PROLOGUE AND GYLFAGINNING

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R. Anderson Translation:[GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
Also see the extended version of the
Prologue from Codex Wormianus

The following text has been read by countless people for centuries. Often used as teachings, it also can be used as guidance for those suffering or in recovery such as residents of a place like Mornside Recovery. The words below can have a powerful impact not only for those in recovery but for the volunteers and doctors Morningside Recovery employs as well. One does not need to experience a time in their lives where they need a Morningside Recovery treatment facility to turn to such inspiring words as the Edda.
 
Snorra Edda The Prose Edda
 
SNORRI STURLUSON
13th Century
Translated by
ARTHUR GILCHRIST BRODEUR
 1916
Formali Prologue
1. Almáttigr guð skapaði í upphafi himin ok jörð ok alla þá hluti, er þeim fylgja, og síðast menn tvá, er ættir eru frá komnar, Adam ok Evu, ok fjölgaðist þeira kynslóð ok dreifðist um heim allan. En er fram liðu stundir, þá ójafnaðist mannfólkit. Váru sumir góðir ok rétttrúaðir, en miklu fleiri snerust eftir girnðum heimsins ok órækðu guðs boðorð, ok fyrir því drekkði guð heiminum í sjóvargangi ok öllum kykvendum heimsins nema þeim, er í örkinni váru með Nóa.

Eftir Nóaflóð lifðu átta menn, þeir er heiminn byggðu, ok kómu frá þeim ættir, ok varð enn sem fyrr, at þá er fjölmenntist ok byggðist veröldin, þá var þat allr fjölði mannfólksins, er elskaði ágirni fjár ok metnaðar, en afrækðust guðs hlýðni, ok svá mikit gerðist at því, at þeir vildu eigi nefna guð. En hverr myndi þá frá segja sonum þeira frá guðs stórmerkjum? Svá kom, at þeir týndu guðs nafni, ok víðast um veröldina fannst eigi sá maðr, er deili kunni á skapara sínum. En eigi at síðr veitti guð þeim jarðligar giftir, fé ok sælu, er þeir skyldu við vera í heiminum.

Miðlaði hann ok spekðina, svá at þeir skilðu alla jarðliga hluti ok allar greinar, þær er sjá mátti loftsins ok jarðarinnar. Þat hugsuðu þeir ok undruðust, hví þat myndi gegna, er jörðin ok dýrin ok fuglarnir höfðu saman eðli í sumum hlutum ok þó ólík at hætti.

Þat var eitt eðli, að jörðin var grafin í hám fjalltindum ok spratt þar vatn upp, ok þurfti þar eigi lengra at grafa til vatns en í djúpum dölum. Svá er ok dýr ok fuglar, at jafnlangt er til blóðs í höfði ok fótum. Önnur náttúra er sú jarðar, at á hverju ári vex á jörðinni gras ok blóm, ok á sama ári fellr þat allt ok fölnar, svá ok dýr ok fuglar, at vex hár ok fjaðrar ok fellr af á hverju ári. Þat er in þriðja náttúra jarðar, þá er hon er opnuð ok grafin, þá grær gras á þeiri moldu, er efst er á jörðinni. Björg ok steina þýddu þeir móti tönnum ok beinum kvikenda. Af þessu skilðu þeir svá, at jörðunni væri kvik ok hefði líf með nökkurum hætti, ok vissu þeir, at hon furðuliga gömul at aldartali ok máttug í eðli. Hon fæddi öll kykvendi, ok hon eignaðist allt þat, er dó. Fyrir þá sök gáfu þeir henni nafn ok tölðu ætt sína til hennar.

Þat sama spurðu þeir af gömlum frændum sínum, at síðan er talið váru mörg hundruð vetra, þá var in sama jörð ok sól ok himintungl, en gangr himintunglanna var ójafn. Áttu sum lengra gang, en sum skemmra. Af þvílíkum hlutum grunaði þá, at nökkurr myndi vera stjórnari himintunglanna, sá er stilla myndi gang þeira at vilja sínum, ok myndi sá vera ríkr mjök ok máttigr. Ok þess væntu þeir, ef hann réði fyrir höfuðskepnunum, at hann myndi ok fyrr verit hafa en himintunglin, ok þat sá þeir, ef hann ræðr gangi himintunglanna, at hann myndi ráða skini sólar ok dögg loftsins ok ávexti jarðarinnar, er því fylgir, ok slíkt sama vindinum loftsins ok þar með stormi sævarins. Þá vissu þeir eigi, hvar ríki hans var, en því trúðu þeir, at hann réð öllum hlutum á jörðu ok í lofti, himins ok himintunglum, sævarins ok veðranna.

En til þess at heldr mætti frá segja eða í minni festa, þá gáfu þeir nöfn með sjálfum sér öllum hlutum, ok hefir þessi átrúnaðr á marga lund breytzt, svá sem þjóðirnar skiptust ok tungurnar greindust.

