
Hvernig skal kenna Loka? Svá, at kalla hann son Fárbauta ok Laufeyjar, Nálar, bróður Býleists ok Helblinda, föður Vánargands, þat er Fenrisúlfr, ok Jörmundgands, þat er Miðgarðsormr, ok Heljar ok Nara ok Ála, frænda ok föðurbróður, vársinna ok sessa Óðins ok ása, heimsæki ok kistuskrúð Geirröðar, þjóf jötna, hafrs ok Brísingamens ok Iðunnar epla, Sleipnis frænda, ver Sigynjar, goða dólgr, hárskaði Sifjar, bölvasmiðr, inn slægi áss, rægjandi ok vélandi goðanna, ráðbani Baldrs, inn bundni áss, þrætudólgr Heimdallar ok Skaða. Svá sem hér segir Úlfr Uggason:
64. Ráðgenginn bregðr ragna
Hér er þess getit, að Heimdallr er son níu mæðra.
XVI. "How should one periphrase Loki? Thus: call him Son of Fárbauti and Laufey, or of Nil, Brother of Býleistr and of Helblindi, Father of the Monster of Ván (that is, Fenris-Wolf), and of the Vast Monster (that is, the Midgard Serpent), and of Hel, and Nari, and Áli; Kinsman and Uncle, Evil Companion and Bench-Mate of Odin and the Æsir, Visitor and Chest-Trapping of Geirrödr, Thief of the Giants, of the Goat, of Brísinga-men, and of Idunn's Apples, Kinsman of Sleipnir, Husband of Sigyn, Foe of the Gods, Harmer of Sif's Hair, Forger of Evil, the Sly God, Slanderer and Cheat of the Gods, Contriver of Baldr's Death, the Bound God, Wrangling Foe of Heimdallr and of Skadi. Even as Úlfr Uggason sings here:
The famed rain-bow's defender,
Here it is written that Heimdallr is the son of nine mothers.
|24. Frá Hrugni jötni.|
Nú skal enn segja dæmi, af hverju þær kenningar eru, er nú
váru ritaðar, er áðr váru eigi dæmi til sögð, svá sem Bragi sagði Ægi, at Þórr
var farinn í austrvega at berja troll, en Óðinn reið Sleipni í Jötunheima ok kom
til þess jötuns, er Hrungnir hét. Þá spyrr Hrungnir, hvat manna sá er með
gullhjálminn, er ríðr loft ok lög, ok segir, at hann á furðugóðan hest. Óðinn
sagði, at þar vill hann veðja fyrir höfði sínu, at engi hestr skal vera jafngóðr
í Jötunheimum. Hrungnir segir, at sá er góðr hestr, en hafa lézt hann mundu
miklu stórfetaðra hest. Sá heitir Gullfaxi. Hrungnir varð reiðr ok hleypr upp á
hest sinn ok hleypir eftir honum ok hyggr at launa honum ofrmæli. Óðinn hleypir
svá mikit, at hann var á öðru leiti fyrir, en Hrungnir hafði svá mikinn
jötunmóð, at hann fann eigi fyrr en hann kom inn of ásgrindr.
Þá gerðu jötnar mann á Grjóttúnagörðum af leiri, ok var hann níu rasta hár, en
þriggja breiðr undir hönd, en ekki fengu þeir hjarta svá mikit, at honum sómði,
fyrr en þeir tóku úr meri nökkurri, ok varð honum þar eigi stöðugt, þá er Þórr
Þá skaut Hrungnir skildinum undir fætr sér ok stóð á, en tvíhendi heinina. Því næst sá hann eldingar ok heyrði þrumur stórar. Sá hann þá Þór í ásmóði. Fór hann ákafliga ok reiddi hamarinn ok kastaði um langa leið at Hrungni. Hrungnir færir upp heinina báðum höndum ok kastar í mót. Mætir hon hamrinum á flugi, ok brotnar sundr heinin. Fellr annarr hlutr á jörð, ok eru þar af orðin öll heinberg. Annarr hlutr brast í höfði Þór, svá at hann fell fram á jörð. En hamarrinn Mjöllnir kom í mitt höfuð Hrungni ok lamði hausinn í smán mola, ok fell hann fram yfir Þór, svá at fótr hans lá of háls Þór. En Þjálfi vá at Mökkurkálfa, ok fell hann við lítinn orðstír.
Þá gekk Þjálfi til Þórs ok skyldi taka fót Hrungnis af honum ok gat hvergi
valdit. Þá gengu til æsir allir, er þeir spurðu at Þórr var fallinn, ok skyldu
taka fótinn af honum ok fengu hvergi komit.
Þá mælti Óðinn ok sagði, at Þórr gerði rangt, er hann gaf þann inn góða hest gýgjarsyni, en eigi föður sínum.
XVII. "Now an account shall be given of the source of
those metaphors which have but now been recorded, and of which no accounts were
rendered before: even such as Bragi gave to Ægir, telling how Thor had gone into
the east to slay trolls, and Odin rode Sleipnir into Jötunheim and visited that
giant who was named Hrungnir. Hrungnir asked what manner of man he with the
golden helm might be, who rode through air and water; and said that the stranger
had a wondrous good steed. Odin said he would wager his head there was no horse
in Jötunheim that would prove equally good. Hrungnir answered that it was a good
horse, but declared that he had a much better paced horse which was called
Gold-Mane. Hrungnir had become angry, and vaulted up onto his horse and galloped
after him, thinking to pay him for his boasting. Odin gal loped so furiously
that he was on the top of the next hill first; but Hrungnir was so filled with
the giant's frenzy that he took no heed until he had come in beyond the gates of
Ásgard. When he came to the hall-door, the Æsir invited him to drink. He went
within and ordered drink to be brought to him, and then those flagons were
brought in from which Thor was wont to drink; and Hrungnir swilled from each in
turn. But when he had become drunken, then big words were not wanting: he
boasted that he would lift up Valhall and carry it to Jötunheim, and sink Ásgard
and kill all the gods, save that he would take Freyja and Sif home with him.
Freyja alone dared pour for him; and he vowed that he would drink all the ale of
the Æsir. But when his overbearing insolence became tiresome to the Æsir, they
called on the name of Thor.
"Straightway Thor came into the hall, brandishing his hammer, and he was very wroth, and asked who had advised that these dogs of giants be permitted to drink there, or who had granted Hrungnir safe-conduct to be in Valhall, or why Freyja should pour for him as at a feast of the Æsir. Then Hrungnir answered, looking at Thor with no friendly eyes, and said that Odin had invited him to drink, and he was under his safe-conduct. Thor declared that Hrungnir should repent of that invitation before he got away. Hrungnir answered that Ása-Thor would have scant renown for killing him, weaponless as he was: it were a greater trial of his courage if he dared fight with Hrungnir on the border at Grjótúnagard. 'And it was a great folly,' said he, 'when I left my shield and hone behind at home; if I had my weapons here, then we should try single-combat. But as matters stand, I declare thee a coward if thou wilt slay me, a weaponless man.' Thor was by no means anxious to avoid the fight when challenged to the field, for no one had ever offered him single-combat before.
"Then Hrungnir went his way, and galloped furiously until he came to Jötunheim. The news of his journey was spread abroad among the giants, and it became noised abroad that a meeting had been arranged between him and Thor; the giants deemed that they had much at stake, who should win the victory, since they looked for ill at Thor's hands if Hrungnir perished, he being strongest of them all. Then the giants made a man of clay at Grjótúnagard: he was nine miles high and three broad under the arm-pits; but they could get no heart big enough to fit him, until they took one from a mare. Even that was not steadfast within him, when Thor came. Hrungnir had the heart which is notorious, of hard stone and spiked with three corners, even as the written character is since formed, which men call Hrungnir's Heart. His head also was of stone; his shield too was stone, wide and thick, and he had the shield before him when he stood at Grjótúnagard and waited for Thor. Moreover he had a hone for a weapon, and brandished it over his shoulders, and he was not a pretty sight. At one side of him stood the clay giant, which was called Mökkurkálfi: he was sore afraid, and it is said that he wet himself when he saw Thor.
"Thor went to the meeting-place, and Thjálfi with him. Then Thjálfi ran forward to the spot where Hrungnir stood and said to him: 'Thou standest unwarily, Giant, having the shield before thee: for Thor has seen thee, and comes hither down below the earth, and will come at thee from beneath.' Then Hrungnir thrust the shield under his feet and stood upon it, wielding the hone with both hands. Then speedily he saw lightnings and heard great claps of thunder; then he saw Thor in God-like anger, who came forward furiously and swung the hammer and cast it at Hrungnir from afar off. Hrungnir lifted up the hone in both hands and cast it against him; it struck the hammer in flight, and the hone burst in sunder: one part fell to the earth, and thence are come all the flint-rocks; the other burst on Thor's head, so that he fell forward to the earth. But the hammer Mjöllnir struck Hrungnir in the middle of the head, and smashed his skull into small crumbs, and he fell forward upon Thor, so that his foot lay over Thor's neck. Thjálfi struck at Mökkurkálfi, and he fell with little glory. Thereupon Thjálfi went over to Thor and would have lifted Hrungnir's foot off him, but could not find sufficient strength. Straightway all the Æsir came up, when they, learned that Thor was fallen, and would have lifted the foot from off him, and could do nothing. Then Magni came up, son of Thor and Járnsaxa: he was then three nights old; he cast the foot of Hrungnir off Thor, and spake: 'See how ill it is, father, that I came so late: I had struck this giant dead with my fist, methinks, if I had met with him.' Thor arose and welcomed his son, saying that he should surely become great; 'And I will give thee,' he said, the horse Gold-Mane, which Hrungnir possessed.' Then Odin spake and said that Thor did wrong to give the good horse to the son of a giantess, and not to his father.
|25. Frá Gróu völu.|
Þórr fór heim til Þrúðvanga, ok stóð heinin í höfði honum. Þá
kom til völva sú, er Gróa hét, kona Aurvandils ins frækna. Hon gól
galdra sína yfir Þór, til þess er heinin losnaði. En er Þórr fann þat ok
þótti þá ván, at braut myndi ná heininni, þá vildi hann launa Gró
lækninguna ok gera hana fegna, sagði henni þau tíðendi, at hann hafði
vaðit norðan yfir Élivága ok hafði borit í meis á baki sér Aurvandil
norðan ór Jötunheimum, ok þat til jartegna, at ein tá hans hafði staðit
ór meisinum, ok var sú frerin, svá at Þórr braut af ok kastaði upp á
himin ok gerði af stjörnu þá, er heitir Aurvandilstá. Þórr sagði, at
eigi myndi langt til, at Aurvandill myndi heim koma, en Gróa varð svá
fegin, at hon mundi enga galdra, ok varð heinin eigi lausari ok stendr
enn í höfði Þór, ok er þat boðit til varnanar at kasta hein of gólf
þvert, því at þá hrærist heinin í höfði Þór. Eftir þessi sögu hefir ort
Þjóðólfr hvinverski í Haustlöng."
||"Thor went home to Thrúdvangar, and the hone remained sticking in his head. Then came the wise woman who was called Gróa, wife of Aurvandill the Valiant: she sang her spells over Thor until the hone was loosened. But when Thor knew that, and thought that there was hope that the hone might be removed, he desired to reward Gróa for her leech-craft and make her glad, and told her these things: that he had waded from the north over Icy Stream and had borne Aurvandill in a basket on his back from the north out of Jötunheim. And he added for a token, that one of Aurvandill's toes had stuck out of the basket, and became frozen; wherefore Thor broke it off and cast it up into the heavens, and made thereof the star called Aurvandill's Toe. Thor said that it would not be long ere Aurvandill came home: but Gróa was so rejoiced that she forgot her incantations, and the hone was not loosened, and stands yet in Thor's head. Therefore it is forbidden to cast a hone across the floor, for then the hone is stirred in Thor's head. Thjódólfr of Hvin has made a song after this tale in the Haustlöng.|
|26. För Þórs til Geirröðargarða.|
Þá mælti Ægir: "Mikill þótti mér Hrungnir fyrir sér. Vann Þórr meira
þrekvirki nökkut, þá er hann átti við troll?"
Þá svarar Bragi: "Mikillar frásagnar er þat vert, er Þórr fór til Geirröðargarða. Þá hafði hann eigi hamarinn Mjöllni eða megingjarðar eða járngreipr, ok olli því Loki. Hann fór með honum, því ar Loka hafði þat hent, þá er hann flaug einu sinni at skemmta sér með valsham Friggjar, at hann flaug fyrir forvitni sakar í Geirröðargarða ok sá þar höll mikla, settist ok sá inn of glugg. En Geirröðr leit í móti honum ok mælti, at taka skyldi fuglinn ok færa honum, en sendimaðr komst nauðuliga á hallarvegginn, svá var hann hár. Þat þótti Loka gott, er hann sótti erfiðliga til hans, ok ætlaði sér stund at fljúga eigi upp, fyrr en hann hafði farit allt torleiðit. En er maðrinn sótti at honum, þá beinir hann fluginn ok spyrnir við fast, ok eru þá fætrnir fastir.
tekinn þar höndum ok færðr Geirröði jötni. En er hann sá augu hans, þá grunaði
hann, at maðr myndi vera, ok bað hann svara, en Loki þagði. Þá læsti Geirröðr
Loka í kistu ok svelti hann þar þrjá mánuðr. En þá er Geirröðr tók hann upp ok
beiddi hann orða, þá sagði Loki, hverr hann var, ok til fjörlausnar vann hann
Geirröði þess eiða, at hann skyldi koma Þór í Geirröðargarða, svá at hann hefði
hvárki hamarinn né megingjarðar.
Þórr kom til gistingar til gýgjar þeirar, er Gríðr er kölluð. Hon var móðir Víðars ins þögla. Hon sagði Þór satt frá Geirröði, at hann var jötunn hundvíss ok illr viðreignar. Hon léði honum megingjarða ok járngreipr, er hon átti, ok staf sinn, er heitir Gríðarvölr. Þá fór Þórr til ár þeirar, er Vimur heitir, allra á mest. Þá spennti hann sik megingjörðum ok studdi forstreymis Gríðarvöl, en Loki helt undir megingjarðar. Ok þá er Þórr kom á miðja ána, þá óx svá mjök áin, at uppi braut á öxl honum. Þá kvað Þórr þetta:
65. Vax-at-tu nú, Vimur,
Þá sér Þórr uppi í gljúfrum nökkurum, at Gjálp, dóttir
Geirröðar stóð þar tveim megin árinnar, ok gerði hon árvöxtinn.
En er Þórr kom til Geirröðar, þá var þeim félögum vísat fyrst í geitahús
til herbergis, ok var þar einn stóll til sætis, ok sat Þórr þar. Þá varð
hann þess varr, at stóllinn fór undir honum upp at ræfri. Hann stakk
Gríðarveli upp í raftana ok lét sígast fast á stólinn. Varð þá brestr
mikill, ok fylgði skrækr. Þar höfðu verit undir stólinum dætr Geirröðar,
Gjálp ok Greip, ok hafði hann brotit hrygginn í báðum.
Þá lét Geirröðr kalla Þór í höllina til leika. Þar váru eldar stórir eftir endilangri höll. En er Þórr kom gagnvart Geirröði, þá tók Geirröðr með töng járnsíu glóandi ok kastar at Þór, en Þórr tók í móti með járngreipum ok færir á loft síuna, en Geirröðr hljóp undir járnsúlu at forða sér. Þórr kastaði síunni ok laust gegnum súluna ok gegnum Geirröð ok gegnum vegginn ok svá fyrir útan í jörðina."
Eftir þessi sögu hefir ort Eilífr Guðrúnarson í Þórsdrápu.
XVIII. Then said, Ægir: "Methinks Hrungnir was of great might. Did Thor accomplish yet more valorous deeds when he had to do with the trolls?"
And Bragi answered: "It is worthy to be told at length, how Thor went to Geirrödr's dwelling. At that time he had not the hammer Mjöllnir with him, nor his Girdle of Might, nor the iron gauntlets: and that was the fault of Loki, who went with him. For once, flying in his sport with Frigg's hawk-plumage, it had happened to Loki to fly for curiosity's sake into Geirrödr's court. There he saw a great hall, and alighted and looked in through the window; and Geirrödr looked up and saw him, and commanded that the bird be taken and brought to him, But he who was sent could scarce get to the top of the wall, so high was it; and it seemed pleasant to Loki to see the man striving with toil and pains to reach him, and he thought it was not yet time to fly away until the other had accomplished the perilous climb. When the man pressed hard after him, then he stretched his wings for flight, and thrust out vehemently, but now his feet were stuck fast.
So Loki was taken and brought before Geirrödr the giant; but when Geirrödr saw his eyes, he suspected that this might be a man, and bade him answer; but Loki was silent. Then Geirrödr shut Loki into a chest and starved him there three months. And now when Geirrödr took him out and commanded him to speak, Loki told who he was; and by way of ransom for his life he swore to Geirrödr with oaths that he would get Thor to come into Geirrödr's dwelling in such a fashion that he should have neither hammer nor Girdle of Might with him.
"Thor came to spend the night with that giantess who was called Grídr, mother of Vídarr the Silent. She told Thor the truth concerning Geirrödr, that he was a crafty giant and ill to deal with; and she lent him the Girdle of Might and iron gloves which she possessed, and her staff also, which was called Grídr's Rod. Then Thor proceeded to the river named Vimur, greatest of all rivers. There he girded himself with the Girdle of Might and braced firmly downstream with Grídr's Rod, and Loki held on behind by the Girdle of Might. When Thor came to mid-current, the river waxed so greatly that it broke high upon his shoulders. Then Thor sang this:
Wax thou not now, Vimur,
"Then Thor saw Gjálp, daughter of Geirrödr, standing in certain ravines, one leg in each, spanning the river, and she was causing the spate. Then Thor snatched up a great stone out of the river and cast it at her, saying these words: 'At its source should a river be stemmed.' Nor did he miss that at which he threw. In that moment he came to the shore and took hold of a rowan-clump, and so climbed out of the river; whence comes the saying that rowan is Thor's deliverance.
"Now when Thor came before Geirrödr, the companions were shown first into the goat-fold for their entertainment, and there was one chair there for a seat, and Thor sat there. Then he became aware that the chair moved under him up toward the roof: he thrust Grídr's Rod up against the rafters and pushed back hard against the chair. Then there was a great crash, and screaming followed. Under the chair had been Geirrödr's daughters, Gjálp and Greip; and he had broken both their backs. Then Geirrödr had Thor called into the hall to play games. There were great fires the whole length of the hall. When Thor came up over against Geirrödr, then Geirrödr took up a glowing bar of iron with the tongs and cast it at Thor. Thor caught it with his iron gloves and raised the bar in the air, but Geirrödr leapt behind an iron pillar to save himself. Thor lifted up the bar and threw it, and it passed through the pillar and through Geirrödr and through the wall, and so on out, even into the earth.
1. So Codex Regius and Codex Worm.; Codex Upsal. and Codex Hypn. read gesta hús = guest's house. Gering, Simrock, and Anderson prefer the latter reading. I have followed Jónsson in accepting geita hús.
Eilífr Gudrúnarson has wrought verses on this story, in Thórsdrápa:
Hvernig skal kenna Frigg? Svá, at kalla hana dóttur Fjörgyns, kona Óðins, móður Baldrs, elju Jarðar ok Rindar ok Gunnlaðar ok Gerðar, sværa Nönnu, dróttning ása ok ásynja, Fullu ok valshams ok Fensala.
XIX. How should one periphrase Frigg? Call her Daughter of Fjörgynn, Wife of Odin, Mother of Baldr, Co-Wife of Jörd and Rindr and Gunnlöd and Grídr, Mother-in-law of Nanna, Lady of the Æsir and Ásynjur, Mistress of Fulla and of the Hawk-Plumage and of Fensalir.
Hvernig skal Freyju kenna? Svá, at kalla hana dóttur Njarðar,
systur Freys, konu Óðs, móður Hnossar, eigandi valfalls ok Sessrúmnis ok fressa,
Brisíngamens, Vanagoð, Vanadís, it grátfagra goð, ástaguð. - Svá má kenna allar
ásynjur at nefna annarrar nafni ok kenna við eign eða verk sín eða ættir.
XX. "How should one periphrase Freyja? Thus: by calling her Daughter of Njördr, Sister of Freyr, Wife of Ódr, Mother of Hnoss, Possessor of the Slain, of Sessrúmnir, of the Gib-Cats, and of Brísinga-men; Goddess of the Vanir, Lady of the Vanir, Goddess Beautiful in Tears, Goddess of Love. All the goddesses may be periphrased thus: by calling them by the name of another, and naming them in terms of their possessions or their works or their kindred.
Hvernig skal kenna Sif? Svá, at kalla hana konu Þórs, móður
Ullar, it hárfagra goð, elja Járnsöxu, móður Þrúðar.
|XXI. "How should Sif be periphrased? By calling her Wife of Thor, Mother of Ullr, Fair-Haired Goddess, Co-Wife of Járnsaxa, Mother of Thrúdr.|
Hvernig skal kenna Iðunni? Svá, at kalla hana konu Braga ok
gætandi eplanna, en eplin ellilyf ásanna. Hon er ok ránfengr Þjaza
jötuns, svá sem fyrr er sagt, at hann tók hana braut frá ásum.
Eftir þeiri sögu orti Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski í Haustlöng.
|XXII. "How should Idunn be periphrased? Thus: by calling her Wife of Bragi, and Keeper of the Apples; and the apples should be called Age-Elixir of the Æsir. Idunn is also called Spoil of the Giant Thjazi, according to the tale that has been told before, how he took her away from the Æsir. Thjódólfr of Hvin composed verses after that tale in the Haustlöng:|
|Ásu er svá rétt at kenna at kalla einn hvern annars nafni ok kenna við verk sín eða eign eða ættir.||
"This is the correct manner of periphrasing the Æsir: To call each of them by the name of another, and to designate him in terms of his works or his possessions or his kindred.