En alla hluti skilðu þeir jarðligri skilningu, því at þeim var eigi gefin andlig spekðin. Svá skilðu þeir, at allir hlutir væri smíðaðir af nökkuru efni.
In the beginning almighty God created heaven and earth and everything that goes with them and, last of all, two human beings, Adam and Eve, from whom have come families. Their progeny multiplied and spread over all the world. As time went on, however, inequalities sprang up amongst peoples - some were good and righteous but by far the greater number, disregarding God's commandments, turned to the lusts of the world. For this reason God drowned the world and all creatures living in it - with the exception of those who were with Noah in the ark.
Eight persons survived Noah's flood and these peopled the world and founded families. As the population of the world increased, however, and a larger area became inhabited, the same thing happened again; the great majority of mankind, loving the pursuit of money and power, left off paying homage to God. This grew to such a pitch that they boycotted any reference to God, and then how could anyone tell their sons about the marvels connected with Him In the end they lost the very name of God and there was not to be found in all the world a man who knew his Maker.
Notwithstanding, God granted them earthly gifts, worldly wealth and prosperity, and He also bestowed on them wisdom so that they understood all earthly things and all the ways in which earth and sky were different from each other. They observed that in many respects the earth and birds and beasts have the same nature and yet exhibit different behavior, and they wondered what this signified.
For instance, one could dig down into the earth on a mountain peak no deeper than one would in a low lying valley and yet strike water; in the same way, in both birds and beasts, the blood lies as near to the surface of the skin of the head as of the foot. Another characteristic of the earth is that every year grass and flowers grow on it and that same year wither and die; similarly fur and feathers grow and die every year on beasts and birds. There is a third thing about the earth: when its surface is broken into and dug up, grass grows on the topsoil. Mountains and boulders they associated with the teeth and bones of living creatures, and so they looked on earth as in some way a living being with a life of its own. They knew it was inconceivably ancient as years go, and by nature, powerful; it gave birth to all things and owned all that died, and for that reason they gave it a name and reckoned their descent from it.
They also learned from their ancestors that the same earth and sun and stars had been in existence for many centuries, but that the procession of the stars was unequal; some had a long journey, others a short one. From things like this they guessed that there must be someone who ruled the stars, who, if he desired, could put an end to their procession, and that he must be very powerful and strong. They reckoned too, that, if he controlled the primal elements, he must have existed before the heavenly bodies; and they realized that, if he guided these, he must rule over the shining of the sun and the dew-fall and the growth of plants resultant on these, and the winds of the air and storms of the sea as well.
They did not know where his kingdom was, but they believed that he ruled everything on earth and in the sky, heaven and the stars, the ocean and all weathers. In order that this might be related and kept in mind, they gave their own names to everything, but with the migrations of peoples and multiplication of languages this belief has changed in many ways.
They understood everything in a material sense, however, since they had not been given spiritual understanding, and so they thought that everything had been made from some substance.

2. Veröldin var greind í þrjár hálfur, frá suðri í vestr ok inn at Miðjarðarsjó; sá hlutr var kallaðr Affríká. Inn syðri hlutr þeirar deilðar er heitr, svá at þar brennr, af sólu. Annarr hlutr frá vestri til norðrs ok inn til hafsins; er sá kallaðr Evrópá eða Énéá. Inn nyrðri hluti er þar svá kaldr, at eigi vex gras á ok eigi má byggja. Frá norðri ok um austrhálfur allt til suðrs, þat er kallat Asíá. Í þeim hluta veraldar er öll fegrð ok prýði ok eignir jarðar-ávaxtar, gull ok gimsteinar. Þar er ok mið veröldin. Ok svá sem þar er jörðin fegri ok betri öllum kostum en í öðrum stöðum, svá var ok mannfólkit þar mest tignat af öllum giftunum, spekinni ok aflinu, fegrðinni ok alls konar kunnustu.

2. The world was divided into three parts. From south to west up to the Mediterranean was the part known as Africa, and the southern portion of this is so hot that everything there is burned by the sun. The second part, running from west to north up to the ocean, is called Europe or Énéa, and the northern half of this is so cold that no grass grows there and it is uninhabited. From north to east and down to the south is Asia, and these regions of the world have great beauty and magnificence; the earth yields special products like gold and precious stones. The center of the world is there also, and just as the earth there is more fertile and in every way superior to that found elsewhere, so the human beings living there were endowed beyond their fellows with all manner of gifts - wisdom, strength, beauty and every kind of ability.
3. Nær miðri veröldinni var gert þat hús ok herbergi, er ágætast hefir verit, er kallat Trjóa, þar sem vér köllum Tyrkland. Þessi staðr var miklu meiri gerr en aðrir ok með meira hagleik á marga lund með kostnaði ok föngum, en þar váru til. Þar váru tólf konungdómar ok einn yfirkonungr, ok lágu mörg þjóðlönd til hvers konungdómsins. Þar váru í borginni tólf höfðingjar. Þessir höfðingjar hafa verit um fram aðra menn, þá er verit hafa í veröldu, um alla manndómliga hluti.
Einn konungr í Trjóu er nefndr Múnón eða Mennón. Hann átti dóttur höfuðkonungsins Príamí. Sú hét Tróan. Þau áttu son. Hann hét Trór, er vér köllum Þór. Hann var at uppfæðslu í Trakíá með hertoga þeim, er nefndr er Lóríkús, en er hann var tíu vetra, þá tók hann við vápnum föður síns. Svá var hann fagr álitum, er hann kom með öðrum mönnum, sem þá er fílsbein er grafit í eik. Hár hans er fegra en gull. Þá er hann var tólf vetra, þá hafði hann fullt afl. Þá lyfti hann af jörðu tíu bjarnarstökkum öllum senn, ok þá drap hann Lóríkúm hertoga, fóstra sinn, ok konu hans, Lórá eða Glórá, ok eignaði sér ríkit Trakíá. Þat köllum vér Þrúðheim. Þá fór hann víða um lönd ok kannaði allar heimshálfur ok sigraði einn saman alla berserki ok alla risa ok einn inn mesta dreka ok mörg dýr. Í norðrhálfu heims fann hann spákonu þá, er Síbíl hét, er vér köllum Sif, ok fekk hennar. Engi kann at segja ætt Sifjar. Hon var allra kvinna fegrst. Hár hennar var sem gull. Þeira sonr var Lóriði, er líkr var feðr sínum. Hans sonr var Einriði, hans sonr Vingeþórr, hans sonr Vingener, hans sonr Móda, hans sonr Magi, hans sonr Seskef, hans sonr Beðvig, hans sonr Athra, er vér köllum Annan, hans sonr Ítrmann, hans sonr Heremóð, hans sonr Skjaldun, er vér köllum Skjöld, hans Bjáf, er köllum Bjár, hans sonr Ját, hans sonr Guðólfr, hans sonr Finn, hans sonr Fríallaf, er vér köllum Friðleif. Hann átti þann son, er nefndr er Vóden. Þann köllum vér Óðin. Hann var ágætr maðr af speki ok allri atgervi. Kona hans hét Frígíða, er vér köllum Frigg.
3. Near the center of the world where what we call Turkey lies, was built the most famous of all palaces and halls - Troy by name. That town was built on a much larger scale than others then in existence and in many ways with greater skill, so lavishly was it equipped. There were twelve kingdoms with one over-king, and each kingdom contained many peoples. In the citadel were twelve chieftains and these excelled other men then living in every human fashion.
One of the kings was called Múnón or Mennón. He married a daughter of the chief king Priam who was called Tróáin, and they had a son named Trór - we call him Thór. He was brought up in Thrace by a duke called Loricus and, when he was ten years old, he received his father's arms. When he took his place amongst other men he was as beautiful to look at as ivory inlaid in oak; his hair was lovelier than gold. At twelve years old he had come to his full strength and then he lifted ten bear pelts from the ground at once and killed his foster father Loricus with his wife Lóri or Glóri, and took possession of the realm of Thrace - we call that Thrúdheim.
After that he traveled far and wide exploring all the regions of the world and by himself overcoming all the berserks and giants and an enormous dragon and many wild beasts. In the northern part of the world he met with and married a prophetess called Sibyl whom we call Sif . I do not know Sif's genealogy but she was a most beautiful woman with hair like gold. Lóridi, who resembled his father, was their son. Lóridi's son was Einridi, his son Vingethór, his son Vingener, his son Módi, his son Magi, his son Seskef, his son Bedvig, his son Athra, whom we call Annar, his son Ítrmann, his son Heremód, his son Skjaldun, whom we call Skjöld, his son Bíaf whom we call Bjár, his son Ját, his son Gudólf, his son Finn, his son Fríallaf whom we call Fridleif; he had a son named Vóden whom we call Odin; he was a man famed for his wisdom and every kind of accomplishment. His wife was called Frígída, whom we call Frigg.
4. Óðinn hafði spádóm ok svá kona hans, ok af þeim vísendum fann hann þat, at nafn hans myndi uppi vera haft í norðrhálfu heims ok tignat um fram alla konunga. Fyrir þá sök fýstist hann at byrja ferð sína af Tyrklandi ok hafði með sér mikinn fjölða liðs, unga menn ok gamla, karla ok konur, ok höfðu með sér marga gersamliga hluti. En hvar sem þeir fóru yfir lönd, þá var ágæti mikit frá þeim sagt, svá at þeir þóttu líkari goðum en mönnum. Ok þeir gefa eigi stað ferðinni, fyrr en þeir koma norðr í þat land, er nú er kallat Saxland. Þar dvalðist Óðinn langar hríðir ok eignaðist víða þat land. Þar setti Óðinn til landsgæzlu þrjá sonu sína. Er einn nefndr Vegdeg. Var hann ríkr konungr ok réð fyrir Austr-Saxlandi. Hans sonr var Vitrgils. Hans synir váru þeir Vitta, faðir Heingests, ok Sigarr, faðir Svebdeg, er vér köllum Svipdag. Annarr sonr Óðins hét Baldeg, er vér köllum Baldr. Hann átti þat land, er nú heitir Vestfál. Hans sonr var Brandr, hans sonr Frjóðigar, er vér köllum Fróða. Hans sonr var Freóvin, hans sonr Uvigg, hans sonr Gevis, er vér köllum Gave. Inn þriði sonr Óðins er nefndr Sigi, hans sonr Rerir. Þeir langfeðr réðu þar fyrir, er nú er kallat Frakland, ok er þaðan sú ætt komin, er kölluð er Völsungar. Frá öllum þeim eru stórar ættir komnar ok margar.
Þá byrjaði Óðinn ferð sína norðr ok kom í þat land, er þeir kölluðu Reiðgotaland, ok eignaðist í því landi allt þat, er hann vildi. Hann setti þar til landa son sinn, er Skjöldr hét. Hans sonr var Friðleifr. Þaðan er sú ætt komin, er Skjöldungar heita. Þat eru Danakonungar, ok þat heitir Jótland, er þá var kallat Reiðgotaland.
4. Odin, and also his wife, had the gift of prophecy, and by means of this magic art he discovered that his name would be famous in the northern part of the world and honored above that of all kings. For this reason he decided to set out on a journey from Turkey. He was accompanied by a great host of old and young, men and women, and they had with them many valuables. Through whatever lands they went such glorious exploits were related of them that they were looked on as gods rather than men. They did not halt on their journey until they came to the north of the country now called Germany.
There Ódin lived for a long time taking possession of much of the land and appointing three of his sons to defend it. One was called Vegdeg; he was a powerful king and ruled over East Germany; his son was Vitrgils; his sons were Vitta, father of Heingest, and Sigar, father of Svebdag, whom we call Svipdag. Odin's second son was called Beldeg, whom we call Baldr; he had the country now called Westphalia; his son was Brand; his son, Frjódigar, whom we call Fródi; his son, Freóvin; his son, Wigg; his son, Gevis, whom we call Gave. Odin's third son was called Sigi; his son, Rerir; this pair ruled over what is now called France, and the family known as Völsungar come from there. Great and numerous kindreds have come from all of them. Then Odin set off on his journey north and coming to the land called Reidgotaland took possession of everything he wanted in that country. He appointed his son Skjöld to govern there; his son was Fridleif; from thence has come the family known as Skjöldungar; they are kings of Denmark and what was then called Reidgotaland is now named Judand.
5. Eftir þat fór hann norðr, þar sem nú heitir Svíþjóð. Þar var sá konungr, er Gylfi er nefndr. En er hann spyrr til ferðar þeira Ásíamanna, er er æsir váru kallaðir, fór hann í móti þeim ok bauð, at Óðinn skyldi slíkt vald hafa í hans ríki, sem hann vildi sjálfr. Ok sá tími fylgði ferð þeira, at hvar sem þeir dvölðust í löndum, þá var þar ár ok friðr, ok trúðu allir, at þeir væri þess ráðandi, því at þat sá ríkismenn, at þeir váru ólíkir öðrum mönnum, þeim er þeir höfðu sét, at fegrð ok svá at viti. Þar þótti Óðni fagrir vellir ok landskostir góðir ok kaus sér þar borgstað, er nú heita Sigtún. Skipaði hann þar höfðingjum ok í þá líking, sem verit hafði í Trója, setti tólf höfuðmenn í staðinum at dæma landslög, ok svá skipaði hann réttum öllum sem fyrr hafði verit í Trója ok Tyrkir váru vanir.
Eftir þat fór hann norðr, þar til er sjár tók við honum, sá er þeir hugðu, at lægi um öll lönd, ok setti þar son sinn til þess ríkis, er nú heitir Nóregr. Sá er Sæmingr kallaðr, ok telja þar Nóregskonungar sínar ættir til hans ok svá jarlar ok aðrir ríkismenn, svá sem segir í Háleygjatali. En Óðinn hafði með sér þann son sinn, er Yngvi er nefndr, er konungr var í Svíþjóðu eftir hann, ok eru frá honum komnar þær ættir, er Ynglingar eru kallaðir.
Þeir æsir tóku sér kvánföng þar innan lands, en sumir sonum sínum, ok urðu þessar ættir fjölmennar, at umb Saxland ok allt þaðan of norðrhálfur dreifðist svá, at þeira tunga, Ásíamanna, var eigin tunga um öll þessi lönd. Ok þat þykkjast menn skynja mega af því, at rituð eru langfeðganöfn þeira, at þau nöfn hafa fylgt þessi tungu ok þeir æsir hafa haft tunguna norðr hingat í heim, í Nóreg ok í Svíþjóð, í Danmörk ok í Saxland, ok í Englandi eru forn landsheiti eða staðaheiti, þau er skilja má, at af annarri tungu eru gefin en þessi.
5. Thereafter Odin went north to what is now called Sweden. There was a king there called Gylfi and, when he heard of the expedition of the men of Asia, as the Æsir were called, he went to meet them and offered Odin as much authority over his kingdom as he himself desired. Their travels were attended by such prosperity that, wherever they stayed in a country, that region enjoyed good harvests and peace, and everyone believed that they caused this, since the native inhabitants had never seen any other people like them for good looks and intelligence.
The plains and natural resources of life in Sweden struck Odin as being favorable and he chose there for himself a townsite now called Sigtuna. There he appointed chieftains after the pattern of Troy, establishing twelve rulers to administer the laws of the land, and he drew up a code of law like that which had held in Troy and to which the Trojans had been accustomed.
After that, he traveled north until he reached the sea, which they thought encircled the whole world, and placed his son over the kingdom now called Norway. Their son was called Saeming and, as it says in the Háleygjatal, together with the earls and other rulers the kings of Norway trace their genealogies back to him.
Odin kept by him the son called Yngvi, who was king of Sweden after him, and from him have come the families known as Ynglingar. The Æsir and some of their sons married with the women of the lands they settled, and their families became so numerous in Germany and thence over the north that their language, that of the men of Asia, became the language proper to all these countries. From the fact that their genealogies are written down, men suppose that these names came along with this language, and that it was brought here to the north of the world, to Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Germany, by the Æsir. In England, however, there are ancient district and place names which must be understood as deriving from a different language.
Gylfaginning: The Deluding of Gylfi
1. Frá Gylfa konungi ok Gefjuni. CHAPTER 1