Hvernig skal kenna himin? Svá, at kalla hann Ymis haus ok þar af jötuns haus ok erfiði eða byrði dverganna eða hjálm Vestra ok Austra, Suðra, Norðra, land sólar ok tungls ok himintungla, vagna ok veðra, hjálmr eða hús lofts ok jarðar ok sólar. Svá kvað Arnórr jarlaskáld:
66. Ungr skjöldungr stígr aldri
Ok enn sem hann kvað:
67. Björt verðr sól at svartri,
Svá kvað Böðvarr balti:
68. Alls engi verðr Inga
Ok sem kvað Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski:
69. Ók at ísarnleiki
Svá sem kvað Ormr Barreyjarskáld:
70. Hvégi er, Draupnis drógar
Svá sem kvað Bragi skáld:
71. Hinn er varp á víða
Ok sem Markús kvað:
72. Fjarri hefir, at fæðisk dýrri
Svá sem kvað Steinn Herdísarson:
73. Hás kveð ek helgan ræsi
Ok sem kvað Arnórr jarlaskáld:
74. Hjalp þú, dýrr konungr, dýrum,
Ok enn kvað Arnórr:
75. Saðr stillir, hjalp þú snjöllum,
Ok sem kvað Hallvarðr:
76. Knútr verr jörð sem ítran
Sem Arnórr kvað:
77. Míkáll vegr þat er misgért þykkir
XXIII. "How should the heaven be periphrased? Thus: call it Skull of Ymir, and hence, Giant's Skull; Task or Burden of the Dwarves, or Helm of Vestri and Austri, Sudri, or Nordri; Land of the Sun, of the Moon, and of the Stars of Heaven, of the Wains and the Winds; Helm, or House, of the Air and the Earth and the Sun. So sang Arnórr Earls'-Skald:
So large of gifts ne'er mounted
And as he sang again:
Bright grows the sun at
Thus sang Bödvarr the Halt:
For never 'neath the Sun's
And as Thjódólfr of Hvin sang:
Jörd's Son drove to the
Even as sang Ormr Barrey's-Skald:,
However great I know him
The wielder (by right he
Even as the skald Bragi sang:
He who threw the dead eyes
And as Markús sang:
'Tis long since the dear-loved
Even as Steinn Herdísarson sang:
I sing the holy Ruler
And as Arnórr Earls'-Skald sang:
Help, dear King of Heaven,
And as Arnórr sang further:
Soothfast King of the
And as Hallvardr sang:
Knútr wards the land, as the
As Arnórr sang:
Michael, wise of understanding,
Hvernig skal jörð kenna? Svá, at kalla hana Ymis hold ok móður Þórs, dóttur Ónars, brúði Óðins, elju Friggjar ok Rindar ok Gunnlaðar, sværu Sifjar, gólf ok botn veðra hallar, sjár dýranna, dóttir Náttar, systir Auðs ok Dags. Svá sem kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:
78. Nú er alfröðull elfar
Sem kvað Hallfreðr vandræðskáld:
79. Ráð lukusk, at sá, síðan,
Ok enn sagði hann:
80. Breiðleita gat brúði
Svá sem kvað Þjóðólfr:
81. Útan bindr við enda
Sem Hallfreðr kvað:
82. Því hygg fleygjanda frægjan,
Svá kvað Þjóðólfr:
83. Dolgljóss, hefir dási
XXIV. "How should one periphrase the earth? Thus: by calling her Flesh of Ymir, and Mother of Thor, Daughter of Ónarr, Odin's Bride, Co-Wife of Frigg and Rindr and Gunnlöd, Mother-in-law of Sif, Floor and Bottom of the Storm-Hall, Sea of Beasts, Daughter of Night, Sister of Audr and of Day. Even as Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler sang:
Now the beaming gold is hidden
As sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald:
And he said further:
The Raven-Abode's brave Ruler
Even as Thjódólfr-sang:
The Ruler, glad in Warriors,
As Hallfredr sang:
Full loath to let the Land slip
Thus sang Thjódólfr:
Far off the dart-slow sluggard
Hvernig skal sæ kenna? Svá, at kalla hann Ymis blóð, heimsækir goðanna, verr Ránar, faðir Ægisdætra, þeira er svá heita Himinglæva, Dúfa, Blóðughadda, Hefring, Uðr, Hrönn, Bylgja, Bára, Kólga, land Ránar ok Ægisdætra ok skipa ok sæskips heita, kjalar, stála, súða, sýju, fiska, ísa, sækonunga leið ok brautir, eigi síðr hringr eyjanna, hús sanda ok þangs ok skerja, dorgar land ok sæfugla, byrjar. Svá sem kvað Ormr Barreyjarskáld:
Svá kvað Refr:
85. Vágþeysta berr vestan,
Svá sem kvað Sveinn:
86. Þá er élreifar ófu
Ok sem kvað Refr:
87. Færir björn, þar er bára
Hér er sagt, at allt er eitt Ægir ok Hlér ok Gymir. Ok enn kvað hann:
88. En sægnípu Sleipnir
Sem kvað Einarr Skúlason:
89. Harðr hefir ört frá jörðu
Ok enn sem hann kvað:
90. Margr ríss, en drífr dorgar
Ok enn kvað hann:
91. Grams bera gollna spánu,
Enn sem hann kvað:
92. Haustköld skotar hélðum
Ok enn svá:
93. Sundr springr svalra landa
Sem Snæbjörn kvað:
94. Hvatt kveða hræra Grótta
Hér er kallat hafit Amlóða kvern. - Enn sem kvað Einarr Skúlason:
95. Viknar ramr í, Rakna,
XXV. "How should one periphrase the sea? Thus: by calling it Ymir's Blood; Visitor of the Gods; Husband of Rán; Father of Ægir's Daughters, of them who are called Himinglæva, Dúfa, Blódughadda, Hefring, Udr, Hrönn, Bylgja, Bára, Kolga; Land of Rán and of Ægir's Daughters, of Ships and of ships' names, of the Keel, of Beaks, of Planks and Seams, of Fishes, of Ice; Way and Road of Sea-Kings; likewise Encircler of Islands; House of Sands and of Kelp and of Reefs; Land of Fishing-gear, of Sea-Fowls, and of Fair Wind. Even as Ormr Barrey's-Skald sang:
On the gravelly beach of good
As Refr sang:
The mild deer of the masthead
Even as Steinn sang:
When the fallow fell-wall's
And as Refr sang:
It is said here that Ægir and Gymir are both the same. And he sang further:
And the Sea-Peak's Sleipnir slitteth
As Einarr Skúlason sang:
The stern snow-wind has thrust
And as he sang further:
Many a stiff rowlock straineth,
And he sang yet further:
The gray Isle-Fetter urges
And he sang again:
The Isle-Rim autumn chilly
And thus also:
The cool lands' Surging-Girdle
As Snæbjorn sang:
They say nine brides of
Here the sea is called Amlódi's Churn.
As Einarr Skúlason sang:
The sturdy drive-nails weaken
Hvernig skal kenna sól? Svá, at kalla hana dóttur Mundilfara, systur Mána, kona Glens, eldr himins ok lofts. Svá sem kvað Skúli Þorsteinsson:
Svá kvað Einarr Skúlason:
XXVI. "How should one periphrase the sun? By calling her Daughter of Mundilfari, Sister of the Moon, Wife of Glenr, Fire of Heaven and of the Air. Even as Skúli Thorsteinsson sang:
Glenr's god-blithe Bed-Mate
Thus sang Einarr Skúlason:
Flame of the World's Hall swimmeth
O'er our loved friend, who
Hvernig skal kenna vind? Svá, at kalla hann son Fornjóts, bróður Ægis ok elds, brjót viðar, skaði ok bani eða hundr eð vargr viðar eða segls eða seglreiða. Svá sagði Sveinn í Norðrsetudrápu:
XXVII. "How should the wind be periphrased? Thus: call it Son of Fornjótr, Brother of the Sea and of Fire, Scathe or Ruin or Hound or Wolf of the Wood or of the Sail or of the Rigging.
Thus spake Sveinn in the Nordrsetu-drápa:
First began to fly
Hvernig skal kenna eld? Svá, at kalla hann bróður vinds ok
Ægis, bana ok grand viðar ok húsa, Hálfs bani, sól húsanna.
XXVIII. "How should one periphrase fire? Thus: call it Brother of the Wind and the Sea, Ruin and Destruction of Wood and of Houses, Hálfr's Bane, Sun of Houses.
Hvernig skal kenna vetr? Svá, at kalla hann son Vindsvals ok bana orma, hríðmál. Svá kvað Ormr Steinþórsson:
Svá kvað Ásgrímr:
XXIX. "How should winter be periphrased? Thus: call it Son of Vindsvalr, Destruction of Serpents, Tempest Season. Thus sang Ormr Steinthórsson:
To the blind man I proffer
Thus sang Ásgrímr:
The warlike Spoil-Bestower,
Hvernig skal kenna sumar? Svá, at kalla son Svásaðar ok líkn ormanna ok gróðr manna. Svá sem kvað Egill Skalla-Grímsson:
101. Upp skulum órum sverðum,
XXX. "How should one periphrase summer? Thus: call it Son of Svásudr and Comfort of Serpents, and Growth of Men. Even as Egill Skallagrímsson sang:
We shall wave our swords, O Dyer
|39. Mannkenningar ok kvenkenningar.|
Hvernig skal kenna manninn? Mann skal kenna við verk sín, þat er hann veitir eða þiggr eða gerir. Hann má ok kenna til eignar sinnar, þeirar er hann á, ok svá ef hann gaf, svá ok við ættir þær, er hann kom af, svá þær, er frá honum kómu. Hvernig skal hann kenna við þessa hluti? Svá, at kalla hann vinnanda eða fremjanda fara sinna eða athafnar, víga eða sæfara eða veiða eða vápna eða skipa. Ok fyrir því at hann er reynir vápnanna ok viðr víganna, allt eitt ok vinnandi. Viðr heitir tré. Reynir heitir ok tré. Af þessum heitum hafa skáldin kallat manninn ask eða hlyn, lund eða öðrum viðarheitum karlkenndum ok kennt til víga eða skipa eða fjár. Mann er ok rétt at kenna til allra ásaheita. Kennt er ok við jötnaheiti, ok er þat flest háð eða lastmæli. Vel þykkir kennt til álfa.
XXXI. "How should man be periphrased? By his works, by that which he gives or receives or does; he may also be periphrased in terms of his property, those things which he possesses, and, if he be liberal, of his liberality; likewise in terms of the families from which he descended, as well as of those which have sprung from him. How is one to periphrase him in terms of these things? Thus, by calling him accomplisher or performer of his goings or his conduct, of his battles or sea-voyages or huntings or weapons or ships. And because he is a tester of weapons and a winner of battles,--the words for 'winner' and 'wood' being the same, as are also those for tester' and 'rowan,'--therefore, from these phrases, skalds have called man Ash or Maple, Grove, or other masculine tree-names, and periphrased him in such expressions in terms of battles or ships or possessions. It is also correct to periphrase man with all the names of the Æsir; also with giant-terms, and this last is for the most part for mocking or libellous purposes. Periphrasis with the names of elves is held to be favorable.
"Woman should be periphrased with reference to all female garments, gold and jewels, ale or wine or any other drink, or to that which she dispenses or gives; likewise with reference to ale-vessels, and to all those things which it becomes her to perform or to give. It is correct to periphrase her thus: by calling her giver or user of that of which she partakes. But the words for 'giver' and 'user' are also names of trees; therefore woman is called in metaphorical speech by all feminine tree-names. Woman is periphrased with reference to jewels or agates for this reason: in heathen times what was called a 'stone-necklace,' which they wore about the neck, was a part of a woman's apparel; now it is used figuratively in such a way as to periphrase woman with stones and all names of stones. Woman is also metaphorically called by the names of the Ásynjur or the Valkyrs or Norris or women of supernatural kind. It is also correct to periphrase woman in terms of all her conduct or property or family.
Hvernig skal kenna gull? Svá, at kalla þat eld Ægis ok barr Glasis, haddr Sifjar, höfuðband Fullu, grátr Freyju, munntal ok rödd ok orð jötna, dropa Draupnis ok regn eða skúr Draupnis eða augna Freyju, otrgjöld, nauðgjald ásanna, sáð Fýrisvalla, haugþak Hölga, eldr allra vatna ok handar, grjót ok sker eða blik handar.
XXXII. "How should gold be periphrased? Thus: by calling it Ægir's Fire, and Needles of Glasir, Hair of Sif, Snood of Fulla, Freyja's Tears, Talk and Voice and Word of Giants, Draupnir's Drop and Rain or Shower of Draupnir, or of Freyja's Eyes, Otter's Ransom, Forced Payment of the Æsir, Seed of Fýris-Plain, Cairn-Roof of Hölgi, Fire of all Waters and of the Hand, Stone and Reef or Gleam of the Hand.
|41. Æsir þágu veizlu at Ægis.|
Fyrir hví er gull kallat eldr Ægis? Þessi saga er til þess, er fyrr er getit, at Ægir sótti heimboð til Ásgarðs, en er hann var búinn til heimferðar, þá bauð hann til sín Óðni ok öllum ásum á þriggja mánaða fresti. Til þeirar ferðar varð fyrst Óðinn ok Njörðr, Freyr, Týr, Bragi, Viðarr, Loki, svá ok ásynjur Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Skaði, Iðunn, Sif. Þórr var eigi þar. Hann var farinn í austrveg at drepa troll. En er goðin höfðu setzt í sæti, þá lét Ægir bera inn á hallargólf lýsigull, þat er birti ok lýsti höllina sem eldr, ok þat var þar haft fyrir ljós at hans veizlu, sem í Valhöllu váru sverðin fyrir eld. Þá sennti Loki þar við öll goð ok drap þræl Ægis, þann er Fimafengr hét. Annarr þræll hans er nefndr Eldir. Rán er nefnd kona hans, en níu dætr þeira, svá sem fyrr er ritat. At þeiri veizlu vannst allt sjálft, bæði vist ok öl ok öll reiða, er til veizlunnar þurfti. Þá urðu æsir þessir varir, at Rán átti net þat, er hon veiddi í menn alla, þá er á sæ kómu. Nú er þessi saga til þess, hvaðan af þat er, at gull er kallat eldr eða ljós eða birti Ægis, Ránar eða Ægis dætra. Ok af þeim kenningum er nú svá sett, at gull er kallat eldr sævar ok allra hans heita, svá sem Ægir eða Rán eigu heiti við sæinn, ok þaðan af er nú gull kallat eldr vatna eða á ok allra árheita.
En þessi heiti hafa svá farit sem önnur ok kenningar, at in yngri skáld hafa ort eftir dæmum inna gömlu skálda, svá sem stóð í þeira kvæðum, en sett síðan út í hálfur þær, er þeim þóttu líkar við þat, er fyrr var ort, svá sem vatnit er sænum, en áin vatninu, en bekkr ánni. Því er þat kallat nýgervingar allt, er út er sett heiti lengra en fyrr finnst, ok þykkir þat vel allt, er með líkendum ferr ok eðli. Svá kvað Bragi skáld:
102. Eld of þák af jöfri
XXXIII. Wherefore is gold called Ægir's Fire? This tale is to the same purport as we have told before: Ægir went to Ásgard to a feast, but when he was ready to return home, he invited Odin and all the Æsir to visit him in three months' time. First came Odin and Njördr, Freyr, Týr, Bragi, Vídarr, Loki; likewise the Ásynjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Skadi, Idunn, Sif. Thor was not there, having gone into the eastern lands to slay trolls. When the gods had sat down in their places, straightway Ægir had bright gold brought in onto the floor of the hall, and the gold gave forth light and illumined the hall like fire: and it was used there for lights at his banquet, even as in Valhall swords were used in place of fire. Then Loki bandied sharp words with all the gods, and slew one of Ægir's thralls, him who was called Five-Finger; another of his thralls was named Fire-Kindler. Rán is the name of Ægir's wife, and their daughters are nine, even as we have written before. At this feast all things were self-served, both food and ale, and all implements needful to the feast. Then the Æsir became aware that Rán had that net wherein she was wont to catch all men who go upon the sea. Now this tale is to show whence it comes that gold is called Fire or Light or Brightness of Ægir, of Rán, or of Ægir's daughters; and now such use is made of these metaphors that gold is called Fire of the Sea, and of all names of the sea, even as Ægir or Rán had names associated with the sea. Therefore gold is now called Fire of Waters or of Rivers, and of all river names.
"But these names have fared just as other figures also have done: the later skalds have composed after the examples of the old skalds, even those examples which stood in their poems, but were later expanded into such forms as seemed to later poets to be like what was written before: as a lake is to the sea, or the river to the lake, or the brook to the river. Therefore all these are called new figures, when terms are expanded to greater length than what was recorded before; and all this seems well and good, so fair as it concurs with verisimilitude and nature. As Bragi the Skald sang:
I was given by the Battler
He gave it me, with mercy,
|42. Frá lundinum Glasi.|
Hví er gull kallat barr eða lauf Glasis? Í Ásgarði fyrir durum Valhallar stendr lundr, sá er Glasir er kallaðr, en lauf hans allt er gull rautt, svá sem hér er kveðit, at
103. Glasir stendr
Sá er viðr fegrstr með goðum ok mönnum.
XXXIV. "Why is gold called the Needles, or Leaves; of Glasir? In Ásgard, before the doors of Valhall, there stands a grove which is called Glasir, and its leafage is all red gold, even as is sung here:
Far and wide, this tree is the fairest known among gods and men.
|43. Af smíðum Ívaldasona ok Sindra dvergs.|
Hví er gull kallat haddr Sifjar? Loki Laufeyjarson hafði þat gert til lævísi at klippa hár allt af Sif. En er Þórr varð þess varr, tók hann Loka ok myndi lemja hvert bein í honum, áðr hann svarði þess, at hann skal fá af Svartálfum, at þeir skulu gera af gulli Sifju hadd þann, er svá skal vaxa sem annat hár. Eftir þat fór Loki til þeira dverga, er heita Ívaldasynir, ok gerðu þeir haddinn ok Skíðblaðni ok geirinn, er Óðinn átti, er Gungnir heitir. Þá veðjaði Loki höfði sínu við þann dverg, er Brokkr heitir, hvárt bróðir hans, Sindri, myndi gera jafngóða gripi þrjá sem þessir váru. En er þeir kómu til smiðju, þá lagði Sindri svínskinn í aflinn ok bað blása Brokk ok létta eigi fyrr en hann tæki þat ór aflinum, er hann hafði í lagt. En þegar er hann var genginn ór smiðjunni, en hinn blés, þá settist fluga ein á hönd honum ok kroppaði, en hann blés sem áðr, þar til er smiðrinn tók ór aflinum, ok var þat göltr, ok var burstin ór gulli. Því næst lagði hann í aflinn gull ok bað hann blása ok hætta eigi fyrr blæstrinum en hann kæmi aftr. Gekk hann á braut. En þá kom flugan ok settist á háls honum ok kroppaði nú hálfu fastara en áðr, en hann blés, þar til er smiðrinn tók ór aflinum gullhring þann, er Draupnir heitir. Þá lagði hann járn í aflinn ok bað hann blása ok sagði, at ónýtt myndi verða, ef blástrinn felli. Þá settist flugan milli augna honum ok kroppaði hvarmana, en er blóðit fell í augun, svá at hann sá ekki, þá greip hann til hendinni sem skjótast, meðan belgrinn lagðist niðr, ok sveipði af sér flugunni, ok þá kom þar smiðrinn ok sagði, at nú lagði nær, at allt myndi ónýtast, er í aflinum var. Þá tók hann ór aflinum hamar. Fékk hann þá alla gripina í hendr bróður sínum Brokk ok bað hann fara með til Ásgarðs ok leysa veðjunina.
En er þeir Loki báru fram gripina, þá settust æsirnir á dómstóla ok skyldi þat atkvæði standast, sem segði Óðinn, Þórr, Freyr. Þá gaf Loki Óðni geirinn Gungni, en Þór haddinn, er Sif skyldi hafa, en Frey Skíðblaðni ok sagði skyn á öllum gripunum, at geirrinn nam aldri staðar í lagi, en haddrinn var holdgróinn, þegar er hann kom á höfuð Sif, en Skíðblaðnir hafði byr, þegar er segl kom á loft, hvert er fara skyldi, en mátti vefja saman sem dúk ok hafa í pungi sér, ef þat vildi. Þá bar fram Brokkr sína gripi. Hann gaf Óðni hringinn ok sagði, at ina níundu hverja nótt myndi drjúpa af honum átta hringar jafnhöfgir sem hann. En Frey gaf hann göltinn ok sagði, at hann mátti renna loft ok lög nótt ok dag meira en hverr hestr ok aldri varð svá myrkt af nótt eða í myrkheimum, at eigi væri ærit ljós, þar er hann fór; svá lýsti af burstinni. Þá gaf hann Þór hamarinn ok sagði, at hann myndi mega ljósta svá stórt sem hann vildi, hvat sem fyrir væri, at eigi myndi hamarrinn bila, ok ef hann yrpi honum til, þá myndi hann aldri missa ok aldri fljúga svá langt, at eigi myndi hann sækja heim hönd, ok ef þat vildi, þá var hann svá lítill, at hafa mátti serk sér. En þat var lýi á, ar forskeftit var heldr skammt.
Þat var dómr þeira, at hamarrinn var beztr af öllum gripunum ok mest vörn í fyrir hrímþursum, ok dæmðu þeir, at dvergrinn ætti veðféit. Þá bauð Loki at leysa höfuð sitt, en dvergrinn sagði, at þess var engi ván. "Taktu mik þá," kvað Loki, en er hann vildi taka hann, þá var hann víðs fjarri. Loki átti skúa þá, er hann rann á loft ok lög. Þá bað dvergrinn Þór, at hann skyldi taka hann, en hann gerði svá. Þá vildi dvergrinn höggva af höfuð hans, en Loki sagði, at hann átti höfuðit, en eigi hálsinn. Þá tók dvergrinn þveng ok kníf ok vill stinga rauf á vörrum Loka ok vill rifa saman munninn, en knífrinn beit ekki. Þá mælti hann, at betri væri þar alr bróður hans, en jafnskjótt sem hann nefndi hann, þá var þar alrinn, ok beit hann varrarnar. Rifaði hann saman varrirnar, ok reif Loki ór æsunum. Sá þvengr, er muðrinn Loka var saman rifaðr, heitir Vartari.