Gylfi konungr réð þar löndum er nú heitir Svíþjóð. Frá honum er þat sagt at hann gaf einni farandi konu at launum skemmtunar sinnar eitt plógsland í ríki sínu þat er fjórir öxn drægi upp dag ok nótt. En sú kona var ein af ása ætt, hon er nefnd Gefjun. Hon tók fjóra öxn norðan ór Jötunheimum, en þat váru synir jötuns nökkurs ok hennar, ok setti þá fyrir plóg, en plógrinn gekk svá breitt ok djúpt at upp leysti landit, ok drógu öxnirnir þat land út á hafit ok vestr ok námu staðar í sundi nökkuru. Þar setti Gefjun landit ok gaf nafn ok kallaði Selund. Ok þar sem landit hafði upp gengit var þar eftir vatn. Þat er nú Lögrinn kallaðr í Svíþjóð, ok liggja svá víkr í Leginum sem nes í Selundi. Svá segir Bragi skáld gamli:

1. Gefjun dró frá Gylfa
glöð djúpröðul óðla,
svá at af rennirauknum
rauk, Danmarkar auka.
Báru öxn ok átta
ennitungl, þars gengu
fyrir vineyjar víðri
valrauf, fjögur höfuð.

I. King Gylfi ruled the land that men now call Sweden. It is told of him that he gave to a wandering woman, in return for her merry-making, a plow-land in his realm, as much as four oxen might turn up in a day and a night. But this woman was of the kin of the Æsir; she was named Gefjun. She took from the north, out of Jötunheim, four oxen which were the soils of a certain giant and, herself, and set them before the plow. And the plow cut so wide and so deep that it loosened up the land; and the oxen drew the land out into the sea and to the westward, and stopped in a certain sound. There Gefjun set the land, and gave it a name, calling it Selund. And from that time on, the spot whence the land had been torn up is water: it is now called the Lögr in Sweden; and bays lie in that lake even as the headlands in Selund. Thus says Bragi, the ancient skald:

Gefjun drew from Gylfi | gladly the wave-trove's free-hold,
Till from the running beasts | sweat reeked, to Denmark's increase;
The oxen bore, moreover, | eight eyes, gleaming brow-lights,
O'er the field's wide: booty, | and four heads in their plowing.

2. Gylfi kom til Ásgarðs. CHAPTER 2

Gylfi konungr var maðr vitr ok fjölkunnigr. Hann undraðist þat mjök, er ásafólk var svá kunnigt, at allir hlutir gengu at vilja þeira. Þat hugsaði hann, hvárt þat myndi vera af eðli sjálfra þeira eða myndi því valda goðmögn þau, er þeir blótuðu. Hann byrjaði ferð sína til Ásgarðs ok fór með leynð ok brá á sik gamals manns líki ok dulðist svá. En æsir váru því vísari, at þeir höfðu spádóm, ok sá þeir ferð hans, fyrr en hann kom, ok gerðu í móti honum sjónhverfingar. Ok er hann kom inn í borgina, þá sá hann þar háva höll, svá at varla mátti hann sjá yfir hana. Þak hennar var lagt gylldum skjöldum svá sem spánþak. Svá segir Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski, at Valhöll var skjöldum þökð:

2. Á baki létu blíkja,
barðir váru grjóti,
Sváfnis salnæfrar
seggir hyggjandi.

Gylfi sá mann í hallardurum, ok lék at handsöxum ok hafði sjau senn á lofti. Sá spurði hann fyrr at nafni. Hann nefndist Gangleri ok kominn af refilstigum ok beiddist at sækja til náttstaðar ok spurði, hverr höllina átti.
Hann svarar, at þat var konungr þeira, --"en fylgja má ek þér at sjá hann. Skaltu þá sjálfr spyrja hann nafns," -- ok snerist sá maðr fyrir honum inn í höllina, en hann gekk eftir, ok þegar laukst hurðin á hæla honum.
Þar sá hann mörg gólf ok margt fólk, sumt með leikum, sumir drukku, sumir með vápnum ok börðust. Þá litaðist hann umb ok þótti margir hlutir ótrúligir, þeir er hann sá. Þá mælti hann:

3. Gáttir allar,
áðr gangi fram,
um skyggnask skyli,
því at óvíst er at vita
hvar óvinir sitja
á fleti fyrir.

Hann sá þrjú hásæti ok hvert upp frá öðru, ok sátu þrír menn sinn í hverju. Þá spurði hann, hvert nafn höfðingja þeira væri.
Sá svarar, er hann leiddi inn, at sá, er í inu neðsta hásæti sat, var konungr -- "ok heitir Hárr, en þar næst sá, er heitir Jafnhárr, en sá ofast, er Þriði heitir."
Þá spyrr Hárr komandann, hvárt fleira er erendi hans, en heimill er matr ok drykkr honum sem öllum þar í Háva höll. Hann segir, at fyrst vill hann spyrja, ef nokkurr er fróðr maðr inni.
Hárr segir, at hann komi eigi heill út, nema hann sé fróðari, --

4. "ok stattu fram,
meðan þú fregn;
sitja skal sá, er segir."

II. King Gylfi was a wise man and skilled in magic; he was much troubled that the Æsir-people were so cunning that all things went according to their will. He pondered whether this might proceed from their own nature, or whether the divine powers which they worshipped might ordain such things. He set out on his way to Ásgard, going secretly, and- clad himself in the likeness of an old man, with which he dissembled. But the Æsir were wiser in this matter, having second sight; and they saw his journeying before ever he came, and prepared against him deceptions of the eye. When he came into the town, he saw there a hall so high that he could not easily make out the top of it: its thatching was laid with golden shields after the fashion of a shingled roof. So also says Thjódólfr of Hvin, that Valhall was thatched with shields:

On their backs they let beam, | sore battered with stones,
Odin's hall-shingles, | the shrewd sea-farers.

In the hall-doorway Gylfi saw a man juggling with anlaces, having seven in the air at one time. This man asked of him his name. He called himself Gangleri, and said he had come by the paths of the serpent, and prayed for lodging for the night, asking: "Who owns the hall?" The other replied that it was their king; "and I will attend thee to see him; then shalt thou thyself ask him concerning his; name;" and the man wheeled about before him into the hall, and he went after, and straightway the door closed itself on his heels. There he saw a great room and much people, some with games, some drinking; and some had weapons and were fighting. Then he looked about him, and thought unbelievable many things which he saw; and he said:

All the gateways | ere one goes out
Should one scan:
For 't is uncertain | where sit the unfriendly
On the bench before thee.

He saw three high-seats, each above the other, and three men sat thereon,-one on each. And he asked what might be the name of those lords. He who had conducted him in answered that the one who, sat on the nethermost high-seat was a king, "and his name is Hárr;[1] but the next is named Janhárr;[2] and he who is uppermost is called Thridi."[3] Then Hárr asked the newcomer whether his errand were more than for the meat and drink which were always at his command, as for every one there in the Hall of the High One. He answered that he first desired to learn whether there were any wise man there within. Hárr said, that he should not escape whole from thence unless he were wiser.

And stand thou forth | who speirest;
Who answers, | he shall sit. 

1. High.  2. Equally High.  3. Third. 

3. Um Alföðr, æðstan goða. CHAPTER 3

Gangleri hóf svá mál sitt: "Hverr er æðstr eða elztr allra goða?"
Hárr segir: "Sá heitir Alföðr at váru máli, en í Ásgarði inum forna átti hann tólf nöfn. Eitt er Alföðr, annat er Herran eða Herjan, þriðja er Nikarr eða Hnikarr, fjórða er Nikuðr eða Hnikuðr, fimmta Fjölnir, sétta Óski, sjaunda Ómi, átta Bifliði eða Biflindi, níunda Sviðurr, tíunda Sviðrir, ellifta Viðrir, tólfta Jálg eða Jálkr."
Þá spyrr Gangleri: "Hvar er sá guð, eða hvat má hann, eða hvat hefir hann unnit framaverka?"
Hárr segir: "Lifir hann of allar aldir ok stjórnar öllu ríki sínu ok ræðr öllum hlutum, stórum ok smám."
Þá mælir Jafnhárr: "Hann smíðaði himin ok jörð ok loftin ok alla eign þeira."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Hitt er þó mest, er hann gerði manninn ok gaf honum önd þá, er lifa skal ok aldri týnast, þótt líkaminn fúni at moldu eða brenni at ösku, ok skulu allir menn lifa, þeir er rétt eru siðaðir, ok vera með honum sjálfum þar sem heitir Gimlé eða Vingólf, en vándir menn fara til Heljar ok þaðan í Niflhel. Þat er niðr í inn níunda heim."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafðist hann áðr at en himinn ok jörð væri ger?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Þá var hann með hrímþursum."

III. Gangleri began his questioning thus: "Who is foremost, or oldest, of all the gods?" Hárr answered: "He is called in our speech Allfather, but in the Elder Ásgard he had twelve names: one is Allfather; the second is Lord, or Lord of Hosts; the third is Nikarr, or Spear-Lord; the fourth is Nikudr, or Striker; the fifth is Knower of Many Things; the sixth, Fulfiller of Wishes; the seventh, Far-Speaking One; the eighth, The Shaker, or He that Putteth the Armies to Flight; the ninth, The Burner; the tenth, The Destroyer; the eleventh, The Protector; the twelfth, Gelding."
Then asked Gangleri: "Where is this god, or what power hath he, or what hath he wrought that is a glorious deed?" Hárr made answer: "He lives throughout all ages and governs all his realm, and directs all things, great and small." Then said Jafnhárr: "He fashioned heaven and earth and air, and all things which are in them." Then. spake Thridi: "The greatest of all is this: that he made man, and gave him the spirit, which shall live and never perish, though the flesh-frame rot to mould, or burn to ashes; and all men shall live, such as are just in action, and be with himself in the place called Gimlé. But evil men go to Hel and thence down to the Misty Hel; and that is down in the ninth world." Then said Gangleri: "What did he before heaven and earth were made?" And Hárr answered: "He was then with the Rime-Giants."