XXXV. "Why is gold called Sif's Hair? Loki Laufeyarson, for mischief's sake, cut off all Sif's hair. But when Thor learned of this, he seized Loki, and would have broken every bone in him, had he not sworn to get the Black Elves to make Sif hair of gold, such that it would grow like other hair. After that, Loki went to those dwarves who are called Ívaldi's Sons; and they made the hair, and Skídbladnir also, and the spear which became Odin's possession, and was called Gungnir. Then Loki wagered his head with the dwarf called Brokkr that Brokkr's brother Sindri could not make three other precious things equal in virtue to these. Now when they came to the smithy, Sindri laid a pigskin in the hearth and bade Brokkr blow, and did not cease work until he took out of the hearth that which he had laid therein. But when he went out of the smithy, while the other dwarf was blowing, straightway a fly settled upon his hand and stung: yet he blew on as before, until the smith took the work out of the hearth; and it was a boar, with mane and bristles of gold. Next, he laid gold in the hearth and bade Brokkr blow and cease not from his blast until he should return. He went out; but again the fly came and settled on Brokkr's neck, and bit now half again as hard as before; yet he blew even until the smith took from the hearth that gold ring which is called Draupnir. Then Sindri laid iron in the hearth and bade him blow, saying that it would be spoiled if the blast failed. Straightway the fly settled between Brokkr's eyes and stung his eyelid, but when the blood fell into his eyes so that he could not see, then he clutched at it with his hand as swiftly as he could,--while the bellows grew flat,--and he swept the fly from him. Then the smith came thither and said that it had come near to spoiling all that was in the hearth. Then he took from the forge a hammer, put all the precious works into the hands of Brokkr his brother, and bade him go with them to Ásgard and claim the wager.
"Now when he and Loki brought forward the precious gifts, the Æsir sat down in the seats of judgment; and that verdict was to prevail which Odin, Thor, and Freyr should render. Then Loki gave Odin the spear Gungnir, and to Thor the hair which Sif was to have, and Skídbladnir to Freyr, and told the virtues of all these things: that the spear would never stop in its thrust; the hair would grow to the flesh as soon as it came upon Sif's head; and Skídbladnir would have a favoring breeze as soon as the sail was raised, in whatsoever direction it might go, but could be folded together like a napkin and be kept in Freyr's pouch if he so desired. Then Brokkr brought forward his gifts: he gave to Odin the ring, saying that eight rings of the same weight would drop from it every ninth night; to Freyr he gave the boar, saying that it could run through air and water better than any horse, and it could never become so dark with night or gloom of the Murky Regions that there should not be sufficient light where be went, such was the glow from its mane and bristles. Then he gave the hammer to Thor, and said that Thor might smite as hard as he desired, whatsoever might be before him, and the hammer would not fail; and if he threw it at anything, it would never miss, and never fly so far as not to return to his hand; and if be desired, he might keep it in his sark, it was so small; but indeed it was a flaw in the hammer that the fore-haft was somewhat short.
"This was their decision: that the hammer was best of all the precious works, and in it there was the greatest defence against the Rime-Giants; and they gave sentence, that the dwarf should have his wager. Then Loki offered to redeem his head, but the dwarf said that there was no chance of this. 'Take me, then,' quoth Loki; but when Brokkr would have laid hands on him, he was a long way off. Loki had with him those shoes with which he ran through air and over water. Then the dwarf prayed Thor to catch him, and Thor did so. Then the dwarf would have hewn off his head; but Loki said that he might have the head, but not the neck. So the dwarf took a thong and a knife, and would have bored a hole in Loki's lips and stitched his mouth together, but the knife did not cut. Then Brokkr said that it would be better if his brother's awl were there: and even as he named it, the awl was there, and pierced the lips. He stitched the Ups together, and Loki ripped the thong out of the edges. That thong, with which Loki's mouth was sewn together, is called Vartari.
|44. Kenningar á gulli ok Freyju.|
Hér heyrir, at gull er kennt til höfuðbands Fullu, er orti Eyvindr skáldaspillir:
104. Fullu skein á fjöllum
XXXVI. "One may hear how gold is metaphorically called Fulla's Snood, in this verse which Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler wrought:
Fulla's shining Fillet,
Gull er kallat grátr Freyju, sem fyrr er sagt. Svá kvað Skúli Þorsteinsson:
105. Margr of hlaut of morgin
Ok sem kvað Einarr Skúlason:
106. Þar er Mardallar milli,
Ok hér hefir Einarr enn kennt svá Freyju at kalla hana móður Hnossar eða konu Óðs, svá sem hér:
107. Eigi þverr fyrir augna
Ok enn svá:
108. Hróðrbarni kná ek Hörnar,
Hér getr ok þess, at Freyju má svá kenna at kalla hana systur Freys. Ok enn svá:
109. Nýt buðumk Njarðar dóttur,
Hér er hon kölluð dóttir Njarðar. Ok enn Svá:
110. Gaf, sá er erring ofrar,
Hér er hon kölluð Gefn ok Vanabrúðr. Til allra heita Freyju er rétt at kenna grátinn ok kalla svá gullit, ok á marga lund er þessum kenningum breytt, kallat hagl eða regn eða él eða dropar eða skúrir eða forsar augna hennar eða kinna eða hlýra eða brá eða hvarma.
XXXVII. "Gold is called Freyja's Tears, as was said before. So sang Skúli Thorsteinsson:
Many a fearless swordsman
And as Einarr Skúlason sang:
Where, mounted 'twixt the carvings,
And here Einarr has further periphrased Freyja so as to call her Mother of Hnoss, or Wife of Ódr, as standeth below:
The shield, tempest's strong roof-ice,
And again thus:
Hörn's Child, the glorious adornment,
It is also recorded here that one may periphrase Freyja by calling her Sister of Freyr. And thus also:
A defence of songs full goodly
Here she is called Daughter of Njördr.
And again thus:
The awesome Stately Urger
Here she is called Gefn and Bride of the Vanir.--It is proper to join 'tears' with all the names of Freyja, and to call gold by such terms; and in divers ways these periphrases have been varied, so that gold is called Hail, or Rain, or Snow-Storm, or Drops, or Showers, or Water falls, of Freyja's Eyes, or Cheeks, or Brows, or Eyelids.
|45. Gull kallat mál jötna.|
Hér má þat heyra, at kallat er orð eða rödd jötna gullit, svá sem fyrr er sagt. Svá kvað Bragi skáld:
Hann kallaði stein vasta undirkúlu, en jötun Ála steinsins, en gull rödd jötuns.
XXXVIII. "In this place one may hear that gold is called Word, or Voice, of Giants, as we have said before; thus sang Bragi the Skald:
Then had I the third friend
He called a rock Botched Knob, and a giant Áli of Rock, and gold Voice of the Giant.
|46. Af otrgjöldum.|
Hver sök er til þess, at gull er kallat otrgjöld? Svá er
sagt, at þá er æsir fóru at kanna heim, Óðinn ok Loki ok Hænir, þeir kómu at á
nökkurri ok gengu með ánni til fors nökkurs, ok við forsinn var otr einn ok
hafði tekit lax ór forsinum ok át blundandi. Þá tók Loki upp stein ok kastaði at
otrinum ok laust í höfuð honum. Þá hrósði Loki veiði sinni, at hann hefði veitt
í einu höggvi otr ok lax. Tóku þeir þá laxinn ok otrinn ok báru eftir sér, kómu
þá at bæ nökkurum ok gengu inn. En sá búandi er nefndr Hreiðmarr, er þar bjó.
Hann var mikill fyrir sér ok mjök fjölkunnigr. Beiddust æsir at hafa þar
náttstað ok kváðust hafa með sér vist ærna ok sýndu búandanum veiði sína.
XXXIX. "For what reason is gold called Otter's Wergild? It is related that when certain of the Æsir, Odin and Loki and Hœnir, went forth to explore the earth, they came to a certain river, and proceeded along the river to a waterfall. And beside the fall was an otter, which had taken a salmon from the fall and was eating, blinking his eyes the while. Then Loki took up a stone and cast it at the otter, and struck its head. And Loki boasted in his catch, that he had got otter and salmon with one blow. Then they took up the salmon and the otter and bore them along with them, and coming to the buildings of a certain farm, they went in. Now the husbandman who dwelt there was named Hreidmarr: he was a man of much substance, and very skilled in black magic. The Æsir asked him for a night's lodging, saying that they had sufficient food with them, and showed him their catch. But when Hreidmarr saw the otter, straight way he called to him his sons, Fáfnir and Reginn, and told them that the otter their brother was slain, and who had done that deed.
It Now father and sons went up to the Æsir, seized them, bound them, and told them about the otter, how he was Hreidmarr's son. The Æsir offered a ransom for their lives, as much wealth as Hreidmarr himself desired to appoint; and a covenant was made between them on those terms, and confirmed with oaths. Then the otter was flayed, and Hreidmarr, taking the otter-skin, bade them fill the skin with red gold and also cover it altogether; and that should be the condition of the covenant between them. Thereupon Odin sent Loki into the Land of the Black Elves, and he came to the dwarf who is called Andvari, who was as a fish in the water. Loki caught him in his hands and required of him in ransom of his life all the gold that he had in his rock; and when they came within the rock, the dwarf brought forth all the gold he had, and it was very much wealth. Then the dwarf quickly swept under his hand one little gold ring, but Loki saw it and commanded him to give over the ring. The dwarf prayed him not to take the ring from him, saying that from this ring he could multiply wealth for himself if he might keep it. Loki answered that be should not have one penny left, and took the ring from him and went out; but the dwarf declared that that ring should be the ruin of every one who should come into possession of it. Loki replied that this seemed well enough to him, and that this condition should hold good provided that he himself brought it to the ears of them that should receive the ring and the curse. He went his way and came to Hreidmarr's dwelling, and showed the gold to Odin; but when Odin saw the ring, it seemed fair to him, and he took it away from the treasure, and paid the gold to Hreidmarr. Then Hreidmarr filled the otter-skin as much as he could, and set it up when it was full. Next Odin went up, having the skin to cover with gold, and he bade Hreidmarr look whether the skin were yet altogether hidden. But Hreidmarr looked at it searchingly, and saw one of the hairs of the snout, and commanded that this be covered, else their covenant should be at an end. Then Odin drew out the ring, and covered the hair, saying that they were now delivered from their debt for the slaying of the otter. But when Odin had taken his spear, and Loki his shoes, and they had no longer any need to be afraid, then Loki declared that the curse which Andvari had uttered should be fulfilled: that this ring and this gold should be the destruction of him who received it; and that was fulfilled afterward. Now it has been told wherefore gold is called Otter's Wergild, or Forced Payment of the Æsir, or Metal of Strife.
|47. Frá Fáfni, Regin ok Sigurði.|
Hvat er fleira at segja frá gullinu? Hreiðmarr tók þá gullit
at sonargjöldum, en Fáfnir ok Reginn beiddust af nökkurs í bróðurgjöld.
Hreiðmarr unni þeim enskis pennings af gullinu. Þat varð óráð þeira bræðra, at
þeir drápu föður sinn til gullsins.
Þá gerði Reginn sverð þat, er Gramr heitir, er svá var
hvasst, at Sigurðr brá niðr í rennanda vatn ok tók í sundr ullarlagð, er
rak fyrir strauminum at sverðsegginni. Því næst klauf Sigurðr steðja
Regins ofan í stokkinn með sverðinu.
Eftir þat fóru þeir Sigurðr ok Reginn á Gnitaheiði. Þá gróf Sigurðr gröf á veg Fáfnis ok settist þar í. En er Fáfnir skreið til vatns ok hann kom yfir gröfina, þá lagði Sigurðr sverðinu í gegnum hann, ok var þat hans bani. Kom þá Reginn at ok sagði, at hann hefði drepit bróður hans, ok bauð honum þat at sætt, at hann skyldi taka hjarta Fáfnis ok steikja við eld, en Reginn lagðist niðr ok drakk blóð Fáfnis ok lagðist at sofa.
112. Þar sitr Sigurðr
Þá gekk Sigurðr til Regins ok drap hann, en síðan til hests síns, er Grani heitir, ok reið til þess, er hann kom til bóls Fáfnis, tók þá gullit ok batt í klyfjar ok lagði upp á bak Grana ok steig upp sjálfr ok reið þá leið sína. Nú er þat sagt, hver saga til er þess, at gullit er kallat ból eða byggð Fáfnis eða málmr Gnitaheiðar eða byrðr Grana.
XL. "What more is to be said of the gold? Hreidmarr took the gold for his son's wergild, but Fáfnir and Reginn claimed some part of their brother's blood-money for themselves. Hreidmarr would not grant them one penny of the gold. This was the wicked purpose of those brethren: they slew their father for the gold. Then Reginn demanded that Fáfnir share the gold with him, half for half. Fáfnir answered that there was little chance of his sharing it with his brother, seeing that he had slain his father for its sake; and he bade Reginn go hence, else he should fare even as Hreidmarr. Fáfnir had taken the helmet which Hreidmarr had possessed, and set it upon his head (this helmet was called the Helm of Terror, of which all living creatures that see it are afraid), and the sword called Hrotti. Reginn had that sword which was named Refill. So he fled away, and Fáfnir went up to Gnita Heath, and made himself a lair, and turned himself into a serpent, and laid him down upon the gold.
"Then Reginn went to King Hjálprekr at Thjód, and there he became his smith; and he took into his fostering Sigurdr, son of Sigmundr, Völsungr's son, and of Hjördís, daughter of Eylimi. Sigurdr was. most illustrious of all Host-Kings in race, in prowess, and in mind. Reginn declared to him where Fáfnir lay on the gold, and incited him to seek the gold. Then Reginn fashioned the sword Gramr, which was so sharp that Sigurdr, bringing it down into running water, cut asunder a flock of wool which drifted down-stream onto the sword's edge. Next Sigurdr clove Reginn's anvil down to the stock with the sword. After that they went, Sigurdr and Reginn, to Gnita Heath, and there Sigurdr dug a pit in Fáfnr's way and laid him self in ambush therein. And when Fáfnir glided toward the water and came above the pit, Sigurdr straightway thrust his sword through him, and that was his end.
"Then Reginn came forward, saying that Sigurdr had slain his brother, and demanded as a condition of reconciliation that he take Fáfnir's heart and roast it with fire; and Reginn laid him down and drank the blood of Fáfnir, and settled himself to sleep. But when Sigurdr was roasting the heart, and thought that it must be quite roasted, he touched it with his finger to see how hard it was; and then the juice ran out from the heart onto his finger, so that he was burned and put his finger to his mouth. As soon as the heart's blood came upon his tongue, straightway he knew the speech of birds, and he understood what the nuthatches were saying which were sitting in the trees. Then one spake:
There sits Sigurdr
There lies Reginn--sang another--
Then Sigurdr went over to Reginn and slew him, and thence to his horse, which was named Grani, and rode till he came to Fáfnir's lair. He took up the gold, trussed it up in his saddle-bags, laid it upon Grani's back, mounted up himself, and then rode his ways. Now the tale is told why gold is called Lair or Abode of Fáfnir, or Metal of Gnita Heath, or Grani's Burden.
|48. Frá Sigurði ok Gjúkungum.|
Þá reið Sigurðr, til þess er hann fann á fjallinu hús. Þar
svaf inni ein kona, ok hafði sú hjálm ok brynju. Hann brá sverðinu ok reist
brynjuna af henni. Þá vaknaði hon ok nefndist Hildr. Hon er kölluð Brynhildr ok
XLI. "Then Sigurdr rode on till he found a house on the mountain, wherein a woman in helm and birnie lay sleeping. He drew his sword and cut the birnie from her: she awoke then, and gave her name as Hildr: she is called Brynhildr, and was a Valkyr. Sigurdr rode away and came to the king who was named Gjúki, whose wife was Grímhildr; their children were Gunnarr, Högni, Gudrún, Gudný; Gotthormr was Gjúki's stepson. Sigurdr tarried there a long time, and then he obtained the hand of Gudrún, daughter of Gjúki, and Gunnarr and Högni swore oaths of blood brotherhood with Sigurdr. Thereafter Sigurdr and the sons of Gjúki went unto Atli, Budli's son, to sue for the hand of Brynhildr his sister in marriage to Gunnarr. Brynhildr abode on Hinda-Fell, and about her hall there was a flaring fire; and she had made a solemn vow to take none but that man who should dare to ride through the flaring fire.
"Then Sigurdr and the sons of Gjúki (who were also called Niflungs) rode up onto the mountain, and Gunnarr should have ridden through the flaring fire: but he had the horse named Goti, and that horse dared not leap into the fire. So they exchanged shapes, Sigurdr and Gunnarr, and names likewise; for Grani would go under no man but Sigurdr. Then Sigurdr leapt onto Grani, and rode through the flaring fire. That eve he was wedded with Brynhildr. But when they came to bed, he drew the Sword Gramr from its sheath and laid it between them. In the morning when he arose and clothed himself, he gave Brynhildr as linen-fee the same gold ring which Loki had taken from Andvari, and took another ring from her hand for remembrance. Then Sigurdr mounted his horse and rode to his fellows, and he and Gunnarr changed shapes again and went home to Gjúki with Brynhildr. Sigurdr and Gudrún had two children, Sigmundr and Svanhildr.
|49. Drepinn Sigurðr.|
Þat var eitt sinn, at Brynhildr ok Guðrún gengu til vatns at
bleikja hadda sína. Þá er þær kómu til árinnar, þá óð Brynhildr út í ána frá
landi ok mælti, at hon vildi eigi bera í höfuð sér þat vatn, er rynni ór hári
Guðrúnu, því at hon átti búanda hugaðan betr.
"It befell on a time that Brynhildr and Gudrún went to the water to wash their hair. And when they came to the river, Brynhildr waded out from the bank well into the river, saying that she would not touch to her head the water which ran out of the hair of Gudrún, since herself had the more valorous husband. Then Gudrún went into the river after her and said that it was her right to wash her hair higher upstream, for the reason that she had to husband such a man as neither Gunnarr nor any other in the world matched in valor, seeing that he had slain Fáfnir and Reginn and succeeded to the heritage of both. And Brynhildr made answer: 'It was a matter of greater worth that Gunnarr rode through the flaring fire and Sigurdr durst not.' Then Gudrún laughed, and said: 'Dost thou think that Gunnarr rode through the flaring fire? Now I think that he who went into the bride-bed with thee was the same that gave me this gold ring; and the gold ring which thou bearest on thine hand and didst receive for linen-fee is called Andvari's Yield, and I believe that it was not Gunnarr who got that ring on Gnita Heath.' Then Brynhildr was silent, and went home.
"After that she egged on Gunnarr and Högni to slay Sigurdr; but because they were Sigurdr's sworn blood-brothers, they stirred up Gotthormr their brother to slay him. He thrust his sword through Sigurdr as he slept; but when Sigurdr felt the wound, he hurled his sword Gramr after Gotthormr, so that it cut the man asunder at the middle. There fell Sigurdr and Sigmundr, his son of three winters, whom they slew. Then Brynhildr stabbed herself with a sword, and she was burned with Sigurdr; but Gunnarr and Högni took Fáfnir's heritage and Andvari's Yield, and ruled the lands thereafter.
|50. Dráp Gjúkunga ok hefndir Guðrúnar.|
Atli konungr Buðlason, bróðir Brynhildar, fekk þá Guðrúnar,
er Sigurðr hafði átta, ok áttu þau börn. Atli konungr bauð þá til sín Gunnari ok
Högna, en þeir fóru at heimboðinu. En áðr þeir fóru heiman, þá fálu þeir gullit
Fáfnisarf í Rín, ok hefir þat gull aldri síðan fundizt. En Atli konungr hafði
þar lið fyrir ok barðist við þá Gunnar ok Högna, ok urðu þeir handteknir. Lét
Atli konungr skera hjarta ór Högna kykum. Var þat hans bani. Gunnari lét hann
kasta í ormgarð, en honum var fengin leyniliga harpa, ok sló hann með tánum, því
at hendr hans váru bundnar, en svá lék hann hörpuna, svá at allir ormarnir
sofnuðu nema sú naða, er renndi at honum ok hjó svá fyrir flagbrjóskat, at hon
steypði höfðinu inn í holit, ok hangði hon á lifrinni, þar til er hann dó.
Gunnarr ok Högni eru kallaðir Niflungar ok Gjúkungar. Fyrir því er gull kallat
Niflunga skattr eða arfr.
Skyldi Sörli ok Hamðir höggva af honum hendr ok fætr, en Erpr
höfuðit. En er þeir kómu á leið, þá spurðu þeir Erp, hver liðsemð þeim
myndi at honum, ef þeir hitti Jörmunrekk konung. Hann svarar, at hann
myndi veita þeim þvílíkt sem hönd fæti. Þeir segja, at þat var alls
ekki, at fótr styddist við hönd. Þeir váru svá reiðir móður sinni, er
hon hafði leitt þá út með heiftyrðum, ok þeir vildu gera þat, er henni
þætti verst, ok drápu Erp, því at hon unni honum mest.
Þá stóðu upp hirðmenninir ok sóttu þá ok fengu eigi sótt með vápnum. Þá kallaði Jörmunrekkr, at þá skal berja grjóti. Var svá gert. Þar fellu þeir Sörli ok Hamðir. Þá var ok dauð öll ætt ok afkvæmi Gjúka.
"King Atli, Budli's son, and brother of Brynhildr, then wedded Gudrún, whom Sigurdr had had to wife; and they had children. King Atli invited to him Gunnarr and Högni, and they came at his invitation. Yet before they departed from their land, they hid the gold, Fáfnir's heritage, in the Rhine, and that gold has never since been found. Now King Atli had a host in readiness, and fought with Gunnarr and Högni; and they were made captive. King Atli bade . the heart be cut out of Högni alive, and that was his end. Gunnarr he caused to be cast into a den of serpents. But a harp was brought secretly to Gunnarr, and he struck it with his toes, his hands being bound; he played the harp so that all the serpents fell asleep, saving only one adder, which glided over to him, and gnawed into the cartilage of his breast-bone so far that her head sank within the wound, and she clove to his liver till he died. Gunnarr and Högni were called Niflungs and Gjúkungs, for which reason gold is called Treasure, or Heritage, of the Niflungs.