4. Frá Niflheimi ok Múspelli. CHAPTER 4

Gangleri mælti: "Hvat var upphaf eða hversu hófst, eða hvat var áðr?"
Hárr svarar: "Svá sem segir í Völuspá:

5. Ár var alda,
þat er ekki var,
var-a sandr né sær
né svalar unnir;
jörð fannsk eigi
né upphiminn,
gap var Ginnunga,
en gras ekki."

Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Fyrr var þat mörgum öldum en jörð var sköpuð er Niflheimr var gerr, ok í honum miðjum liggr bruðr sá, er Hvergelmir heitir, ok þaðan af falla þær ár, er svá heita: Svöl, Gunnþrá, Fjörm, Fimbulþul, Slíðr ok Hríð, Sylgr ok Ylgr, Víð, Leiftr. Gjöll er næst Helgrindum."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Fyrst var þó sá heimr í suðrhálfu, er Múspell heitir. Hann er ljóss ok heitr. Sú átt er logandi ok brennandi. Er hann ok ófærr þeim, er þar eru útlendir ok eigi eigu þar óðul. Sá er Surtr nefndr, er þar sitr á landsenda til landvarnar. Hann hefir loganda sverð, ok í enda veraldar mun hann fara ok herja ok sigra öll goðin ok brenna allan heim með eldi. Svá segir í Völuspá:

6. Surtr ferr sunnan
með sviga lævi,
skínn af sverði
sól valtíva;
grjótbjörg gnata,
en gífr rata,
troða halir helveg,
en himinn klofnar."

IV. Gangleri said: "What was the beginning, or how began it, or what was before it?" Hárr answered: "As is told in Völuspá:

Erst was the age | when nothing was:
Nor sand nor sea, | nor chilling stream-waves;
Earth was not found, | nor Ether-Heaven,--
A Yawning Gap, | but grass was none."

 

Then said Jafnhárr: "It was many ages before the earth was shaped that the Mist-World was made; and midmost within it lies the well that is called Hvergelmir, from which spring the rivers called Svöl, Gunnthrá, Fjörm, Fimbulthul, Slídr and Hríd, Sylgr and Ylgr, Víd, Leiptr; Gjöll is hard by Hel-gates." And Thridi said: "Yet first was the world in the southern region, which was named Múspell; it is light and hot; that region is glowing and burning, and impassable to such as are outlanders and have not their holdings there. He who sits there at the land's-end, to defend the land, is called Surtr; he brandishes a flaming sword, and at the end of the world he shall go forth and harry, and overcome all the gods, and burn all the world with fire; thus is said in Völuspá:

 

Surtr fares from the south | with switch-eating flame,--
On his sword shimmers | the sun of the War-Gods;
The rock-crags crash; | the fiends are reeling;
Heroes tread Hel-way; | Heaven is cloven."

5. Upphaf Ymis ok hrímþursa. CHAPTER 5

Gangleri mælti: "Hversu skipaðist, áðr en ættirnar yrði eða aukaðist mannfólkit?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Ár þær, er kallaðar eru Élivágar, þá er þær váru svá langt komnar frá uppsprettum, at eitrkvika sú, er þar fylgði, harðnaði svá sem sindr þat, er renn ór eldinum, þá varð þat íss. Ok þá er sá íss gaf staðar ok rann eigi, þá hélði yfir þannig, en úr þat, er af stóð eitrinu, fraus at hrími, ok jók hrímit hvert yfir annat allt í Ginnungagap."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Ginnungagap, þat er vissi til norðrættar, fylltist með þunga ok höfugleik íss ok hríms ok inn í frá úr ok gustr, en inn syðri hlutr Ginnungagaps léttist mót gneistum ok síum þeim, er flugu ór Múspellsheimi."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Svá sem kalt stóð af Niflheimi ok allir hlutir grimmir, svá var allt þat, er vissi námunda Múspelli, heitt ok ljóst, en Ginnungagap var svá hlætt sem loft vindlaust. Ok þá er mættist hrímin ok blær hitans, svá at bráðnaði ok draup, ok af þeim kvikudropum kviknaði með krafti þess, er til sendi hitann, ok varð manns líkandi, ok var sá nefndr Ymir, en hrímþursar kalla hann Aurgelmi, ok eru þaðan komnar ættir hrímþursa, svá sem segir í Völuspá inni skömmu:

7. Eru völur allar
frá Viðolfi,
vitkar allir
frá Vilmeiði,
en seiðberendr
frá Svarthöfða,
jötnar allir
frá Ymi komnir.

En hér segir svá Vafþrúðnir jötunn:

8. Ór Élivágum
stukku eitrdropar
ok óx, unz ór varð jötunn;
þar órar ættir
kómu allar saman;
því er þat æ allt til atalt."

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvernig óxu ættir þaðan eða skapaðist svá, at fleiri menn urðu, eða trúir þú þann guð, er nú sagðir þú frá?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Fyr engan mun játum vér hann guð. Hann er illr ok allir hans ættmenn. Þá köllum vér hrímþursa. En svá er sagt, at þá er hann svaf, fekk hann sveita. Þá óx undir vinstri hendi honum maðr ok kona, ok annarr fótr hans gat son við öðrum, en þaðan af kómu ættir. Þat eru hrímþursar. Inn gamli hrímþurs, hann köllum vér Ymi."

V. Gangleri asked: "How were things wrought, ere the races were and the tribes of men increased?" Then said Hárr: "The streams called Ice-waves, those which were so long come from the fountain-heads that the yeasty venom upon them had hardened like the slag that runs out of the fire,--these then became ice; and when the ice halted and ceased to run, then it froze over above. But the drizzling rain that rose from the venom congealed to rime, and the rime increased, frost over frost, each over the other, even into Ginnungagap, the Yawning Void."

Then spake Jafnhárr: "Ginnungagap, which faced toward the northern quarter, became filled with heaviness, and masses of ice and rime, and from within, drizzling rain and gusts; but the southern part of the Yawning Void was lighted by those sparks and glowing masses which flew out of Múspellheim."

And Thridi said: "Just as cold arose out of Niflheim, and all terrible things, so also all that looked toward Múspellheim became hot and glowing; but Ginnungagap was as mild as windless air, and when the breath of heat met the rime, so that it melted and dripped, life was quickened from the yeast-drops, by the power of that which sent the heat, and became a man's form. And that man is named Ymir, but the Rime-Giants call him Aurgelimir; and thence are come the races of the Rime-Giants, as it says in Völuspá the Less:

All the witches | spring from Witolf,
All the warlocks | are of Willharm,
And the spell-singers | spring from Swarthead;
All the ogres | of Ymir come.

But concerning this says Vafthrúdnir the giant:

Out of the Ice-waves | issued venom-drops,
Waxing until | a giant was;
Thence are our kindred | come all together,--
So it is | they are savage forever."

Then said Gangleri: "How did the races grow thence, or after what fashion was it brought to pass that more men came into being? Or do ye hold him God, of whom ye but now spake?" And Jafnhárr answered: "By no means do we acknowledge him God; he was evil and all his kindred: we call them Rime-Giants. Now it is said that when he slept, a sweat came upon him, and there grew under his left hand a man and a woman, and one of his feet begat a son with the other; and thus the races are come; these are the Rime-Giants. The old Rime-Giant, him we call Ymir."

6. Frá Auðhumlu ok upphafi Óðins. CHAPTER 6
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvar byggði Ymir, eða við hvat lifði hann?"
Hárr svarar: "Næst var þat, þá er hrímit draup, at þar varð af kýr sú, er Auðhumla hét, en fjórar mjólkár runnu ór spenum hennar, ok fæddi hon Ymi."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Við hvat fæddist kýrin?"
Hárr svarar: "Hon sleikði hrímsteinana, er saltir váru, ok inn fyrsta dag, er hon sleikði steinana, kom ór steininum at kveldi manns hár, annan dag manns höfuð, þriðja dag var þar allr maðr. Sá er nefndr Búri. Hann var fagr álitum, mikill ok máttugr. Hann gat son þann, er Borr hét, hann fekk þeirar konu, er Bestla hét, dóttir Bölþorns jötuns, ok fengu þau þrjá sonu. Hét einn Óðinn, annarr Vili, þriði Vé, ok þat er mín trúa, at sá Óðinn ok hans bræðr munu vera stýrandi himins ok jarðar. Þat ætlum vér, at hann myni svá heita. Svá heitir sá maðr, er vér vitum mestan ok ágæztan, ok vel meguð þér hann láta svá heita."
VI. Then said Gangleri: "Where dwelt Ymir, or wherein did he find sustenance?" Hárr answered: "Straightway after the rime dripped, there sprang from it the cow called Audumla; four streams of milk ran from her udders, and she nourished Ymir." Then asked Gangleri: "Wherewithal was the cow nourished?"
And Hárr made answer: "She licked the ice-blocks, which were salty; and the first day that she licked the blocks, there came forth from the blocks in the evening a man's hair; the second day, a man's head; the third day the whole man was there. He is named Búri: he was fair of feature, great and mighty. He begat a son called Borr, who wedded the woman named Bestla, daughter of Bölthorn the giant; and they had three sons: one was Odin, the second Vili, the third Vé. And this is my belief, that he, Odin, with his brothers, must be ruler of heaven and earth; we hold that he must be so called; so is that man called whom we know to be mightiest and most worthy of honor, and ye do well to let him be so called."
7. Dráp Ymis ok frá Bergelmi. CHAPTER 7

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat varð þá um þeira sætt, eða hvárir váru ríkari?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Synir Bors drápu Ymi jötun, en er hann féll, þá hljóp svá mikit blóð ór sárum hans, at með því drekkðu þeir allri ætt hrímþursa, nema einn komst undan með sínu hýski. Hann kalla jötnar Bergelmi. Hann fór upp á lúðr sinn ok kona hans ok helzt þar, ok eru af þeim komnar hrímþursa ættir, svá sem hér segir:

9. Örófi vetra
áðr væri jörð of sköpuð,
þá var Bergelmir borinn;
þat ek fyrst of man,
er sá inn fróði jötunn
á var lúðr of lagiðr."

VII. Then said Gangleri: "What covenant was between them, or which was the stronger?" And Hárr answered: "The sons of Borr slew Ymir the giant; lo, where he fell there gushed forth so much blood out of his wounds that with it they drowned all the race of the Rime-Giants, save that one, whom giants call Bergelmir, escaped with his household; he went upon his ship,[1] and his wife with him, and they were safe there. And from them are come the races of the Rime-Giants, as is said here:


Untold ages | ere earth was shapen,
Then was Bergelmir born;
That first I recall, | how the famous wise giant
On the deck of the ship was laid down."

1. lúðr: literally, mill-bench or mortar.

8. Borssynir skópu jörð ok himinn. CHAPTER 8

Þá segir Gangleri: "Hvat höfðust þá at Bors synir, ef þú trúir at þeir sé goð?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi er þar lítit af at segja. Þeir tóku Ymi ok fluttu í mitt Ginnungagap ok gerðu af honum jörðina, af blóði hans sæinn ok vötnin. Jörðin var ger af holdinu, en björgin af beinunum. Grjót ok urðir gerðu þeir af tönnum ok jöxlum ok af þeim beinum, er brotin váru."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Af því blóði, er ór sárum rann ok laust fór, þar af gerðu þeir sjá, þann er þeir gerðu ok festu saman jörðina ok lögðu þann sjá í hring útan um hana, ok mun þat flestum manni ófæra þykkja at komast þar yfir."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Tóku þeir ok haus hans ok gerðu þar af himin ok settu hann upp yfir jörðina með fjórum skautum, ok undir hvert horn settu þeir dverg. Þeir heita svá: Austri, Vestri, Norðri, Suðri. Þá tóku þeir síur ok gneista þá, er lausir fóru ok kastat hafði ór Múspellsheimi, ok settu á mitt Ginnungap á himin bæði ofan ok neðan til at lýsa himin ok jörð. Þeir gáfu staðar öllum eldingum, sumum á himni, sumar fóru lausar undir himni, ok settu þó þeim stað ok skipuðu göngu þeim. Svá er sagt í fornum vísendum, at þaðan af váru dægr greind ok áratal. Svá sem segir í Völuspá:

10. Sól þat né vissi,
hvar hon sali átti,
máni þat né vissi,
hvat hann megins átti,
stjörnur þat né vissu,
hvar þær staði áttu.