["A little while after, Gudrún slew her two sons, and caused flagons to be made of their skulls, set with gold and silver. Then the funeral-feast was held for the Niflungs; and at this feast Gudrún had mead poured into the flagons for King Atli, and the mead was mixed with the blood of the boys. Moreover, she caused their hearts to be roasted and set before the king, that he might eat of them. And when he had eaten, then she herself told him what she had done, with many scathing words. There was no lack of strong drink there, so that most of the company had fallen asleep where they sat. That night she went to the king while he slept, and Högni's son with her; they smote the king, and that was the death of him. Then they set fire to the hall, and burned the folk that were within. After that she went to the shore and leaped into the sea, desiring to make an end of herself; but she was tossed by the billows over the firth, and was borne to King Jónakr's land. And when he saw her, he took her to him and wedded her, and they had three sons, called Sörli, Hamdir, and Erpr: they were all raven-black of hair, like Gunnarr and Högni and the other Niflungs.There Svanhildr, daughter of the youth Sigurdr, was reared, and of all women she was fairest. King Jörmunrekkr the Mighty learned of her beauty, and sent his son Randvér to woo her and bring her to be his wife. When Randvér had come to the court of Jónakr, Svanhildr was given into his hands, and he should have! brought her to King Jörmunrekkr. But Earl Bikki said that it was a better thing for Randvér to wed Svandhildr, since he and she were both young, whereas Jörmunrekkr was old. This counsel pleased the young folk well. Thereupon Bikki reported the matter to the king. Straightway, King Jörmunrekkr commanded that his son be seized and led to the gallows. Then Randvér took his hawk and plucked off ins feathers, and bade that it be sent so to his father; after which he was hanged. But when King Jörmunrekkr saw the hawk, suddenly it came home to him that even as the hawk was featherless and powerless to fly, so was his kingdom shorn of its might, since he was old and childless. Then King Jörmunrekkr, riding out of the wood where he had been hunting, beheld Svanhildr as she sat washing her hair: they rode upon her and trod her to death under their horses' feet."
But when Gudrún learned of this, she urged on her sons to take vengeance for Svanhildr. When they were preparing for their journey, she gave them birnies and helmets so strong that iron could not bite into them. She laid these instructions upon them: that, when they were come to King Jörmunrekkr, they should go up to him by night as he slept: Sörli and Hamdir should hew off his hands and feet, and Erpr his head. But when they were on their way, they asked Erpr what help they might expect from him, if they met King Jörmunrekkr. He answered that he would render them such aid as the hand affords the foot. They said that that help which the foot received from the hand was altogether nothing. They were so wroth with their mother that she had sent them away with angry words, and they desired so eagerly to do what would seem worst to her, that they slew Erpr, because she loved him most of all. A little later, while Sörli was walking, one of his feet slipped, and he supported himself on his hand; and he said: 'Now the hand assists the foot indeed; it were better now that Erpr were living.' Now when they came to King Jörmunrekkr by night, where he was sleeping, and hewed hands and feet off him, he awoke and called upon his men, and bade them arise. And then Hamdir spake, saying: 'The head had been off by now, if Erpr lived.'
Then the henchmen rose up and attacked them, but could not overmaster them with weapons; and Jörmunrekkr called out to them to beat them with stones, and it was done. There Sörli and Hamdir fell, and now all the house and offspring of Gjúki were dead.
|Því er brynja kölluð klæði eða váðir Hamðis ok Sörla.||[Because of this byrnies are called clothes or garments of Hamdir and Sörli.]|
|51. Frá Völsungum.|
Eftir Sigurð svein lifði dóttir, er Áslaug hét, er fædd var at Heimis í Hlymdölum, ok eru þaðan ættir komnar stórar. Svá er sagt, at Sigmundr Völsungsson var svá máttugr, at hann drakk eitr ok sakaði ekki, en Sinfjötli, sonr hans, ok Sigurðr váru svá harðir á húðna, at þá sakaði ekki eitr, at útan kæmi á þá bera. Því hefir Bragi skáld svá kveðit:
Eftir þessum sögum hafa flest skáld ort ok tekit ýmsa þáttu. Bragi inn gamli orti um fall Sörla ok Hamðis í drápu þeiri, er hann orti um Ragnar loðbrók.
115. Knátti eðr við illan
A daughter named Áslaug lived after young Sigurdr; she was reared with Heimir in Hlymdalir, and great houses are sprung from her. It is said that Sigmundr, Völsungr's son, was so strong that he could drink venom and receive no hurt; and Sinfjötli his son and Sigurdr were so hard-skinned that no venom from without could harm them: wherefore Bragi the Skald has sung thus:
When the wriggling Serpent
On the hook of the Foeman
Most skalds have made verses and divers short tales from these sagas. Bragi the Old wrote of the fall of Sörli and Hamdir in that song of praise which he composed on Ragnarr Lodbrók:
Once Jörmunrekkr awakened
The bloody dew of corpses,
There stood the shielded swordsmen,
To the Bride of Odin
The swirling weapons' Urger
I see the heroes' slaughter
|52. Frá Fróða konungi ok kverninni Grótta.|
Hví er gull kallat mjöl Fróða? Til þess er saga sjá, at
Skjöldr hét sonr Óðins, er Skjöldungar eru frá komnir. Hann hafði atsetu ok réð
löndum, þar sem nú er kölluð Danmörk, en þá var kallat Gotland. Skjöldr átti
þann son, er Friðleifr hét, er löndum réð eftir hann. Sonr Friðleifs hét Fróði.
Mann tók konungdóm eftir föður sinn í þann tíð, er Ágústus keisari lagði frið of
heim allan. Þá var Kristr borinn. En fyrir því at Fróði var allra konunga
ríkastr á Norðlöndum, þá var honum kenndr friðrinn um alla danska tungu, ok
kalla menn það Fróðafrið. Engi maðr grandaði öðrum, þótt hann hitti fyrir sér
föðurbana eða bróðurbana lausan eða bundinn. Þá var ok engi þjófr eða ránsmaðr,
svá at gullhringr einn lá á Jalangrsheiði lengi.
120. Nú erum komnar
Ok áðr létti kvæðinu, mólu þær her at Fróða, svá at á þeiri nótt kom þar sá sækonungr, er Mýsingr hét, ok drap Fróða, tók þar herfang mikit. Þá lagðist Fróðafriðr. Mýsingr hafði með sér Grótta ok svá Fenju ok Menju ok bað þær mala salt. Ok at miðri nótt spurðu þær, ef eigi leiddist Mýsingi salt. Hann bað þær mala lengr. Þær mólu litla hríð, áðr niðr sökk skipit, ok var þar eftir svelgr í hafinu, er særinn fellr í kvernaraugat. Þá varð sær saltr.
XLII. "Why is gold called Fródi's Meal? This is the tale thereof: One of Odin's sons, named Skjöldr,--from whom the Skjöldungs are come,--had his abode and ruled in the realm which now is called Denmark, but then was known as Gotland. Skjöldr's son, who ruled the land after him, was named Fridleifr. Fridleifr's son was Fródi: he succeeded to the kingdom after his father, in the time when Augustus Caesar imposed peace on all the world; at that time Christ was born. But because Fródi was mightiest of all kings in the Northern lands, the peace was called by his name wherever the Danish tongue was spoken; and men call it the Peace of Fródi. No man injured any other, even though he met face to face his father's slayer or his brother's, loose or bound. Neither was there any thief nor robber then, so that a gold ring lay long on Jalangr's Heath. King Fródi went to a feast in Sweden at the court of the king who was called Fjölnir, and there he bought two maid-servants, Fenja and Menja: they were huge and strong. In that time two mill-stones were found in Denmark, so great that no one was so strong that he could turn them: the nature of the mill was such that whatsoever he who turned asked for, was ground out by the mill-stones. This mill was called Grótti. He who gave King Fródi the mill was named Hengikjöptr. King Fródi had the maid-servants led to the mill, and bade them grind gold; and they did so. First they ground gold and, peace and happiness for Fródi; then he would grant them rest or sleep no longer than the cuckoo held its peace or a song might be sung. It is said that they sang the song which is called the Lay of Grótti, and this is its beginning:
Now are we come
And before they ceased their singing, they ground out a host against Fródi, so that the sea-king called Mýsingr came there that same night and slew Fródi, taking much plunder. Then the Peace of Fródi was ended. Mýsingr took Grótti with him, and Fenja and Menja also, and bade them grind salt. And at midnight they asked whether Mýsingr were not weary of salt. He bade them grind longer. They had ground but a little while, when down sank the ship; and from that time there has been a whirlpool the sea where the water falls through the hole in the mill-stone. It was then that the sea became salt.
|Einarr Skúlason kvað svá:||Thus sang Einarr Skúlason:|
I have heard that Fródi's hand-maids
|Svá kvað Egill:||So sang Egill:|
Glaðar flotna fjölð
Glad are full many men
|53. Frá Hrólfi kraka ok Vögg|
Hví er gull kallat sáð
Kraka? Konungr einn í Danmörk er nefndr Hrólfr kraki. Hann var ágætastr
fornkonunga fyrst af mildi ok fræknleik ok lítillæti. Þat er eitt mark um
lítillæti hans, er mjök er fært í frásagnir, at einn lítill sveinn ok fátækr er
nefndr Vöggr. Hann kom í höll Hrólfs konungs. Þá var konungrinn ungr at aldri ok
grannligr á vöxt. Þá gekk Vöggr fyrir hann ok sá upp á hann.
Þá mælti konungr: "Hvat viltu mæla, sveinn, er þú sér á mik?"
Vöggr segir: "Þá er ek var heima, heyrðak sagt, at Hrólfr konungr at Hleiðru var mestr maðr á Norðrlöndum, en nú sitr hér í hásæti kraki einn lítill, ok kallið þér hann konung."
Þá svarar konungr: "Þú, sveinn, hefir gefit mér nafn, at ek skal heita Hrólfr kraki, en þat er títt, at gjöf skal fylgja nafnfesti. Nú sé ek þik enga gjöf hafa til at gefa mér at nafnfesti, þá er mér sé þægilig. Nú skal sá gefa öðrum, er til hefir," - tók gullhring af hendi sér ok gaf honum.
Þá mælti Vöggr: "Gef þú allra konunga heilastr, ok þess strengi ek heit at verða þess manns bani, er þinn banamaðr verðr."
Þá mælti konungr ok hló við: "Litlu verðr Vöggr feginn."
XLIII. "Why is gold called Kraki's Seed? In Denmark there was a king called Hrólfr Kraki: he was most renowned of all ancient kings for munificence, valor, and graciousness. One evidence of his graciousness which is often brought into stories is this: A little lad and poor, Vöggr by name, came into the hall of King Hrólfr. At that time the king was young, and of slender stature. Vöggr came into his presence and looked up at him; and the king said: 'What wouldst thou say, lad, for thou lookest at me?' Vöggr answered: 'When I was at home, I heard say that Hrólfr the king at Hleidr was the greatest man in the northern lands; but now there sitteth in the high seat a little pole, and he is called King.' Then the king made answer: 'Thou, boy, hast given me a name, so that I shall be called Hrólfr the Pole (Kraki); and it is the custom that the giving of a name be accompanied by a gift. Now I see that with the name which thou has fastened on me, thou hast no gift such as would be acceptable to me, wherefore he that has wherewith to give shall give to the other.' And he took from his hand a gold ring and gave it to him. Then Vöggr said: 'Above all kings be thou most blessed of givers! Now I swear an oath that I shall be that man's slayer who slays thee.' Then spake the king, laughing loudly: 'Vöggr is pleased with a small thing.'
|54. Frá Hrólfi hraka ok Aðilsi konungi.|
Annat mark var þat sagt frá Hrólfi kraka um fræknleik hans,
at sá konungr réð fyrir Uppsölum, er Aðils hét. Hann átti Yrsu, móður Hrólfs
kraka. Hann hafði ósætt við þann konung, er réð fyrir Nóregi, er Áli hét. Þeir
stefndu orrostu milli sín á ísi vatns þess, er Væni heitir. Aðils konungr sendi
boð Hrólfi kraka, mági sínum, at hann kæmi til liðveizlu við hann, ok hét mála
öllum her hans, meðan þeir væri í ferðinni, en konungr sjálfr skyldi eignast
þrjá kostgripi, þá er hann köri af Svíðjóð. Hrólfr konungr mátti eigi fara fyrir
ófriði þeim, er hann átti við Saxa, en þó sendi hann Aðilsi berserki sína tólf.
Þar var einn Böðvarr bjarki ok Hjalti hugprúði, Hvítserkr hvati, Vöttr, Véseti,
þeir bræðr Svipdagr ok Beiguðr. Í þeiri orrostu féll Áli konungr ok mikill hluti
liðs hans. Þá tók Aðils konungr af honum dauðum hjálminn Hildisvín ok hest hans
Þá beiddust þeir berserkir Hrólfs kraka at taka mála sinn,
þrjú pund gulls hverr þeira, ok um fram beiddust þeir at flytja Hrólfi
kraka kostgripi þá, er þeir kuru til handa honum. Þat var hjálmrinn
Hildigöltr ok brynjan Finnsleif, er á hvárigu festi járn, ok gullhringr
sá, er kallaðr var Svíagríss, er átt höfðu langfeðgar Aðils. En konungr
varnaði allra gripanna, ok eigi heldr galt hann málann. Fóru berserkir
braut ok unðu illa sínum hlut, sögðu svá búit Hrólfi kraka.
Ok jafnskjótt byrjaði hann ferð sína til Uppsala, ok er hann
kom skipum sínum í ána Fýri, þá reið hann til Uppsala, ok með honum tólf
berserkir hans, allr griðalausir. Yrsa, móðir hans, fagnaði honum ok
fylgði honum til herbergis ok eigi til konungs hallar. Váru þá gervir
eldar fyrir þeim ok gefit öl at drekka.
Þá komu menn Aðils konungs inn ok báru skíð á eldinn ok gerðu
svá mikinn, at klæði brunnu af þeim Hrólfi, ok mæltu: "Er þat satt, at
Hrólfr kraki ok berserkir hans flýja hvárki eld né járn?"
121. "Aukum enn elda
tók skjöld sinn ok kastaði á eldinn ok hljóp yfir eldinn, meðan skjöldrinn brann, ok mælti enn:
122. "Flýra sá eld
Svá fór hverr at öðrum hans manna, tóku þá ok, er eldinn
höfðu aukit, ok köstuðu á eldinn. Þá kom Yrsa ok fekk Hrólfi kraka
dýrshorn, fullt af gulli, ok þar með hringinn Svíagrís ok bað þá braut
ríða til liðsins. Þeir hljópu á hesta sína ok ríða ofan á Fýrisvöllu. Þá
sá þeir, at Aðils konungr reið eftir þeim með her sinn alvápnaðan ok
vill drepa þá. Þá tók Hrólfr kraki hægri hendi gullit ofan í hornit ok
söri allt um götuna. En er Svíar sjá þat, hlaupa þeir ór söðlunum, ok
tók hverr slíkt er fekk, en Aðils konungr bað þá ríða ok reið sjálfr
ákafliga. Slöngvir hét hestr hans, allra hesta skjótastr. Þá sá Hrólfr
kraki, at Aðils konungr reið nær honum, tók þá hringinn Svíagrís ok
kastaði til hans ok bað hann þiggja at gjöf. Aðils konungr reið at
hringinum ok tók til með spjótsoddinum ok renndi upp á falinn.
Af þessi sök er gull kallat sáð Kraka eða Fýrisvalla. Svá kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:
123. Bárum, Ullr, of alla,
Svá sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
124. Örð sær Yrsu burðar
"Another example is the tale told concerning the valor of Hrólfr Kraki: That king whom men call Adils ruled over Uppsala; he had to wife Yrsa, mother of Hrólfr Kraki. He was at strife with the king who ruled over Norway, whose name was Ali; the two joined battle on the ice of the lake called Vaeni. King Adils sent an embassy to Hrólfr Kraki, his stepson, praying him to come to his aid, and promised wages to all his host so long as they should be away; King Hrólfr himself should have three precious gifts, whatsoever three he might choose from all Sweden. King Hrólfr could not make the journey in person, owing to the strife in which he was engaged with the Saxons; but he sent to Adils his twelve berserks: Bödvar-Bjarki was there for one, and Hjalti the Stout-Hearted, Hvítserkr the Stern, Vöttr Véseti, and the brethren Svipdagr and Beigudr. In that battle King Áli fell, and the great part of his host with him; and King Adils took from him in death the helm Battle-Swine and his horse Raven. Then the berserks of Hrólfr Kraki demanded for their hire three pounds of gold for each man of them; and in addition they required that they might bear to Hrólfr Kraki those gifts of price which they had chosen for him: which were the Helm Battle-Boar and the birnie Finn's Heritage,--on neither of which iron would take hold,--and the gold ring which was called Pig of the Swedes, which Adils' forefathers had had. But the king denied them all these things, nor did he so much as pay their hire: the berserks went away ill-pleased with their share, and told the state of things to Hrólfr Kraki.
"Straightway he begin his journey to Uppsala; and when he had brought his ships into the river Fýri, he rode at once to Uppsala, and his twelve berserks with him, all without safe-conduct. Yrsa, his mother, welcomed him and led him to lodgings, but not to the king's hall: fires were made there before them, and ale was given them to drink. Then men of King Adils came in and heaped firewood onto the fire, and made it so great that the clothes were burnt off Hrólfr and his men. And the fellows spake: 'Is it true that Hrólfr Kraki and his berserks shun neither fire nor iron?' Then Hrólfr Kraki leapt up, and all they that were with him; and he said:
'Add we to the fire
took his shield and cast it onto the fire, and leapt over the flames, while the shield burnt; and he spake again:
'He flees not the flames
Even so did his men, one after another; and they laid hands on those fellows who had heaped up the fire, and cast them into the flames. Then Yrsa came and gave Hrólfr Kraki a deer's horn full of gold, the ring Pig of the Swedes being with the gold; and she bade them ride away to the host. They vaulted onto their horses and rode down into the Plain of the Fýri; and soon they saw King Adils riding after them with his host all in armor, hoping to slay them. Then Hrólfr Kraki plunged his right hand down into the horn, grasped the gold, and strewed it all about the road. When the Swedes saw that, they leapt down out of their saddles, and each took up as much as he could lay hold of; but King Adils bade them ride on, and himself rode furiously . His horse was called Slöngvir, swiftest of all horses. Then Hrólfr Kraki saw that King Adils was drawing close up to him, took the ring, Pig of the Swedes, and threw it toward him, and bade him receive it as a gift. King Adils rode at the ring and thrust at it with his spear-point, and let it slide down over the shaft-socket. Then Hrólfr Kraki turned back and saw how he bent down, and spake: 'Now I have made him who is mightiest of Swedes stoop as a swine stoops.' Thus they parted. For this cause gold is called Seed of Kraki or of Fýri's Plain. Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:
God of the blade of battle,
Even as Thjódólfr sang:
The king sows the bright seed-corn
|55. Frá Hölga konungi.|
Svá er sagt, at konungr sá, er Hölgi er nefndr, er Hálogaland er við kennt, var faðir Þorgerðar Hölgabrúðar. Þau váru bæði blótuð, ok var haugr Hölga kastaðr, önnur fló af gulli eða silfri - þat var blótféit - en önnur fló af moldu ok grjóti. Svá kvað Skúli Þorsteinsson:
125. Þá er ræfrvita Reifnis
XLIV. "It is said that the king called Hölgi, from whom Hálogaland is named, was the father of Thorgerdr Hölgabrúdr; sacrifice was made to both of them, and a cairn was raised over Hölgi: one layer of gold or silver (that was the sacrificial money), and another layer of mould and stones. Thus sang Skúli Thorsteinsson:
When I reddened Reifnir's Roof-Bane,
|56. Enn frá gullskenningum.|
Í Bjarkarmálum inum fornum eru tölð mörg gullsheiti.
Svá segir þar:
126. Gramr inn gjöflasti
In the ancient Bjarkamál many terms for gold are told: it says there:
The king most gift-gracious
With Fenja's Labor,
The free-handed Lord gave,
The warrior rejoiced;
Gull er kallat í kenningum eldr handar eða liðs eða leggjar, því at þat er rautt, en silfr snær eða svell eða héla, því at þat er hvítt. Með sama hætti skal ok kenna gull eða silfr til sjóðs eða diguls eða lauðar, en hvárttveggja silfr ok gull má vera grjót handar eða hálsgjörð nökkurs þess manns, er títt var at hafa men. Men ok hringar eru bæði silfr ok gull, ef eigi er annan veg greint. Sem kvað Þorleikr fagri:
129. Kastar gramr á glæstar
Ok sem kvað Einarr skálaglamm:
130. Liðbröndum kná Lundar
Svá kvað Einarr Skúlason:
131. Blóðeisu liggr bæði
Ok enn sem hann kvað:
Hér er gull kallat eldr áls hrynbrautar, en silfr snær skálanna. Svá kvað Þórðr Mæraskáld:
XLV. Gold is metaphorically termed Fire of the Hand, or of the Limb, or of the Leg, because it is red; but silver is called Snow, or Ice, or Hoar-Frost, because it is white. In like manner, gold or silver may be periphrased in metaphors of purse, or crucible, or lather, and both silver and gold may be called Hand-Stone, or Necklace, of any man who was wont to have a necklace. Necklaces and rings are both silver and gold, if no other distinction is raised.
As Thorleikr the Fair sang:
The kindly Prince the Load casts
And as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:
The land-strong King of Lurid
Thus sang Einarr Skúlason:
The Purse-Snow and the Sea-Fire
And as he sang further:
The Sea-Glow each day standeth
Here gold is called Fire of the Eel's Stream-Road; and silver, Snow of Flagons.
Thus sang Thórdr Mæri's Skald:
The glad Giver of the Hand-Waste
|57. Maðr kenndr til gulls|
Maðr er kallaðr brjótr gullsins, svá sem kvað Óttarr svarti:
134. Góðmennis þarf ek gunnar
Eða gullsendir, sem kvað Einarr skálaglamm:
135. Gullsendir lætr grundar,
Gullvörpuðr, sem kvað Þorleikr:
136. Hirð viðr grams með gerðum
Gullstríðir, sem kvað Þorvaldr blönduskáld:
137. Gullstríðir verpr glóðum,
Gullskati, sem hér er:
138. Gat ek gullskata;
XLVI. "Man is called Breaker of Gold, even as Óttarr the Swarthy sang:
Or Gold-Sender, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:
The Sender of Gold permitteth
Gold-Caster, as Thorleikr sang:
Gold-Caster makes loyal to him
Gold's Adversary, as sang Thorvaldr Blending-Skald:
The gold's foe Hot Coals casteth
The vile folk's Desolator
Gold-Towerer, as is written here:
The Gold-Towerer in friendship
|58. Kona kennd til gulls.|
Kona er kennd til gulls, kölluð selja gulls, sem kvað Hallar-Steinn:
139. Svalteigar mun selju
Hér er kallat hvalir Viðblinda geltir. Hann var jötunn ok dró hvali í hafi út sem fiska. Teigr hvala er sær, röf sævar er gull. Kona er selja gulls þess, er hon gefr, ok samheiti við selju er tré, sem fyrr er ritat, at kona er kennd við alls konar trjáheiti kvenkennd. Hon er ok lág kölluð þess, er hon gefr. Lág heitir ok tré þat, er fellr í skógi. Svá kvað Gunnlaugr ormstunga:
140. Alin var rýgr at rógi,
Kona er kölluð mörk. Svá kvað Hallar-Steinn:
141. Ek hefi óðar lokri
Tróða, enn sem kvað Steinn:
142. Þú munt, fúrs, sem fleiri,
Skorða, svá kvað Ormr Steinþórsson:
143. Skorða var í föt færð
Stoð, sem Steinarr kvað:
144. Mens hafa mildrar Synjar
Björk, enn sem Ormr kvað:
145. Því at hols hrynbáls
Eik, svá sem hér er:
146. Aura stendr fyr órum
Lind, svá sem hér er:
147. Ógnrakkr, skalat okkur,
Woman is periphrased in metaphors of gold, being called Willow or Giver of Gold, as Hallarsteinn sang:
He who casts the Amber
Here the whale is called Boar of Vidblindi; this Vidblindi was a giant who drew whales out of the sea like fishes. The Drink of Whales is the sea; Amber of the Sea is gold; woman is the Willow, or Dealer, of that gold which she gives; and the willow is a tree. Therefore, as is already shown, woman is periphrased with all manner of feminine tree-names: she is also called User of that which she gives; and the word for 'user' also signifies a log, the tree which falls in the forest.
Thus sang Gunnlaugr Serpent's-Tongue:
That dame was born to stir strife
Woman is called Forest; so sang Hallarsteinn:
With the well-trained Plane of Singing,
Fagot, as Steinn sang:
Thou shalt, O fresh Sif-Tender
Prop, as Ormr Steinthórsson sang:
The Prop of Stone was clothèd
Post, as Steinarr sang:
All my dreams of the gracious Goddess
Birch, as Ormr sang:
For a mark of the Birch
Oak, even as stands here:
The fair shaped Oak of Riches
Linden, even as is written here:
O dreadful, towering Elm-Tree
|59. Maðr kenndr til viða.|
Maðr er kenndr til viða, sem fyrr er ritat, kallaðr reynir vápna eða víga, ferða ok athafnar, skipa ok alls þess, er hann ræðr ok reynir. Svá kvað Úlfr Uggason:
148. En stirðþinull starði
Viðr ok meiðr, sem kvað Kormákr:
149. Meiðr er mörgum æðri
Lundr, svá kvað Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld:
150. Askþollum stendr Ullar
Hér er ok þollr nefndr. Búss, svá kvað Arnórr:
151. Rökr öndurt bað randir
Askr, sem Refr kvað:
152. Gekk í gulli stokkna
Hlynr, sem hér er:
153. Heill kom þú, handar svella
Börr, sem Refr kvað:
154. Alls böðgæðis bjóða,
Stafr, sem Óttarr kvað:
155. Heltu, þar er hrafn né svalta,
Þorn, sem Arnórr kvað:
156. Hlóð, en hála téðu
Man is periphrased in tree-metaphors, as we have written before; he is called Rowan, or Tester, of Weapons, or of Combats, of Expeditions and of Deeds, of Ships, and of all that which he wields and tests; thus sang Úlfr Uggason:
Tree and Beam, as Kormákr sang:
The Beam of the murdering Sword-Twig
Grove, as sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald:
The Mighty Grove and Faithful
With hair, stands in the Eastlands
Here he is also called Ash.
Box, as Arnórr sang:
The Box of Ships bade the Rygir
Ash, as Refr sang:
The Strife-Lord, gracious Giver,
Maple, as here:
Hail, Maple of the Ice-Lumps
Tree, as Refr sang:
Since I have appointed
Staff, as Óttarr sang:
Maugre two kings, thy borders
Starved not; keen-hearted art thou.
Thorn, as Arnórr sang:
He gathered, the young Wealth-Thorn,
Hvernig skal kenna orrostu? Svá, at kalla veðr vápna eða hlífa eða Óðins eða valkyrju eða herkonunga eða gný eða glym. Svá kvað Hornklofi:
157. Háði gramr, þar er gnúðu,
Svá kvað Eyvindr:
Svá kvað Bersi:
159. Þótta ek, þá er æri,
Svá kvað Einarr:
160. Glymvindi lætr Göndlar,
Sem kvað Einarr skálaglamm:
161. Né sigbjarka serkir
Svá sem hér:
162. Odda gnýs við æsi
Ok enn þetta:
163. Hnigu fjandr at glym Göndlar
XLVII. "How should battle be periphrased? By calling it Storm of Weapons or of Sheltering Shields, or of Odin or the Valkyrs, or of Host-Kings; and Din and Clashing.
Thus sang Hornklofi:
The king hath held a Spear-Storm
Thus sang Eyvindr:
And that hero
Thus sang Bersi:
In earlier days I seemed not
Thus sang Einarr:
The stark prince lets Hildr's Shield-Sails
As Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:
The mail-sarks of the warriors,
Even as here:
They set the Point-Net's edge-band
'Neath eagles' claws the king's foes
|61. Vápnakenningar ok herklæða.|
Vápn ok herklæði skal kenna til orrostu ok til Óðins ok valmeyja ok herkonunga, kalla hjálm hött eða fald, en brynju serk eða skyrtu, en skjöld tjald, ok skjaldborgin er kölluð höll ok ræfr, veggr ok gólf. Skildir eru kallaðir ok kenndir við herskip, sól eða tungl eða lauf eða blik eða garðr skipsins. Skjöldr er ok kallaðr skip Ullar eða kennt til fóta Hrungnis, er hann stóð á skildi. Á fornum skjöldum var títt at skrifa rönd þá, er baugr var kallaðr, ok eru við þann baug skildir kenndir. Höggvápn, öxar eða sverð, er kallat eldar blóðs eða benja. Sverð heita Óðins eldar, en öxar kalla menn trollkvinna heitum ok kenna við blóð eða benjar eða skóg eða við. Lagvápn eru vel kennd til orma eða fiska. Skotvápn eru mjök kennd til hagls eða drífu eða rotu. Öllum þessum kenningum er marga lund breytt, því at þat er flest ort í lofkvæðum, er þessar kenningar þarf við. Svá kvað Víga-Glúmr:
164. Lattisk herr með höttu
Svá kvað Einarr skálaglamm:
165. Hjalmfaldinn bauð hildi
Róða serkr, sem Tindr kvað:
166. Þá er hringfáum Hanga
Hamðis skyrta, sem Hallfreðr kvað:
167. Ólítinn brestr úti
Sörla föt, enn sem hann kvað:
168. Þaðan verða föt fyrða,
[Hlakkar tjöld], sem Grettir kvað:
169. Heldu Hlakkar tjalda
Róða ræfr, sem Einarr kvað:
170. Eigi þverr fyrir augna
Hildar veggr, sem kvað Grettir ok áðr er ritat. Skipsól, sem Einarr kvað:
171. Leyg rýðr ætt á ægi
Hlýrtungl, sem Refr kvað:
172. Dagr var fríðr, sá er fögru
Garðr skips, sem hér er:
173. Svá skaut gegn í gögnum
Askr Ullar, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
174. Ganga él of yngva
Ilja blað Hrungnis, sem Bragi kvað:
175. Vilið, Hrafnketill, heyra,
Bragi skáld kvað þetta um bauginn á skildinum:
176. Nema svá at góð ins gjalla
Hann kallaði skjöldinn Hildar hjól, en bauginn nöf hjólsins. Baugjörð, sem Hallvarðr kvað:
177. Rauðljósa sér ræsir,
Svá er enn kveðit:
178. Baugr er á beru sæmstr,
Sverð er Óðins eldr, sem Kormákr kvað:
179. Svall, þá er gekk með gjallan
Hjálms eldr, sem kvað Úlfr Uggason:
180. Fullöflug lét fjalla
Brynju eldr, sem kvað Glúmr Geirason:
181. Heinþynntan lét hvína
Randar íss ok grand hlífar, sem Einarr kvað:
182. Ráðvöndum þá ek rauðra
Öx heitir trollkona hlífa, sem Einarr kvað:
183. Sjá megu rétt, hvé, Ræfils
Spjót er ormr kallat, sem Refr kvað:
184. Kná myrkdreki marka
Örvar eru kallaðar hagl boga eða strengjar eða hlífa eða orrostu, sem Einarr kvað skálaglamm:
185. Brak-Rögnir skók bogna,
186. Ok geir-Rótu götvar
Ok Eyvindr skáldaspillir:
187. Lítt kváðu þik láta,
XLVIII. "Weapons and armor should be periphrased in figures of battle, and with reference to Odin and the Valkyrs and host-kings: one should call a helmet Cowl, or Hood; a birnie, Sark, or Kirtle; a shield, Tent; and a shield-wall is termed Hall and Roof, Wall and Floor. Shields, periphrased in figures of warships, are called Sun, or Moon, or Leaf, or Sheen, or Garth, of the Ship; the shield is also called Ship of Ullr, or periphrased in terms of Hrungnir's feet, since he stood upon his shield. On ancient shields it was customary to paint a circle, which was called the 'ring,' and shields are called in metaphors of that ring. Hewing weapons, axes or swords, are called Fires of Blood, or of Wounds; swords are called Odin's Fires; but men call axes by the names of troll-women, and periphrase them in terms of blood or wounds or a forest or wood. Thrusting weapons are properly periphrased by calling them by names of serpents or fishes. Missile weapons are often metaphorically termed hail or sleet or storm. Variants of all these figures have been made in many ways, for they are used chiefly in poems of praise, where there is need of such metaphors.
So sang Víga-Glúmr:
With the Hanged-God's helmet
Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:
Helm-folded strife-bold Búi,--
Sark of Ródi, as Tindr sang:
When came the birnied Hákon
Hamdir's Kirtle, as Hallfredr sang:
The war-sleet hard and streaming
Sörli's Garments, as he sang further:
Thence the bright Weeds of Sörli
Shields are called Tents of Hlökk, as Grettír sang:
Hlökk's Tent-Raisers held their noses
Ródi's Roof, as Einarr sang:
Ródi's Roof's great Ice-Lump
Wall of Hildr, as Grettír sang, and as we have written before.
Ship-Sun, as Einarr sang:
In the sea Ólafr's Kinsman
Moon of the Ship's Cheek, as Refr sang:
Fair was the day, when Scatterers
Ship's Garth, as here:
The swift Sweller of the Spear-Crash
Ash of Ullr, as here:
The Snow-Gusts of Ullr's Ash-Ship
Blade of Hrungnir's Foot-Soles, as Bragi sang:
Wilt hear, O Hrafnketill,
Bragi the Skald sang this concerning the ring on the shield:
Unless it be, that Sigurdr's
He called the shield Wheel of Hildr, and the ring the Nave of the Wheel.
Ring-Earth, as Hallvardr sang:
The Chief of ranks of Combat
It is also sung:
A ring befits the shield best;
A sword is Odin's Fire, as Kormákr sang:
The fight swelled, when the Warrior,
Fire of the Helm, as Úlfr Uggason sang:
The very mighty Maiden
Fire of the Birnie, as Glúmr Geirason sang:
At that the Land-Protector
Ice of the Rim, and Hurt of Sheltering Weapons, as Einarr sang:
I received the Ice of Wed Rims,
An axe is called Troll-Woman of Sheltering Weapons, as Einarr sang:
Ræfill's Sea-Steed's Riders
A spear is called Serpent, as Refr sang:
My angry Murky Serpent
Arrows are called Hail of the Bow or Bowstring, or of the
The hammering King of Swords shook
And the armor of the Spear-Sleet,
The saters of hungry ravens
And Eyvindr Skald- Despoiler:
They said, O Hörds' Land-Warder,
|62. Frá Hjaðningavígum.|
Orrosta er kölluð Hjaðninga veðr eða él ok vápn Hjaðninga eldr eða
vendir, en saga er til þess.
[From Sörla þátt eða Heðins sögu ok Högna]
XLIX. "Battle is called
Storm or Snow-Shower of the Hjadnings, and weapons are termed Fire or
Wands of Hjadnings; and this is the tale thereof: that king who was
called Högni had a daughter named Hildr: her King Hedinn, son of
Hjarrandi, took as the spoils of war, while King Högni attended an
assembly of kings. But when he learned that there had been raiding in
his realm and his daughter had been borne off, he departed with his host
to seek Hedinn, and heard tidings of him, that he was proceeding
northward along the land. When Högni had come into Norway, he learned
that Hedinn had sailed westward over the sea. Then Högni sailed after
him, even to the Orkneys; and when he landed at the place called Hoy,
Hedinn was already there before him with his host. Then Hildr went to
meet her father, and offered him a necklace on Hedinn's behalf, for
reconciliation and peace; but if it were not accepted, she said, Hedinn
was ready to fight, and Högni might hope for no mercy at his hands."Högni answered his daughter harshly; and
when she returned to Hedinn, she told him that Högni desired no
reconciliation, and she bade him make ready for battle. So did both
parties: they went to the island and marshalledtheir hosts. Then Hedinn
called to Högni his father-in-law, offering him reconciliation and much
gold in compensation. But Högni answered: 'Thou hast made this offer
over-late, if thou wouldst make peace: for now I have drawn Dáinsleif,
which the dwarves made, and which must cause a man's death every time it
is bared, nor ever fails in its stroke; moreover, the wound heals not if
one be scratched with it.' Then said Hedinn: 'Thou dost boast in the
sword, but not in the victory; I call any sword good which is faithful
to its lord.' Then they began that famous battle which is called the
Hjadnings' Strife, and they fought all that day, but at evening the
kings went to their ships. Now Hildr went to the slain by night, and
with magic quickened all those that were dead. The next day the kings
went to the battlefield and fought, and so did all those that had fallen
on the day before. So the fight went one day after the other: all who
fell, and all those weapons which lay on the field, and the shields
also, were turned to stone; but when day dawned, up rose all the dead
men and fought, and all weapons were renewed. It is said in songs that
in this fashion the Hjadnings shall continue unto the Weird of the Gods.
Bragi the Skald composed verses after this tale in Ragnarr Lodbrók's
Song of Praise:
Ok ofþerris æða
And the belovèd Maiden
That gory Wound-Amender
The Prince of Folk, the Land-God,
And that baleful Witch of Women,
On the fair shield of Svölnir
[1. See page 161.]
|63. Orrosta kennd til Óðins.|
Orrosta er veðr Óðins, sem fyrr er ritat. Svá kvað Víga-Glúmr:
188. Rudda ek sem jarlar,
Viðris veðr er hér kallat orrusta, en vöndr vígs sverðit, en menn stafir sverðsins. Hér er bæði orrosta ok vápn haft til kenningar mannins. Þat er rekit kallat, er svá er ort. Skjöldr er land vápnanna, en vápn er hagl eða regn þess lands, ef nýgervingum er ort.
Battle is called Storm of Odin, as is recorded above; so sang Víga-Glúmr:
I cleared my way aforetime
Here battle is called Storm of Vidrir, and the sword is the Wand of Battle; men are Staves of the Sword. Here, then, both battle and weapons are used to make metaphors for man. It is called 'inlaying,' when one writes thus.
"The shield is the Land of Weapons, and weapons are Hail or Rain of that land, if one employs figures of later coinage.
Hvernig skal kenna skip? Svá, at kalla hest eða dýr eða skíð sækonunga eða sævar eða skipreiða eða veðrs. Báru fákr, sem Hornklofi kvað:
189. Hrjóðr lét hæstrar tíðar
Geitis marr, svá kvað Erringar-Steinn:
190. En þótt ófrið sunnan
191. Súðlöngum komt sveiða,
Svá kvað Hallvarðr. Hér er ok kölluð sunds dýr ok særinn Sölsa bekkr. Svá kvað Þórðr Sjáreksson:
192. Sveggja lét fyr Siggju
Hér er skip kallat sólborðs hestr ok sær Gylfa land, sæðings slóð særinn ok hestr skipit ok enn lauks hestr. Laukr heitir siglutré. Ok enn sem Markús kvað:
193. Fjarðlinna óð fannir
Hér er skip kallat björn rasta. Björn heitir vetrliði ok íugtanni ok bersi, ok björn skorðu er hér kallat. Skip er ok kallat hreinn, svá kvað Hallvarðr, sem áðr er ritat, ok hjörtr, sem kvað Haraldr konungr Sigurðarson:
194. Sneið fyr Sikiley víða
Ok elgr, sem Einarr kvað:
195. Baugs, getr með þér þeygi,
Otr, sem Máni kvað:
196. Hvat munt hafs á otri,
Vargr, sem kvað Refr:
197. En hoddvönuðr hlýddi,
Ok oxi. Skip er kallat skíð eða vagn eða reið. Svá kvað Eyjólfr dáðaskáld:
198. Meita fór at móti
Svá kvað Styrkárr Oddason:
199. Ok eft ítrum stökkvi
Ok sem Þorbjörn kvað:
200. Hafreiðar var hlæðir
L. "How should the ship be periphrased? Call it Horse or Deer or Snowshoe of the Sea-King, or of Ship's Rigging, or of Storm. Steed of the Billow, as Hornklofi sang:
The Counsel-Stern Destroyer
Geitir's Steed, as Erringar-Steinn sang:
But though to the skald all people
O Son of Sveinn strife-valiant,
So sang Hallvardr. Here the ship is also called Deer of the Sound; and the Sea is called Sölsi's Seat.
Thus sang Thórdr Sjáreksson:
The swift Steed of the Gunwale
Here the ship is called Steed of the Gunwale; and the sea is Gylfi's Land; the sea is also called Gull's Wake. The ship is called Horse, and further, Horse of the Leek: for 'leek' means 'mast.'
And again, as Markús sang:
The Stream's Winterling waded
The Stay's Bear, shower-breasting.
Here the ship is called Winterling of the Stream: a bear cub is called a Winterling; and a bear is called Tusker; the Bear of the Stay is a ship.
The ship is also called Reindeer, and so Hallvardr sang, as we have written before; and Hart, as King Haraldr Sigurdarson sang:
By Sicily then widely
And Elk, as Einarr sang:
The ring's mild Peace-Dispenser,
And Otter, as Máni sang:
What, laggard carle with gray cheeks,
Wolf, as Refr sang:
And the Hoard-Diminisher hearkened
To the Lord of the Wolf of Billows
And Ox also. The ship is called Snowshoe, or Wagon, or Wain. Thus sang Eyjólfr the Valiant Skald:
Late in the day the young Earl
Thus sang Styrkárr Oddason:
Högni's host drove the Wagons
And as Thorbjörn sang:
The Freighter of Wave-Crests' Sea-Wain
Hvernig skal Krist kenna? Svá, at kalla hann skapara himins ok jarðar, engla ok sólar, stýranda heims ok himinríkis ok engla, konung himna ok sólar ok engla ok Jórsala ok Jórdánar ok Gríklands, ráðandi postula ok heilagra manna. Forn skáld hafa kennt hann við Urðarbrunn ok Róm, sem kvað Eilífr Guðrúnarson:
201. Setbergs, kveða sitja
Svá kvað Skafti Þóroddsson:
202. Máttr er munka dróttins
Himna konungr, sem Markús kvað:
203. Gramr skóp grund ok himna
Svá kvað Eilifr kúlnasveinn:
204. Hróts lýtr helgum krúzi
Máríu sonr, enn sem Eilífr kvað:
205. Hirð lýtr himna, dýrðar,
Engla konungr, enn sem Eilífr kvað:
206. Máttr er en menn of hyggi
Jórdánar konungr, sem kvað Sighvatr:
207. Endr réð engla senda
Grikkja konungr, sem Arnórr kvað:
208. Bænir hefi ek fyr beini
Svá kvað Eilífr kúlnasveinn:
209. Himins dýrð lofar hölða,
Hér kallaði hann fyrst Krist konung manna ok annat sinn alls konung. Enn kvað Einarr Skúlason:
210. Lét, sá er landfolks gætir,
LI. "How should one periphrase Christ? Thus: by calling Him Fashioner of Heaven and Earth, of Angels, and of the Sun; Governor of the World and of the Heavenly Kingdom and of Jerusalem and Jordan and the Land of the Greeks; Counsellor of the Apostles and of the Saints. Ancient skalds have written of Him in metaphors of Urdr's Well and Rome; as Eilífr Gudrúnarson sang:
So has Rome's Mighty Ruler
Thus sang Skapti Thóroddssen:
The King of Monks is greatest
King of the Heavens, as Markús sang:
The King of the Wind-House fashioned
Thus sang Eilífr Kúlnasveinn:
The Host of the beaming World's Roof
Son of Mary, as Eilífr sang further:
The bright Host of Heaven boweth
King of Angels, as Eilífr sang again:
The goodly might of God's friend
King of Jordan, as Sigvatr sang:
Four angels the King of Jordan
King of Greeks, as Arnórr sang:
I have lodged for the hero's ashes
Thus sang Eilífr Kúlnasveinn:
The Glory of Heaven praises
Here he called Christ, first, King of Men, and again, King of All. Eínarr Skúlason sang:
He who compasseth, Bright in Mercy,
66. Konungakenningar ok fyrirmanna.
Þar koma saman kenningar, ok verðr sá at skilja af stöð, er ræðr skáldskapinn, um hvárn kveðit er konunginn, því at rétt er at kalla Miklagarðskeisara Grikkjakonung, ok svá þann konung, er ræðr Jórsalalandi, at kalla Jórsalakonung, svá ok at kalla Rómskonung Rómaborgarkeisara, eða Englakonung, þann er Englandi ræðr. En sú kenning, er áðr var ritat, at kalla Krist konung manna, þá kenning má eiga hverr konungur. Konunga alla er rétt at kenna svá at kalla þá landráðendr eða landsvörðu eða landssæki eða hirðstjóra eða vörð landsfólks. Svá kvað Eyvindr skáldaspillir:
Ok sem Glúmr kvað Geirason:
212. Hilmir rauð und hjalmi
Sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
213. Hár skyli hirðar stjóri
Sem Einarr kvað:
214. Snáks berr fald of fræknu
Rétt er ok um hann konung, er undir honum eru skattkonungar, at kalla hann konung konunga. Keisari er æðstr konunga, en þar næst er konungr sá, er ræðr fyrir þjóðlandi, jafn í kenningum öllum hverr við annan í skáldskap. Þar næst eru þeir menn, er jarlar heita eða skattkonungar, ok eru þeir jafnir í kenningum við konung, nema eigi má þá kalla þjóðkonunga, er skattkonungar eru. Ok svá kvað Arnórr jarlaskáld of Þorfinn jarl:
215. Nemi drótt, hvé sjá sótti
Þar næst eru í kenningum í skáldskap þeir menn, er hersar heita. Kenna má þá sem konung eða jarl, svá at kalla þá gullbrjóta ok auðmildinga ok merkismenn ok fólksstjóra eða kalla hann oddvita liðsins eða orrostu, fyrir því at þjóðkonungr hverr, sá er ræðr mörgum löndum, þá setr hann til landstjórnar með sér skattkonunga ok jarla at dæma landslög ok verja land fyrir ófriði í þeim löndum, er konungi liggja fjarri, ok skulu þeir dómar ok refsingar vera þar jafnréttir sem sjálfs konungs. En í einu landi eru mörg heruð, ok er þat háttr konunga at setja þar réttara yfir svá mörg heruð sem hann gefr til valds, ok heita þeir hersar eða lendir menn í danskri tungu, en greifar í Saxlandi, en barúnar í Englandi. Þeir skulu ok vera réttir dómarar ok réttir landvarnarmenn yfir því ríki, er þeim er fengit til stjórnar. Ef eigi er konungr nær, þá skal fyrir þeim merki bera í orrostum, ok eru þeir þá jafnréttir herstjórar sem konungar eða jarlar.
Þar næst eru þeir menn, er hölðar heita. Þat eru búendr þeir, er gildir eru at ættum ok réttum fullum. Þá má svá kenna at kalla þá veitanda fjár ok gætanda ok sætti manna. Þessar kenningar megu ok eiga höfðingjar.
Konungar ok jarlar hafa til fylgðar með sér þá menn, er hirðmenn heita ok húskarlar, en lendir menn hafa ok sér handgengna menn, þá er í Danmörku ok í Svíðjóð eru hirðmenn kallaðir, en í Nóregi húskarlar, ok sverja þeir þó eiða svá sem hirðmenn konungum. Húskarlar konunga váru mjök hirðmenn kallaðir í forneskju.
Svá kvað Þorvaldr blönduskáld:
216. Konungr heill ok svá snjallir
Þetta orti Haraldr konungr Sigurðarson:
217. Fullafli bíðr fyllar,
Hirðmenn ok húskarla höfðingja má svá kenna at kalla þá inndrótt eða verðung eða heiðmenn. Svá kvað Sighvatr:
218. Þat frá ek víg á vatni
Ok enn þetta:
219. Þági var sem þessum
Heiðfé heitir máli ok gjöf, er höfðingjar gefa. Svá kvað Óttarr svarti:
220. Góðmennis þarf ek gunnar
Jarlar ok hersar ok hirðmenn eru svá kenndir, kallaðir konungs rúnar eða málar eða sessar. Svá kvað Hallfreðr:
221. Grams rúni lætr glymja
Sem Snæbjörn kvað:
Svá kvað Arnórr:
223. Bera sýn of mik mínir
Konungs spjalli, sem Hallfreðr kvað:
224. Ráð lukusk, at sá, síðan,
Svá skal menn kenna við ættir, sem Kormákr kvað:
225. Heyri sonr á, Sýrar,
Hann kallaði jarlinn sannreyni konungsins, en Hákon jarl son Sigurðar jarls. En Þjóðólfr kvað svá um Harald:
226. Vex Óláfs feðr
Ok enn svá:
227. Jarizleifr of sá,
Ok enn kvað hann:
228. Andaðr er sá,
Enn kvað svá Arnórr í Rögnvaldsdrápu:
229. Réð Heita konr hleyti
Ok enn kvað hann of Þorfinn jarl:
230. Bitu sverð, en þar þurðu,
Ok enn kvað hann:
231. Ættbæti firr ítran
Ok enn kvað Einarr skálaglamm:
232. Né ættstuðill ættar
LII. "There the metaphors coincide; and he who interprets the language of poesy learns to distinguish which king is meant; for it is correct to call the Emperor of Constantinople King of Greeks, and similarly to call the king who rules over the land of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem, and also to call the Emperor of Rome King of Rome, and to call him King of Angles' who governs England. But that periphrasis which was cited but now, which called Christ King of Men, may be had by, every king. It is proper to periphrase all kings by calling them Land-Rulers, or Land-Warders, or Land-Attackers, or Leader of Henchmen, or Warder of the People.
Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:
Who filled the ravens
1. The reverse of Gregory's pun: "Non Angli sed angeli." ["Not angles but angels"] 2. See page 98.
And as Glúmr Geirason sang:
The Prince beneath the helmet
As Thjódólfr sang:
'T is my wish that the glorious Leader
As Einarr sang:
The valiant-souled Earth-Warder
It is right also to call him King of Kings, under whom are tributary kings. An emperor is highest of kings, and next under him is that king who reigns over a nation; and each of these is equal to the other in the periphrases made of them in poesy. Next to them are those men who are called earls or tributary kings: and they are equal in periphrasis with a king, save that one may not term them kings of nations. And thus sang Arnórr Earl's Skald concerning Earl Thorfinnr:
Next to these in the figures of poesy are those men who are called chiefs: one may periphrase them as one might a king or an earl, calling them Dispensers of Gold, Wealth Munificent, Men of the Standards, and Captains of the Host, or Van-Leaders of the Array or of Battle; since each king of a nation, who rules over many lands, appoints tributary kings and earls in joint authority with himself, to administer the laws of the land and defend it from attack in those parts which lie far removed from the king. And in those parts they shall be equal with the king's self in giving judgment and meting punishment. Now there are many districts in one land; and it is the practice of kings to appoint justiciars over as many districts as one chooses to give into their hands. These justiciars are called chiefs or landed men in the Danish tongue, reeves in Saxony, and barons in England. They are also to be righteous judges and faithful warriors over the land which is entrusted to them for governance. If the king is not near, then a standard shall be borne before them in battle; and then they are quite as lawful war-captains as kings or earls.
"Next under them are those men who are called franklins: they are those freeholders who are of honorable kindred, and possessed of full rights. One may periphrase them by calling them Wealth-Givers, and Protectors, and Reconcilers of Men; headmen also may have these titles.
"Kings and earls have as their following the men called henchmen and house-carles; landed-men also have in their service those who are called henchmen in Denmark and Sweden, and house-carles in Norway, and these men swear oaths of service to them, even as henchmen do to kings. The house-carles of kings were often called henchmen in the old heathen time.
Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending Skald:
Hail, King, swift in the onset!
King Haraldr Sigurdarson composed this:
The man full mighty waiteth
Oft, I find, to the Earl's heels
Henchmen and house-carles may be periphrased by calling them House-Guard, or Wage-Band, or Men of Honor: thus sang Sigvatr:
I learned the Warrior's Wage-Band
And thus also:
When on the Steed of Cables
The service-fee which headmen give is called wages and gifts; thus sang Óttarr the Swarthy:
I needs must use the Breaker
[1. See page 176.]
Earls and chiefs and henchmen are periphrased by calling them Counsellors or Speech-Friends or Seat-Mates of the King, as Hallfredr sang:
The Counsellor battle-mighty
As Snaebjörn sang:
The Speech-Friend of Kings letteth
Thus sang Arnórr:
My young sons do bear for my sake
King's Counsel-Friend, as Hallfredr sang:
In council 't was determined
 See page 136.
One should periphrase men by their kindred; as Kormákr sang:
Let the son of Haraldr's true friend
He called the Earl True Friend of the King, and Hákon, Son of Earl Sigurdr. And Thjódólfr sang thus concerning Haraldr:
About Ólafr's sire
Jarizleifr could espy
And again he sang:
Breath-bereft is he
Arnórr also sang thus in Rögnvaldr's Song of Praise:
Heiti's war-good kinsman
And again, concerning Earl Thorfinnr, he sang:
The thin-made swords bit keenly
Of Man, where rushed the strong hosts
And he sang further:
O God, guard the glorious
And Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:
The House-Prop of the Kindred
Hvernig er ókennd setning skáldskapar? Svá, at nefna hvern hlut sem heitir. Hver eru ókennd nöfn skáldskaparins? Hann heitir bragr ok hróðr, óðr, mærð, lof. Þetta kvað Bragi inn gamli, þá er hann ók um skóg nökkurn síð um kveld. Þá stefjaði trollkona á hann ok spurði, hverr þar fór:
233. Troll kalla mik
Hann svarði svá:
234. Skald kalla mik
Ok sem Kormákr kvað:
235. Hróðr geri ek of mög mæran
Ok sem kvað Þórðr Kolbeinsson:
236. Mjök lét margar snekkjur,
Mærð, sem Úlfr Uggason kvað:
237. Þar kemr á, en æri
Hér er lof kallat skáldskapr.
LIII. "How are the uninvolved terms of poesy made? By calling each thing by its proper name. What are the simple terms for poesy? It is called Poetry, Glorifying, Song, Laud, and Praise. Bragi the Old sang this, when he was travelling through a forest late at evening: a troll woman hailed him in verse, asking who passed:
'Trolls do call me
1. "Eru tröll-kenningar, sumar myrkar." ["Troll-kennings, some obscure"] Jónsson, p. 403.
He answered thus:
'Skalds do call me
And as Kormákr sang:
I make more Glorifying
And as Thórdr Kolbeinsson sang:
The Shield-Maple let many swift ships
Laud, as Úlfr Uggason sang:
Now the stream to the sea cometh;
Here poesy is called praise also.
Hvernig eru nöfn goðanna? Þau heita bönd, sem kvað Eyjólfr dáðaskáld:
238. Dregr land at mun banda
Ok höft, sem kvað Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski:
239. Tormiðlaðr var tívum
Rögn, sem Einarr kvað skálaglamm:
240. Rammaukin kveð ek ríki
Jólnar, sem Eyvindr kvað:
241. Jólna sumbl
Díar, sem Kormákr kvað:
242. Eykr með ennidúki
LIV. "How are the gods named? They are called Fetters, as Eyjólfr the Valiant Skald sang:
Eiríkr draws the lands beneath him
And Bonds, as Thjódólfr of Hvin sang:
The skilful God-Deceiver
Powers, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:
I say, the Mighty Powers
Jólnar, as Eyvindr sang:
We have fashioned
Deities, as Kormákr sang:1. See page 130, where it is translated slightly differently.
2. This word, in the singular, is one of the names of Odin. I can find no etymology for it.
3. A rare and doubtful word. According to Cl.-Vig., the word occurs only twice: Yngl. S., ch. ii, and here. Cl.-Vig. holds that the word probably meant priests: "The díar of the Yngl. S. were probably analogous to the Icel. godi, from god (deus )" (p. 100).
The Giver of Lands, who bindeth
[1. See page 100.]
|69. Himins heiti, sólar ok tungls.|
Þessi nöfn himins eru rituð, en eigi höfum vér fundit í kvæðum öll
þessi heiti. En þessi skáldskaparheiti sem önnur þykkir mér óskylt at
hafa í skáldskap, nema áðr finni hann í verka höfuðskálda þvílík heiti.
LV. "These names of the heavens are recorded (but we have not found all these terms in poems; and these skaldic terms, even as others, are not meet for use in skaldic writing, methinks, unless one first find such names in the works of Chief Skalds): Heaven, Hlýrnir, Heidthornir, Storm Mímir, Long-Lying, Light-Farer, Driving, Topmost Sky, Wide-Fathom, Vet-Mímir, Lightning, Destroyer, Wide-Blue. The solar planet is called Sun, Glory, Ever-Glow, All-Bright, Sight, Fair Wheel, Healing Ray, Dvalinn's Playmate, Elfin-Beam, Doubtful-Beam, Luminary. The lunar planet is called Moon, Waxer, Waner, Year-Teller, Mock-Sun, Fengari, Glamour, Haster, Crescent, Glare.
2. "Byzant. Φεγγάρι [Moon]; an άπ, λεγ " (Cl.-Vig., p. 151 s.v. fengari.)]
Hver eru jarðarheiti? Hon heitir jörð, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
243. Jarl lætr odda skúrar
Fold, sem Óttarr kvað:
244. Fold verr folk-Baldr,
Grund, sem Hallfreðr kvað:
245. Grund liggr und bör bundin
Hauðr, sem Einarr kvað:
246. Verja hauðr með hjörvi
Land, sem Þórðr Kolbeinsson kvað:
247. En eft víg frá Veigu,
Láð, sem Óttarr kvað:
248. Heltu, þar er hrafn né svalta,
Hlöðyn, sem kvað Völu-Steinn:
249. Man ek þat, er jörð við orða
Frón, sem kvað Úlfr Uggason:
250. En stirðþinull starði
Fjörgyn, sem hér er kveðit:
251. Örgildi var ek, Eldis,
LVI. "Which are the simple terms for Earth? She is called Earth, as Thjódólfr sang:
The hardy Point-Rain's Urger
Field, as Óttarr sang:
The Prince guards the Field:
Óleifr fattens the eagle,
Ground, as Hallvardr sang:
The broad Ground, 'neath the venom-cold Adder
Haudr, as Einarr sang:
Brave heroes are defending
1. "Etymology not known" (Cl.-Vig., p. 241).
Land, as Thórdr Kolbeinsson sang:
The Land, after the battle,
Fief, as Óttarr sang:
Thou, fierce War-Staff, maintainedst
2. See pages 180, 181.
Hlödyn, as Völu-Steinn sang:
I remember how murky earth yawned
Country, as Úlfr Uggason sang:
But the flashing-eyed stiff Edge-Rope
Fjörgyn, as is said here:
I was faithful to the free Payer
|71. Úlfs heiti, bjarnar ok hjartar.|
Vargr heitir dýr. Þat er rétt at kenna við blóð eða hræ, svá at kalla verð hans eða drykk. Eigi er rétt at kenna svá við fleiri dýr. Vargr heitir ok úlfr, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
252. Gera var gisting byrjuð
Hér er hann ok geri kallaðr. Freki, sem Egill kvað:
253. Þá er oddbreki,
Vitnir, sem Einarr kvað:
254. Elfr varð unda gjalfri
Ylgr, sem Arnórr kvað:
255. Svalg áttbogi ylgjar
Vargr, sem Illugi kvað:
256. Vargs var munr þat, er margan,
Þetta er enn vargs heiti, sem Hallr kvað:
257. Heiðingja sleit hungri,
Ok enn sem Þórðr kvað:
258. Óð, en ærnu náði
Björn heitir fetvíðnir, húnn, vetrliði, bersi, fress,
íugtanni, ifjungr, glúmr, jölfuðr, vilskarpr, bera, jórekr, riti, frekr,
LVII. "It is correct to periphrase blood or carrion in terms of the beast which is called Strangler," by calling them his Meat and Drink; it is not correct to express them in terms of other beasts. The Strangler is also called Wolf.4. Vargr; cf. A.-S. wearg, Ger.-würgen.
As Thjódólfr sang:
Enough guesting to the Ravener
came from the North, the Wolf
Here he is called Ravener also.
Greedy One, as Egill sang:
The Greedy One gashed
Witch-Beast, as Einarr sang:
The Götha, cold with venom,
She-Wolf, as Arnórr sang:
The She-Wolf's evil Kindred
Strangler, as Illugi sang:
There was happiness for the Strangler
Thus sang Hallr:
He sated the Heath-Beasts' Hunger:
And again, as Thórdr sang:
In blood Gjálp's Stud-Horse waded,
The bear is called Wide-Stepper, Cub, Winterling, Ourse, Gib-Cat, Tusker, Youngling, Roarer, Jölfudr, Wilful-Sharp, She-Bear, Horse-Chaser, Scratcher, Hungry One, Blómr, Bustler. The hart is called Módrödnir, Dalarr, Dalr, Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durathrór.
1. Meaning? 2. Angry-minded? 3. Meaning? 4. These are the names of the harts that feed on the leaves of the Ash Yggdrasill. See Gylfag., ch. xvi.
Þessi eru hesta heiti talið í Þorgrímsþulu:
259. Hrafn ok Sleipnir,
Þessir eru enn talðir í Kálfsvísu:
262. Dagr reið Drösli,
Árvakr ok Alsviðr draga sólina, sem fyrr er ritat. Hrímfaxi eða Fjörsvartnir draga nóttina. Skinfaxi eða Glaðr fylgja deginum.
These are the names of horses enumerated in the Rhymes of Thorgrímr:
Hrafn and Sleipnir,
6. Raven. 7. Hawk. 8. Racer? (Cl.-Vig, p. 635). 9. ? 10. Soot-Colored.
11. Dark-Gray. 12. ? 13. a Steed.
Vigg and Stúfr
Blódughófi hight a horse
These also are recorded in Kálfsvísa:
Dagr rode Drösull,
Vésteinn rode Valr,
7. Horse, Steed. 8. Bloody-Hoof. 9. Hostage. 10. Hollow-Hoof.
11. Shining. 12. Swift-Runner. 13. Golden. 14. Roamer. 15. Spirited.
And Morginn on Vakr;
Björn rode Blakkr,
1. Watchful, Nimble, Ambling, or perhaps Hawk.
2. Related to Kerti = a candle? 3. Tumult. 4. Slinger.
5. Horse; etymology? 6. ? 7. Goth. 8. Shining-Lip? (Jónsson).
9. Early-Wake. 10. All-Swift. 11. Frosty-Mane. 12. Swart-Life.
13. Shining-Mane. 14. Bright, or Glad. 15. Red.
|73. Öxn, ormar, sauðir, svín.|
|Þessi öxnaheiti eru í Þorgrímsþulu:||"These names of oxen are in Thorgrímr's Rhymes:|
Gamalla öxna nöfn
Of all oxen the names
Meet. 17. Driven. 18. Gentle.
Þessi eru orma heiti: dreki, Fáfnir, Jörmungandr, naðr, Níðhöggr, linnr,
naðra, Góinn, Móinn, Grafvitnir, Grábakr, Ófnir, Sváfnir, grímr.
Naut: kýr, kálfr, yxni, kvíga, vetrungr, griðungr, boli.
Sauðr: hrútr, bekri, ær, lamb, veðr.
Svín: sýr, gylta, runi, göltr, gríss.
These are names of serpents: Dragon, Fáfnir, Mighty Monster, Adder,
Nídhöggr, Lindworm, She-Adder, Góinn, Móinn, Grafvitnir,
Grábakr, Ófnir, Sváfnir, Hooded One.
Neat-Cattle: Cow, calf, oxen, heifer, yearling, steer, bull.
Sheep: Ram, buck, ewe, lamb, wether.
Swine: Sow, she-pig, boar, hog, suckling.
5. For these names and their meanings, see Gylfag., ch. xvi.
|74. Heiti lofts ok veðra.|
Hver eru heiti lofts ok veðranna? Loft heitir ginnungagap ok meðalheimr, foglheimr, veðrheimr. Veðr heitir hregg, byrr, glygg, hret, gjósta, vindr. Svá segir í Alsvinnsmálum:
266. Vindr heitir með mönnum,
Veðr heitir ok gustr.
LVIII. "What are the names of the air and of the winds? Air is called Yawning Void and Middle World, Bird-Abode, Wind-Abode. Wind is called Storm, Breeze, Gale, Tempest, Gust, Blowing. Thus does one read in Alsvinnsmál:
Wind 't is called among menfolk,
The Wind is also called Blast.
|75. Hrafnsheiti ok arnar.|
Tveir eru fuglar þeir, er eigi þarf at kenna annan veg en kalla blóð eða hræ drykk þeira eða verð. Þat er hrafn ok örn. Alla aðra fugla karlkennda má kenna við blóð eða hræ, ok er þat þá nafn örn eða hrafn, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
Þessi eru nöfn hrafns: krákr, Huginn, Muninn, borginmóði, árflognir, ártali, holdboði. Svá kvað Einarr skálaglamm:
268. Fjallvönðum gaf fylli,
Svá kvað Einarr Skúlason:
269. Dolgskára kná dýrum
Ok enn sem hann kvað:
270. En við hjaldr, þar er hölðar,
Sem kvað Víga-Glúmr:
271. Þá er dynfúsir dísar
Sem Skúli kvað Þorsteinsson:
272. Myndit efst, þar er undir
Örn heitir svá: ari, gemlir, hreggskornir, eggðir, ginnarr, undskornir, gallópnir. Sem Einarr kvað:
273. Sámleitum rauð sveita,
Sem Óttarr kvað:
274. Örn drekkr, undarn
Sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
275. Segjöndum fló sagna
Ok sem hér er:
276. Hreggskornis vil ek handa
Ok enn sem Skúli kvað:
277. Vaki ek þat er val heltk ekka
LIX. "Two are those birds which there is no need to periphrase otherwise than by calling blood and corpses their Drink and Meat: these are the raven and the eagle. All other male birds may be periphrased in metaphors of blood or corpses; and then their names are terms of the eagle or the raven. As Thjódólfr sang:
The Prince with Eagle's Barley
These are names of the raven: Crow, Huginn, Muninn, Bold of Mood, Yearly Flier, Year-Teller, Flesh-Boder.
1. For the meaning of these names (which are those of Odin's Ravens), see Gylfag., ch. xxxviii.
Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:
With flesh the Host-Convoker
Thus sang Einarr Skúlason:
He who gluts the Gull of Hatred,
And as he sang further:
But the King's heart swelleth,
Where heroes shrink; dark Muninn
As Víga-Glúmr sang:
When stood the shielded Maidens
As Skúli Thorsteinsson sang:
Not the hindmost in the hundred
The erne is called Eagle, Old One, Storm-Shearer, Inciter, Soarer, Wound-Shearer, Cock. As Einarr sang:
With blood the lips he reddened
As Ottarr sang:
The Erne swills corpse-drink,
As Thjódólfr sang:
The Spoiler of the Lady
1. See Page 130, where it is translated slightly differently.
And as stands here:
With skill will I rehearse
And again as Skúli sang:
Early and late with sobbing
Hver eru sævar heiti? Hann heitir: marr, ægir, gymir, hlér, haf, leið, ver, salt, lögr, græðir. Sem Arnórr kvað ok fyrr var ritat:
278. Nemi drótt, hvé sæ sótti
Hér er nefndr sær ok svá ægir. Marr, sem Hornklofi kvað:
279. Þá er út á mar mætir
Lögr er ok hér nefndr. Svá kvað Einarr:
280. Lögr þvær flaust, en fagrir,
Hér er ok flóð kallat. Svá kvað Refr, sem fyrr var ritat:
281. Færir Björn, þar er bára
Haf, sem Halvarðr kvað:
282. Vestr lézt í haf, hristir,
Leið, sem hér er:
283. Erum á leið frá láði
Ver, sem Egill kvað:
284. Vestr fór ek of ver,
Marr, sem Einarr kvað:
285. Kaldr þvær marr und mildum
Salt, sem Arnórr kvað:
286. Salt skar húfi héltum
Græðir, sem Bölverkr kvað:
287. Leiðangr bjótt af láði,
Hér er ok gjálfr kallat særinn. Víðir, sem kvað Refr:
288. Barðristinn nemr brjósti
Húmr, sem Brennu-Njáll kvað:
289. Senn jósum vér, svanni,
Þessi eru enn sævar heiti, svá at rétt er at kenna til skip eða gull. Rán, er sagt, at var kona Ægis, svá sem hér er:
290. Hrauð í himin upp glóðum
Dætr þeira Ægis ok Ránar eru níu, ok eru nöfn þeira fyrr rituð: Himinglæva, Dúfa, Blóðughadda, Hefring, Uðr, Hrönn, Bylgja, Dröfn, Kólga. Einarr Skúlason talði í þessi vísu:
sex nöfn þeira, [himinglæva, Uðr, Dúfa, Blóðughadda, Kólga, Hefring].
Hrönn, sem Valgarðr kvað:
Bylgja, sem Óttarr svarti kvað:
293. Skáruð sköfnu stýri,
Dröfn, sem Ormr kvað:
294. Hrosta drýgir hvern kost
Bára, sem Þorleikr fagri kvað:
295. Sjár þýtr, en berr bára
Lá, sem Einarr kvað:
296. Né framlyndir fundu
Fyllr, sem Refr kvað:
297. Hrynja fjöll á fyllar,
Boði, sem hér er:
298. Boði fell of mik bráðla.
Breki, sem Óttarr kvað:
299. Braut, en breki þaut,
Vágr, sem Bragi kvað:
300. Vildit vröngum ofra
Sund, sem Einarr kvað:
301. Skar ek súðum sund
Fjörðr, sem Einarr kvað:
302. Næst sé ek orm á jastar
Sægr, sem Markús kvað:
303. Sægs mun ek síðr en eigi,
LX. "What are the names of the Sea? It is called Ocean, Main, Wintry,
Lee, Deep, Way, Weir, Salt, Lake, Furtherer. As Arnórr sang, and as we have
Let men hear how the Earls' King,
2. See page 198.
Here it is named Sea, and Main also.
"Ocean, as Hornklofi sang:
When the man-scathing Meeter
Thrust the Forecastle-Adder
In the following verse it is called Lake as well: thus sang Einarr:
The Lake doth bathe the vessel,
Here it is called Flood also. Thus sang Refr, as was said before:
Wintry One's wet-cold Spae-Wife
2. See page 139, Gymir= "Wintry One".
Deep, as Hallvardr sang:
The Sword-Shaker bids be pointed
Way, as here:
On our course from land we glided;
Weir, as Egill sang:
I sailed o'er the Weir
Ocean, as Einarr sang:
Many a day the cold Ocean
Salt, as Arnórr sang:
The hardy King the Salt plowed
Furtherer, as Bölverkr sang:
Thou didst summon from fair Norway
Wide One, as Refr sang:
To its breast the Stay's steed taketh
Dusky One, as Njáll of the Burning sang:
We sixteen pumped, my Lady,
These are other names for the Sea, such as it is proper to use in periphrasing ships or gold.
"Rán, it is said, was Ægir's wife, even as is written here:
To the sky shot up the Deep's Gledes,
The daughters of Ægir and Rán are nine, and their names are recorded before: Himinglæva, Dúfa, Blódughadda, Hefring, Udr,  Hrönn, Bylgja, Dröfn, Kólga. Einarr Skúlason recorded the names of six of them in this stanza, beginning:
1. That through which one can see the heaven (Jónsson). 2. The Pitching One (Jónsson). 3 Bloody-Hair. 4 Riser. 5. Frothing Wave. 6. Welling Wave. 7. Billow. 8. Foam-Fleck. 9. Poetical term for Wave. "The Cool One" (Jónsson).
Himinglæva sternly stirreth,
Their names are six [himinglæva, Uðr, Dúfa, Blóðughadda, Kólga, Hefring].
Welling Wave, as Valgardr sang:
Foam rested in the Sea's bed:
And the Welling Waves were washing
10. In the following stanzas, for the sake of consistency, I have been obliged to translate the names, since they are employed in the stanzas as common nouns, rather than as proper names. It is beyond my ability to translate Himinglæva briefly.
Billow, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:
Ye shear with shaven rudder
Foam-Fleck, as Ormr sang:
The hawk-like, heedful Lady
Wave-Borne, as Thorleikr the Fair sang:
The sea walls, and the Wave-Borne
Shoal, as Einarr sang:
Nor met the Forward-Minded,
Fullness, as Refr sang:
Downward the Fells of Fullness
Comber, as here:
The Comber fell headlong o'er me;
Breaker, as Óttarr sang:
In burst the ship-sides thin;
Wave, as Bragi sang:
The Giver of the Wave's Coals,
Sound, as Einarr sang:
I sheared the Sound
Fjord, as Einarr sang:
Next I see a serpent
Wetness, as Markús sang:
I'll not lampoon the Chatterer,
Hver eru elds heiti? Svá sem hér er:
304. Eldr brennat sjá sjaldan,
Logi, sem Valgarðr kvað:
305. Snarla skaut ór sóti,
Bál, sem hér er:
306. Haki var brenndr á báli,
Glæðr, sem Grani kvað:
307. Glæðr hygg ek Glamma slóðar,
Eisa, sem Atli kvað:
308. Öx rýðsk, eisur vaxa,
Hér er ok gim gallat eldrinn. Eimr, sem hér er:
309. Brunnu allvalds inni,
Hyrr, sem Arnórr kvað:
310. Eymðit ráð við Rauma
Funi, sem Einarr kvað:
311. Funi kyndisk fljótt,
Brími, sem Valgarðr kvað:
312. Bjartr sveimaði brími,
Leygr, sem Halldórr skvaldri kvað:
313. Ér knáttuð þar þeira,
LXI. "What are the names of fire? Even as is written here:
Not seldom does the fire blaze
Glow, as Valgardr sang:
Fierce Glow, with red-hot embers,
Bale, as here:
Haki was burned on Bale,
Gledes, as Grani sang:
I think the Gledes diminished . . .
Embers, as Atli sang:
With blood the axe is reddened,
Here fire is called Gem also.
Vapor, as here:
Half-built, by the Nid's side
Hot Ashes, as Arnórr sang:
The Isle-Danes' wrathful Harmer
Flames, as Einarr sang:
Flame soon was alight,
Flare, as Valgardr sang:
The sturdy king's bright Flare soared
Lowe, as Haldórr sang:
There did ye share their jewels,
|78. Heiti stundanna.|
Þessi eru nöfn stundanna: öld, forðum, aldr, fyrir löngu, ár, misseri, vetr, sumar, vár, haust, mánuðr, vika, dagr, nótt, morginn, aftann, kveld, árla, snemma, síðla, í sinn, fyrra dag, í næst, í gær, á morgun, stund, mél. Þessi eru enn heiti nætrinnar í Alsvinnsmálum:
314. Nótt heitir með mönnum,
Frá jafndægri er haust, til þess er sól sezt í eykðarstað. Þá er vetr til jafndægris. Þá er vár til fardaga. Þá er sumar til jafndægris. Haustmánuðr heitir inn næsti fyrir vetr, fyrstr í vetri heitir gormánuðr, þá er frermánuðr, þá er hrútmánuðr, þá er þorri, þá gói, þá einmánuðr, þá gaukmánuðr ok sáðtíð, þá eggtíð ok stekktíð, þá er sólmánuðr ok selmánuðr, þá eru heyannir, þá er kornskurðarmánuðr.
LXII. "These are time-names: Cycle, Days of
Yore, Generation, Lang-Syne, Year, Season, Winter, Summer, Spring, Autumn,
Month, Week, Day, Night, Morning, Eve, Twilight, Early, Soon, Late, Betimes, Day
before Yesterday, Yester Eve, Yesterday, To-morrow, Hour, Moment. These are more
names of Night in Alsvinnsmál:
Night 't is called among men,
["It is autumn from the equinox till the time when the sun sets three hours and a half after noon; then winter endures till the equinox; then it is spring till the moving-days; then summer till the equinox. The month next before winter is called Harvest-Month; the first in winter is the Month of Cattle-Slaughter; then Freezing Month, then Rain-Month, then the Month of Winter's Wane, then Gói; then Single Month, then Cuckoo-Month and Seed-Time, then Egg-time and Lamb-Weaning-Time; then come Sun-Month and Pasture Month, then Haying-Season; then Reaping Month.]
1. In May. 2. I cannot find the meaning of this word. 3. "This passage, which U lacks, is clearly a later addition." Jónsson, Copenhagen ed. (1900), p. 138, footnote.
Hver eru manna heiti ókennd? Maðr er hverr fyrir sér; it fyrsta ok it æðsta heiti manns, er kallaðr er maðr keisari, því næst konungr, þar næst jarl. Þessir þrír menn eigu saman þessi heiti öll. Allvaldr, svá sem hér er kveðit:
315. Allvalda kann ek alla
Hér er ok gramr kallaðr. Því heitir hann allvaldr, at hann er einvaldi alls ríkis síns. Fylkir, sem Gizurr kvað:
316. Fylkir gleðr í folki
Fyrir því er fylkir kallaðr konungr, at hann skipar í fylkingar herliði sínu. Vísi, sem kvað Óttarr svarti:
317. Vísi tekr, víg-Freys,
Harri eða herra, sem kvað Arnórr:
318. Harri fekk í hverri
Hertogi heitir jarl, ok er konungr svá kallaðr ok, fyrir því er hann leiðir her til orrostu. Svá kvað Þjóðólfr:
319. Ok hertoga hneykir
Sinjór eða senjór, sem Sighvatr kvað:
320. Lát auman nú njóta,
Mildingr, sem Markús kvað:
321. Mildingr fór of óþjóð eldi,
Mæringr, sem Hallvarðr kvað:
322. Erat und jarðar höslu,
Landreki, sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
323. Eyss landreki ljósu
sem fyrr var ritat. Því heitir hann svá, at hann rekr her um land annarra konunga eða rekr her ór sínu landi.
LXIII. "What are the simple terms for men? Each, in himself, is Man; the first and highest name by which man is called is Emperor; next to that, King; the next thereto, Earl: these three men possess in common all the following titles: All-Ruler, as this song showeth:
I know all All-Rulers
Here he is called War-Prince also; for this reason he is called All-Ruler, that he is sole Ruler of all his realm.
Host-Arrayer, as Gizurr sang:
The Host-Arrayer feedeth
"A King is called Host-Arrayer because he divides his war-host into companies.
Leader, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:
The Leader taketh
Lord or Lording, as Arnórr sang:
The Lord of Hjaltland, highest
An earl is called Host-Duke, and a king also is so termed, forasmuch as he leads his host to battle. Thus sang Thjódólfr:
He who put to shame the Host-Duke
Signor, or Señor, as Sigvatr sang:
O Norway's gracious Signor,
Munificent One, as Markús sang:
The Munificent Prince brought fire's destruction
Illustrious One, as Hallvardr sang:
No Illustrious One nearer
Land-Driver, as Thjódólfr sang:
The guileless Land-Driver sprinkles
as was written before; he is called so because he drives his host about the lands of other kings, or drives a host out of his own land.
1. See page 173, where these two lines are translated slightly differently.
|80. Frá Halfdani gamla ok konungaættum.|
Konungr er nefndr Hálfdan gamli, er allra konunga var ágætastr. Hann gerði blót mikit at miðjum vetri ok blótaði til þess, at hann skyldi lifa í konungdómi sínum þrjú hundruð vetra. En hann fekk þau andsvör, at hann myndi lifa ekki meir en einn mikinn mannsaldr, en þat myndi þó vera þrjú hundruð vetra, er engi myndi vera í ætt hans kona eða ótiginn maðr. Hann var hermaðr mikill ok fór víða um Austrvegu.
Þar drap hann í einvígi þann konung, er Sigtryggr hét. Þá fekk hann þeirar konu, er kölluð er Alvig in spaka, dóttir Emundar konungs ór Hólmgarði. Þau áttu sonu átján ok váru níu senn bornir. Þeir hétu svá: Einn var Þengill, er kallaðr var Manna-Þengill, annarr Ræsir, þriði Gramr, fjórði Gylfi, fimmti Hilmir, sétti Jöfurr, sjaundi Tyggi, átti Skyli eða Skúli, níundi Harri eða Herra. Þessir níu bræðr urðu svá ágætir í hernaði, at í öllum fræðum síðan eru nöfn þeira haldin fyrir tignarnöfn, svá sem konungs nafn eða jarls. Þeir áttu engi börn ok fellu allir í orrostum. Svá kvað Óttarr svarti:
324. Þengill var þegar ungr
Svá kvað Markús:
325. Ræsir lét af roðnum hausi
Svá kvað Egill:
326. Gramr hefir gerðihömrum
Svá kvað Eyvindr:
327. Lék við ljóðmögu,
Svá kvað Glúmr Geirason:
328. Hilmir rauð und hjalmi
Svá kvað Óttarr svarti:
329. Jöfurr heyri upphaf,
Sem Stúfr kvað:
330. Tíreggjaðr hjó tyggi
Svá kvað Hallfreðr:
331. Skiliðr em ek við skylja,
Svá kvað Markús:
332. Harra kveð ek at hróðrgörð dýrri
Enn áttu þau Hálfdan aðra níu sonu, er svá heita; Hildir, er
Hildingar eru frá komnir, annarr Nefir, er Niflungar eru frá komnir,
þriði Auði, er Öðlingar eru frá komnir, fjórði Yngvi, er Ynglingar eru
frá komnir, fimmti Dagr, er Döglingar eru frá komnir, sétti Bragi, er
Bragningar eru frá komnir. Þat er ætt Hálfdanar ins milda. Sjaundi
Buðli, er Buðlungar eru frá komnir. Af Buðlungaætt kom Atli ok
Brynhildr. Átti er Lofði. Hann var herkonungr mikill. Honum fylgði þat
lið, er Lofðar váru kallaðir. Hans ættmenn eru kallaðir Lofðungar. Þaðan
er kominn Eylimi, móðurfaðir Sigurðar Fáfnisbana. Níundi Sigarr, þaðan
eru komnir Siklingar. Þat er ætt Siggeirs, er var mágr Völsungs, ok ætt
Sigars, er hengði Hagbarð. Af Hildinga ætt var kominn Haraldr inn
granrauði, móðurfaðir Hálfdanar svarta. Af Niflunga ætt var Gjúki, af
Öðlinga ætt var Kjárr, af Ylfinga ætt var Eiríkr inn málspaki.
333. Frá ek við holm at heyja
Sem Grani kvað:
334. Döglingr fekk at drekka
Sem Gamli kvað Gnævaðarskáld:
335. Öðlingr drap sér ungum
Sem Jórunn kvað:
336. Bragningr réð í blóði,
Svá kvað Einarr:
337. Beit buðlungs hjörr,
Svá kvað Arnórr:
338. Siklinga venr snekkjur
Sem Þjóðólfr kvað:
339. Svá lauk siklings ævi
Lofða konungi fylgði þat lið, er Lofðar heita. Sem Arnórr kvað:
Völsungr, sem kvað Þorkell hamarskáld:
341. Mér réð senda
Ynglingr, sem kvað Óttarr svarti:
342. Engi varð á jörðu
Yngvi, þat er ok konungs heiti, sem Markús kvað:
343. Eiríks lof verðr öld at heyra,
Skilfingr, sem Valgarðr kvað:
344. Skilfingr helt, þar er skulfu
Sínjór, sem Sighvatr kvað ok fyrr var ritat:
345. Lát auman nú njóta
LXIV. "There was a king named Hálfdan the Old, who was most famous of
all kings. He made a great sacrificial feast at mid-winter, and sacrificed to
this end, that he might live three hundred years in his kingdom; but he received
these answers: he should not live more than the full life of a man, but for
three hundred years there should be no woman and no man in his line who was not
of great repute. He was a great warrior, and went on forays far and wide in the
2. That is, in the lands bordering the Baltic.
There he slew in single combat the king who was called Sigtryggr. Then he took in marriage that woman named Alvig the Wise, daughter of King Eymundr of Hólmgardr: they had eighteen sons, nine born at one birth. These were their names: the first, Thengill, who was called Manna-Thengill; the second, Ræsir; the third, Gramr; the fourth, Gylfi; the fifth, Hilmir; the sixth, Jöfurr; the seventh, Tyggi; the eighth, Skyli or Skúli; the ninth, Harri or Herra. These nine brothers became so famous in foraying that, in all records since, their names are used as titles of rank, even as the name of King or that of Earl. They had no children, and all fell in battle. Thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy:
In his youth stalwart Thengill
2. This word means Prince or King; Manna-Thengill = Prince of Men.
3. All of these words are poetic names for a Prince or King.
Thus sang Markus:
The Ræsir let the Rhine's Sun shimmer
Thus sang Egill:
The Gramr the hood hath lifted
Thus sang Eyvindr:
He played with the land-folk
Gylfi the gladsome
Thus sang Glúmr Geirason:
Hilmir beneath the helmet
Thus sang Óttarr the Swarthy:
Let Jöfurr hear the beginning
As Stúfr sang:
The glory-ardent Tyggi
Thus sang Hallfredr:
From Skyli I am parted:
Thus sang Markús:
I bid the hawklike Danish Harri
"Hálfdan and his wife had nine other sons also; these were Hildir, from whom the Hildings are come; Nefir, from whom the Niflungs sprang; Audi, from whom the Ödlungs are come; Yngvi, from whom the Ynglings are descended; Dagr, from whom come the Döglings; Bragi, from whom the Bragnings are sprung (that is the race of Hálfdan the Munificent); Budli, from whom the Budlungs are come (from the house of the Budlungs Atli and Brynhildr descended); the eighth was Lofdi, who was a great war-king (that host who were called Lofdar followed him; his kindred are called Lofdungs, whence sprang Eylimi, Sigurdr Fáfnisbani's mother's sire); the ninth, Sigarr, whence come the Siklings: that is the house of Siggeirr, who was son-in-law of Völsungr,--and the house of Sigarr, who hanged Hagbardr. From the race of Hildings sprang Haraldr the Red-Bearded, mother's father of Hálfdan the Swarthy. Of the Niflung's house was Gjúki; of the house of Ödlings, Kjárr; of the house of the Ylfings was Eiríkr the Wise in Speech. These also are illustrious royal houses: from Yngvi, the Ynglings are descended; from Skjöldr in Denmark, the Skjöldungs are come; from Völsungr in the land of Franks, those who are called Völsungs. One war-king was named Skelfir; and his house is called the House of Skilfings: his kindred is in the Eastern Region. "These houses which were named but now have been used in skaldship for titles of rank. Even as Einarr sang:
I learned that the Hildings sallied
As Grant sang:
The Dögling to eagle's kindred
As Gamli Gnævadar-Skald sang:
Not long since, the young Ödling
As Jórunn sang:
The Bragning bade the weapons
Thus sang Einarr:
The Budlung's blade sheared,
Thus sang Arnorr:
The Kin of Siklings inureth
As Thjódólfr sang:
Thus the doughty Sikling ended
As Arnórr sang:
Chief, another Skjöldung higher
Völsung, as Thorkell Hamar-Skald sang:
The Kin of Völsungs
Yngling, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:
In the East no mighty Yngling
Yngvi: that too is a king's title, as Markús sang:
The age shall hear the praise of Eiríkr:
Skilfing, as Valgardr sang:
The Skilfing kept a great host
Signor, as Sigvatr sang:
O Norway's gracious Signor,
1. See page 216,
where it is translated slightly differently.
Skáld heita greppar, ok rétt er í skáldskap at kalla svá hvern mann, er vill. Rekkar váru kallaðir þeir menn, er fylgðu Hálfi konungi, ok af þeirra nafni eru rekkar kallaðir hermenn, ok er rétt at kalla svá alla menn. Lofðar heita ok menn í skáldskap, sem fyrr er ritat. Skatnar váru þeir menn kallaðir, er fylgðu þeim konungi, er Skati mildi var kallaðr. Af hans nafni er skati kallaðr hverr, er mildr er. Bragnar heita þeir, er fylgðu Braga konungi inum gamla. Virðar heita þeir menn, er meta mál manna. Fyrðar ok firar ok verar heita landvarnarmenn. Víkingar ok flotnar, þat er skipa herr. Beimar, svá hétu þeir, er fylgðu Beimuna konungi. Gumnar eða gumar heita flokkstjórar, svá sem gumi er kallaðr í brúðför. Gotnar eru kallaðir af heiti konungs þess, er Goti er nefndr, er Gotland er við kent. Hann var kallaðr af nafni Óðins ok dregit af Gauts nafni, því at Gautland eða Gotland var kallat af nafni Óðins, en Svíþjóð af nafni Sviðurs. Þat er ok heiti Óðins. Í þann tíma var kallat allt meginland, þat er hann átti, Reiðgotaland, en eyjar allar Eygotaland. Þat er nú kallat Danaveldi ok Svíaveldi.
Drengir heita ungir menn búlausir, meðan þeir afla sér fjár eða orðstír, þeir fardrengir, er milli landa fara, þeir konungsdrengir, er höfðingjum þjóna, þeir ok drengir, er þjóna ríkum mönnum eða bóndum. Drengir heita vaskir menn ok batnandi. Seggir eru kallaðir ok kníar ok liðar, þat eru fylgðarmenn. Þegnar ok hölðar, svá eru búendr kallaðir. Ljónar heita þeir menn, er ganga of sættir manna. Þeir menn eru, er svá eru kallaðir: kappar, kenpur, garpar, snillingar, hreystimenn, harðmenni, afarmenni, hetjur. Þessi heiti standa hér í mót at kalla mann blauðan, veykan, þjarfan, þirfing, blotamann, skauð, skræfu, skrjáð, vák, vám, læra, sleyma, teyða, dugga, dási, dirokkr, dusilmenni, ölmusa, auvirð, vílmögr.
Örr maðr heitir mildingr, mæringr, skati, þjóðskati, gullskati, mannbaldr,
sælingr, sælkeri, auðkýfingr, ríkmenni, höfðingi. Hér í mót er svá kallat:
hnöggvingr, glöggvingr, mælingr, vesalingr, féníðingr, gjöflati. Heitir spekingr
ráðvaldr. Heitir ok óvitr maðr fífl, afglapi, gassi, ginningr, gaurr, glópr,
snápr, fóli, ærr, óðr, galinn. Snyrtimaðr ofláti, drengr, glæsimaðr, stertimaðr,
prýðimaðr. Heitir hraumi, skrápr, skrokkr, skeiðklofi, flangi, slinni, fjósnir,
LXV. "Skalds are called bards; and in skaldship it is correct to call any man so whom one will. Those men who served King Hálfr were called Champions. and from their name warriors are called champions; and it is correct to call all men so. In skaldship men are called Lofdar also, as is written above. Those men were called Skatnar who served the king named Skati the Munificent: from his name every one who is munificent is called Skati. They who followed Bragi the Old were called Bragnar. They who assess the transactions of men are called taxers. Fyrdar and Firar are they called who defend the land. Vikings and fleet-men form a ship-army. They who followed King Beimuni were called Beimar. Captains of companies are called Grooms, even as he is called who carries home a bride. The Goths are named after that king who was called Goti, from whom Gotland is named: he was so called after Odin's name, derived from the name Gautr for Gautland or Gotland was named after Odin's name, and Sweden from the name of Svidurr, which is also a title of Odin's. At that time all the mainland which he possessed was called Reid-Gotaland, and all the islands, Ey-Gotaland: that is now called the Realm of Danes or of Swedes.2. Rekkar.
3. See page 232.
4. Plural of Skati = lordly, towering.
6, 7. Cf. A.-S. fyrd, firas.
8. Heroes, Men.
"Young men not householders are called Drengs, while they are acquiring wealth and glory: sea-faring Drengs are they who voyage from land to land; King's Drengs are they who serve rulers. They also are Drengs who serve wealthy men or franklins; valiant and ambitious men are called Drengs. Warriors are also called Champions and Troops: these are soldiers. Freeholders are called Thanes and Yeomen; those men who go about reconciling men are called Day-Men. These men are they who are called Champions, Kemps, Men of War, Brave Men, Valiant Men, Hardy Men, Overpowerers, Heroes. Over against these are the following terms: Soft, Weak, Unleavened, Leavenless, Melting One, Sheath, Coward, Skulker, Weakling, Qualmish, Caitiff, Scamp, Vile One, Dog, Lout, Feeble One, Paltry' One, Imbecile, Bungler, Son of Wretchedness."A good man of his hands is called Munificent, Illustrious, Towerer, Mighty Towerer, Towering Gold-Giver, Prince of Men, Wealthy One, Prosperous, Heaper-Up of Riches, Mighty Man, Chieftain. In contrast to these are they who are called Niggard, Miser, Calculator, Wretched One, Wealth-Hiding, Gift-Tardy One. A man wise in Counsel is called Wielder of Counsel. A witless man is called Clown, Oaf, Gander, Dupe, Boor, Idiot, Dolt, Fool, Madman, Maniac, Moon-Struck. One who thinks much of dress is called Gaudy, Dreng, Glittering One, Careful of Attire, Tricked-Out. A noisy fellow is called Shark-Skin, Braggart, Sheath-Cleaner, Fawner, Brawler, Good-for-Naught, Worthless One.
Common-folk are called Country-folk or People. A thrall is called Kept-Man, Serf, Laborer, Servant.
Maðr heitir einn hverr,
LXVI. "Each one singly is called man; 't is twain if they are two;
three are a thorp; four are a group; a band is five men; if there are six, it is
a squad; seven complete a crew; eight men make a panel; nine are 'good fellows;'
ten are a gang; eleven form an embassy; it is a dozen if twelve go together;
thirteen. are a crowd; fourteen are an expedition; it is a gathering, when
fifteen meet; sixteen make a garrison; seventeen are a congregation; to him who
meets eighteen, they seem enemies enough. He who has nineteen men has a company;
twenty men are a posse; thirty are a squadron; forty, a community; fifty are a
shire; sixty are an assembly; seventy are a line; eighty are a people; one
hundred is a host.
1. Sörvar, plural of sörvi, a lady's necklace.
|83. Viðkenningar ok sannkenningar.|
Enn eru þau heiti, er menn láta ganga fyrir nöfn manna. Þat köllum vér viðkenningar eða sannkenningar eða fornöfn. Þat eru viðkenningar at nefna annan hlut réttu nafni ok kalla þann, er hann vill nefna, eiganda eða svá at kalla hann þess, er hann nefndi, föður eða afa. Ái er inn þriði. Heitir ok sonr ok arfi, arfuni, barn, jóð ok mögr, erfingi. Heitir ok bróðir, blóði, barmi, hlýri, lifri. Heitir ok niðr, nefi, áttungr, konr, kundr, frændi, kynstafr, niðjungr, ættstuðill, ættbarmr, kynkvísl, ættbogi, afkvæmi, afspringr, höfuðbaðmr, ofsköft. Heita ok mágar, sifjungar, hleytamenn. Heitir ok vinr ok ráðunautr, ráðgjafi, máli, rúni, spjalli, alda þófti, einkili, sessi, sessunautr. Þófti er hálfrýmisfélagi. Heitir ok óvinr, dólgr, andskoti, fjandi, sökkvi, skaðamaðr, banamaðr, þröngvir, sökkvir, ósvífruðr. Þessi heiti köllum vér viðkenningar ok svá, þótt maðr sé kenndr við bæ sinn eða skip sitt, þat er nafn á, eða eign sína, þá er einkarnafn er gefit. Þetta köllum vér sannkenningar, at kalla menn spekimann, ætlunarmann, orðspeking, ráðsnilling, auðmilding, óslækinn, gæimann, glæsimann. Þetta eru fornöfn.
LXVII. "Beside these there are those terms which men prefix to the names of men: we call such terms epithets of possession, or true terms, or surnames. It is an epithet of possession when one names a thing by its true name, and calls him whom one desires to periphrase Owner of that thing; or Father or Grandfather of that which was named; Grandsire is a third epithet. Moreover, a son is also called Heir, Heritor, Bairn, Child and Boy, Inheritor. A blood-kinsman is called Brother, Twin, Germane, Consanguine; a relation is also called Nephew, Kinsman, Kin, Kith, Friend, Kin-Stave, Descendant, Family-Prop, Family-Stem, Kin-Branch, Family-Bough, Offshoot, Offspring, Head-Tree, Scion. Kinsmen by marriage are further called Sib-folk, Minglers of Blood. A friend is called Counsel-Mate, Counsel-Giver, Adviser, Secret-Sharer, Converser, Bench-Fellow, Fondling, Seat-Mate; bench-fellow also means Cabin-Mate. A foe is called Adversary, Shooter Against One, Hater, Attacker, Scather, Slayer, Hard Presser, Pursuer, Overbearer.
"These terms we call epithets of possession; and so also if a man is known by his dwelling or his ship, which has a name of its own, or by his estate, when a name of its own is given to it.
"This we call true terms: to call a man Wise Man, Man of Thought, Wise in Speech, Sage in Counsel, Wealth Munificent, Not Slack, Endower, Illustrious One; these are surnames.
2. Vidhenningar: literally, by-periphrases.
Þessi eru kvenna heiti ókennd í skáldskap: Víf ok brúðr ok fljóð heita þær konr, er manni eru gefnar. Sprund ok svanni heita þær konr, er mjök fara með dramb ok skart. Snótir heita þær, er orðnæfrar eru. Drósir heita þær, er kyrrlátar eru, svarri ok svarkr þær, er mikillátar eru. Ristill er kölluð sú kona, er sköruglynd er. Rýgr heitir sú, er ríkust er. Feima er sú kölluð, er ófröm er, svá sem ungar meyjar eða þær konur, er ódjarfar eru. Sæta heitir sú kona, er búandi hennar er af landi farinn.
Hæll er sá kona kölluð, er búandi hennar er veginn. Ekkja heitir sú, er búandi hennar varð sóttdauðr. Mær heitir fyrst hver, en kerlingar er gamlar eru. Eru enn þau kvenna heiti, er til lastmælis eru, ok má þau finna í kvæðum, þótt þat sé eigi ritat. Þær konur heita eljur, er einn mann eigu. Snör heitir sonarkván. Sværa heitir vers móðir. Heitir ok móðir, amma, þriðja edda. Eiða heitir móðir. Heitir ok dóttir ok barn, jóð. Heitir ok systir, dís, jóðdís. Kona er ok kölluð beðja, mála, rúna búanda síns, ok er þat viðrkenning.
LXVIII. "These are simple terms for women in skaldship: Wife and Bride and Matron are those women who are given to a man. Those who walk in pomp and fine array are called Dame and Lady. They who are witty of speech are called Women of Wisdom. They who are gentle are called Girls; they who are of high countenance are called Proud and Haughty Ones. She who is of noble mind is called Gentlewoman; she who is richest, Lady. She who is bashful, as young -maids are, or those women who are modest, is called Lass. The woman whose husband has departed from the land is called Stay-at-Home.
That woman whose husband is slain is called War-Widow: Widow is the term for her whose husband has died of sickness. Maid means, first, every woman, and then carlines that are old. Then there are those terms for women which are libellous: one may find them in songs, though they be not ill writing. Those women who have one husband in common are called Concubines. A son's wife is termed Daughter-in-law; the husband's mother is called Mother-in-law. A woman may also be called Mother, Grand mother, Great-Grandmother; a Mother is called Dam. Woman is further called Daughter, Bairn, and Child. She is also called Sister, Lady, and Maiden. Woman is also called Bed-Fellow, Speech-Mate, and Secret-Sharer of her husband; and that is an epithet of possession.1. Snót (plural, Snótir) = a gentlewoman. Cf. Snotr = wise. A popular etymology.
2. Literally = Plowshare. (See Cl.-Vig, p. 498, s.v. ristill)
|85. Höfuð ok hlutar þess.|
Höfuð heitir á manni. Þat skal svá kenna at kalla erfiði háls eða byrði, land hjálms ok hattar ok heila, hárs ok brúna, svarðar, eyrna, augna, munns. Heimdallar sverð, ok er rétt at nefna hvert sverðsheiti, er vill, ok kenna við eitt hvert nafn Heimdallar. Höfuð heitir ókennt hauss, hjarni, kjannr, kollr. Augu heita sjón ok lit eða viðrlit, örmjót. Þau má svá kenna at kalla sól eða tungl, skjöldu ok gler eða gimsteina eða stein brá eða brúna, hvarma eða ennis. Eyru heita hlustir ok heyrn. Þau skal svá kenna at kalla land eða jarðarheitum nökkurum eða munn eða rás eða sjón eða augu heyrnarinnar, ef nýgervingar eru. Munn skal svá kenna at kalla land eða hús tungu eða tanna, orða eða góma, varra eða þvílíkt, ok ef nýgervingar eru, þá kalla menn munninn skip, en varrarnar borðit, tunga ræðit eða stýrit. Tennr eru stundum kallaðar grjót eða sker orða, munnr eða tunga. Tunga er oft kölluð sverð máls eða munns. Skegg heitir barð, grön eða kanpar, er stendr á vörrum. Hár heitir lá, haddr þat, er konr hafa. Skoft heitir hár. Hár er svá kennt at kalla skóg eða viðarheiti nökkuru, kenna til hauss eða hjarna eða höfuðs, en skegg kenna við höku eða kinnr eða kverkr.
LXIX. "A man's head is termed thus: [thus should it he periphrased: call it Toil or Burden of the Neck; Land of the Helm, of the Hood, and of the Brain, of the Hair and Brows, of the Scalp, of Ears, Eves, and Mouth; Sword of Heimdallr, arid it is correct to name any term for sword which one desires; and to periphrase it in terms of every one of the names of Heimdallr] the Head, in simple terms, is called Skull, Brain, Temple, Crown. The eyes are termed Vision or Glance, and Regard, Swift-Appraising; [they may he so periphrased as to call them Sun or Moon, Shields and Glass or Jewels or Stones of the Eyelids, of the Brows, the Lashes, or the Forehead]. The ears are called Listeners or Hearing; [one should periphrase them by calling them Land, or any earth-name, or Mouth, or Canal, or Vision, or Eyes of Hearing, if the metaphors employed are new-coined. The mouth one should periphrase by calling it Land or House of the Tongue or of the Teeth, of Words or of the Palate, of the Lips, or the like; and if the metaphors used are not traditional, then men may call the mouth Ship, and the lips the Planks, and the tongue Oar or Tiller of the Ship. The teeth are sometimes called Gravel or Rocks of Words, of the Mouth, or of the Tongue. The tongue is often called Sword of Speech or of the Mouth]. The hair which stands on the lips is called Beard, Moustache, or Whiskers. Hair is called Nap; the hair of women is called Tresses. Hair is termed Locks. [One may periphrase hair by calling it Forest, or by some tree-name; one may periphrase it in terms of the skull or brain or head; and the beard in terms of chin or cheeks or throat.]1. Dís; properly = sister. For discussion of these words, see under dís in Cl.-Vig., p. 100.
2. This and other pages in brackets are probably spurious.
3. These are the literal meanings; the meanings, in general usage, coincide: both words signify the inner parts of the ear (Cl.-Vig.), [hlustir ok heyrn]
|86. Hjarta, brjóst, hugr.|
Hjarta heitir negg. Þat skal svá kenna, kalla korn eða stein eða epli eða hnot eða mýl eða líkt ok kenna við brjóst eða hug, kalla má ok hús eða jörð eða berg hugarins. Brjóst skal svá kenna at kalla hús eða garð eða skip hjarta, anda eða lifrar, eljunar land, hugar ok minnis. Hugr heitir sefi ok sjafni, ást, elskhugi, vili, munr. Huginn skal svá kenna at kalla vind trollkvenna, ok rétt at nefna til hverja, er vill, ok svá at nefna jötnana, eða kenna þá til konu eða móður eða dóttur þess. Hugr heitir ok geð, þokki, eljun, þrekr, nenning, minni, vit, skap, lund, tryggð. Heitir ok hugr reiði, fjandskapr, fár, grimmð, böl, harmr, tregi, óskap, grellskap, lausung, ótryggð, geðleysi, þunngeði, gessni, harðgeði, óðværi.
|LXX. The heart is called grain-sheaf; [one should periphrase it by terming it Grain or Stone or Apple or Nut or Ball, or the like, in figures of the breast or of feeling. More over, it may be called House or Earth or Mount of Feeling. One should periphrase the breast by calling it House or Garth or Ship of the Heart, of Breath, or of the Liver; Land of Energy, of Feeling, and of Memory]. Feeling is affection and emotion, love, passion, desire, love-longing. [Passion should be periphrased by calling it Wind of Troll Women; also it is correct to name what one soever is desired, and to name giants, periphrasing giantesses as Woman or Mother or Daughter of the Giants.] Feeling is also called mood, liking, eagerness, courage, activity, memory, understanding, temper, humor, good faith. It is also wrath, enmity, mischievousness, grimness, balefulness, grief, sorrow, ill-will, spite, falseness, faithlessness, fickleness, light-mindedness, baseness, hasty temper, violence.|
|87. Hönd, fótr.|
Hönd má kalla mund, arm, lám, hramm. Á hendi heitir ölnbogi, armleggr, úlfliðr, liðr, fingr, greip, hreifi, nagl, gómr, jaðarr, kvikva. Hönd má kalla jörð vápna eða hlífa, við axlar ok ermar, lófa ok hreifa, gullhringa jörð ok vals ok hauks ok allra hans heita, ok í nýgervingum fót axlar, bognauð. Fætr má kalla tré ilja, rista, leista eða þvílíkt, renniflein brautar eða göngu, fets. Má kalla fótinn tré eða stoð þessa. Við skíð ok skúa ok brækr eru fætr kenndir. Á fæti heitir lær, kné, kálfi, bein, leggr, rist, jarki, il, tá. Við þetta allt má fótinn kenna ok kalla hann tré, ok kallat er sigla ok rá fótrinn, ok kenna við þessa hluti.
LXXI. "The hand and fore-arm may be called hand, arm, paw, palm. Parts
of the arm are called elbow, upper arm, wolf's joint, finger, grip,
wrist, nail, finger-tip, hand-edge, quick. [One may term the hand Earth
of Weapons or of Defensive Armor; and together with shoulder and arm,
the hollow of the hand and the wrist, it may, be called Earth of Gold
Rings, of the Falcon and the Hawk, and of all the equivalents thereof;
and in new-coined metaphors, Leg of the Shoulder-joint, and Force of the
Bow. The legs may be called Tree of the Soles, of the Insteps, of the
Ankles, or the like; Running Shaft of the Road or of the Way or the
Pace; one may call the leg Tree or Post of all these. The legs are
periphrased in metaphors of snowshoes, shoes, and breeks.] The parts of
the legs are called thigh, knee, calf, lower leg, upper leg, instep,
arch, sole, toe; [one may periphrase the leg in terms of all these,
calling it Tree, Mast, and Yard thereof; and in metaphors of them all].
[1. This is the wrist-joint.]
|88. Mál ok vit.|
Mál heitir ok orð ok orðtak ok orðsnilli, tala, saga, senna, þræta, söngr, galdr, kveðandi, skjal, bifa, hjaldr, hjal, skvál, glaumr, þjarka, gyss, þraft, skálp, hól, skraf, dælska, ljóðæska, hégómi, afgelja. Heitir ok rödd, hljómr, rómr, ómun, þytr, göll, gnýr, glymr, þrymr, rymr, brak, svipr, svipun, gangr. Vit heitir speki, ráð, skilning, minni, ætlun, hyggjandi, tölvísi, langsæi, bragðvísi, orðspeki, skörungskapr. Heitir undirhyggja, vélræði, fláræði, brigðræði.
LXXII. "Speech is called words, language,
eloquence, talk, tale, gibing, controversy, song, spell, recital, idle
talk, babbling, din, chatter, squalling, merry noise, wrangling,
mocking, quarrelling, wish-wash, boasting, tittle-tattle, nonsense,
idiom, vanity, gabbling. It is also termed voice, sound, resonance,
articulation, wailing, shriek, dash, crash, alarm, roaring, creaking,
swoop, swooping, outburst.
LXXIII. "Understanding is called wisdom, counsel, discernment, memory, speculation, intelligence, arithmetic, far sight, craft, word-wit, preëminence. It is called subtlety, wiliness, falsehood, fickleness.
1. That is, prophecy.
|89. At yrkja fólgit eða ofljóst.|
|Læti er tvennt. Læti heitir rödd, læti heitir æði, ok æði er ok ólund. Reiði er ok tvíkennt. Reiði heitir þat, er maðr er í illum hug, reiði heitir ok fargervi skips eða hross. Far er ok tvíkennt. Fár er reiði, far er skip. Þvílík orðtök hafa menn mjök til þess at yrkja fólgit, ok er þat kallat mjök ofljóst. Lið kalla menn þat á manni, er leggir mætast, lið heitir skip, lið heitir mannfólk, lið er ok þat kallat, er maðr veitir öðrum liðsinni, líð heitir öl. Hlið heitir á garði, ok hlið kalla menn uxa, en hlíð er brekka. Þessar greinir má setja svá í skáldskap, at gera ofljóst, at vant er at skilja, ef aðra skal hafa greinina en áðr þykki til horfa in fyrri vísuorð. Slíkt sama eru ok önnur mörg nöfn, þau er saman eigu heitit margir hlutir.||
LXXIV. "Expression is of two kinds: that which
is called voice, and that which is called manners; manners is also
temper. Reiði also has double meaning: reiði is the ill humor of a
man, and reiði is also the rigging of a ship or the driving-gear of a
horse. Fár also has double meaning: fár signifies wrath, and far
signifies a ship.
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