Svá var áðr en þetta væri.
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þetta eru mikil tíðendi, er nú heyri ek. Furðumikil smíð er þat ok hagliga ger. Hvernig var jörðin háttuð?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Hon er kringlótt útan, ok þar útan um liggr inn djúpi sjár, ok með þeiri sjávarströndu gáfu þeir lönd til byggðar jötna ættum. En fyrir innan á jörðunni gerðu þeir borg umhverfis heim fyrir ófriði jötna, en til þeirar borgar höfðu þeir brár Ymis jötuns ok kölluðu þá borg Miðgarð. Þeir tóku ok heila hans ok köstuðu í loft ok gerðu af skýin, svá sem hér segir:

11. Ór Ymis holdi
var jörð of sköpuð,
en ór sveita sær,
björg ór beinum,
baðmr ór hári,
en ór hausi himinn.

En ór hans brám
gerðu blíð regin
Miðgarð manna sonum,
en ór hans heila
váru þau in harðmóðgu
ský öll af sköpuð."

VIII. Then said Gangleri: "What was done then by Borr's sons, if thou believe that they be gods?" Hárr replied: "In this matter there is no little to be said. They took Ymir and bore him into the middle of the Yawning Void, and made of him the earth: of his blood the sea and the waters; the land was made of his flesh, and the crags of his bones; gravel and stones they fashioned from his teeth and his grinders and from those bones that were broken." And Jafnhárr said: "Of the blood, which ran and welled forth freely out of his wounds, they made the sea, when they had formed and made firm the earth together, and laid the sea in a ring round. about her; and it may well seem a hard thing to most men to cross over it." Then said Thridi: "They took his skull also, and made of it the heaven, and set it up over the earth with four corners; and under each corner they set a dwarf: the names of these are East, West, North, and South. Then they took the glowing embers and sparks that burst forth and had been cast out of Múspellheim, and set them in the midst of the Yawning Void, in the heaven, both above and below, to illumine heaven and earth. They assigned places to all fires: to some in heaven, some wandered free under the heavens; nevertheless, to these also they gave a place, and shaped them courses. It is said in old songs, that from these the days were reckoned, and the tale of years told, as is said in Völuspá:

The sun knew not | where she had housing;
The moon knew not | what Might he had;
The stars knew not | where stood their places.

Thus was it ere | the earth was fashioned."

Then said Gangleri: These are great tidings which I now hear; that is a wondrous great piece of craftsmanship, and cunningly made. How was the earth contrived?" And Hárr answered: "She is ring-shaped without, and round about her without lieth the deep sea; and along the strand of that sea they gave lands to the races of giants for habitation. But on the inner earth they made a citadel round about the world against the hostility of the giants, and for their citadel they raised up the brows of Ymir the giant, and called that place Midgard. They took also his brain and cast it in the air, and made from it the clouds, as is here said:

Of Ymir's flesh | the earth was fashioned,
And of his sweat the sea;
Crags of his bones, | trees of his hair,
And of his skull the sky.

Then of his brows | the blithe gods made
Midgard for sons of men;
And of his brain | the bitter-mooded
Clouds were all created."

9. Borssynir skópu Ask ok Emblu. CHAPTER 9
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Mikit þótti mér þeir hafa þá snúit til leiðar, er jörð ok himinn var gert ok sól ok himintungl váru sett ok skipt dægrum, ok hvaðan kómu mennirnir, þeir er heim byggja?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Þá er þeir gengu með sævarströndu Borssynir, fundu þeir tré tvau ok tóku upp trén ok sköpuðu af menn. Gaf inn fyrsti önd ok líf, annarr vit ok hræring, þriði ásjónu, mál ok heyrn ok sjón, gáfu þeim klæði ok nöfn. Hét karlmaðrinn Askr, en konan Embla, ok ólst þaðan af mannkindin, sú er byggðin var gefinn undir Miðgarði. Þar næst gerðu þeir sér borg í miðjum heimi, er kölluð er Ásgarðr. Þat köllum vér Trója. Þar byggðu goðin ok ættir þeira, ok gerðust þaðan af mörg tíðendi ok greinir bæði á jörðu ok í lofti. Þar er einn staðr, er Hliðskjálf heitir, ok þá er Óðinn settist þar í hásæti, þá sá hann of alla heima ok hvers manns athæfi ok vissi alla hluti, þá er hann sá. Kona hans hét Frigg Fjörgvinsdóttir, ok af þeira ætt er sú kynslóð komin, er vér köllum ása ættir, er byggt hafa Ásgarð inn forna ok þau ríki, er þar liggja til, ok er þat allt goðkunnug ætt. Ok fyrir því má hann heita Alföðr, at hann er faðir allra goðanna ok manna ok alls þess, er af honum ok hans krafti var fullgert. Jörðin var dóttir hans ok kona hans. Af henni gerði hann inn fyrsta soninn, en þat er Ása-Þórr. Honum fylgði afl ok sterkleikr. Þar af sigrar hann öll kvikvendi.

IX. Then said Gangleri: "Much indeed they had accomplished then, methinks, when earth and heaven were made, and the sun and the constellations of heaven were fixed, and division was made of days; now whence come the men that people the world?" And Hárr answered: 'When the sons of Borr were walking along the sea-strand, they found two trees, and took up the trees and shaped men of them: the first gave them spirit and life; the second, wit and feeling; the third, form, speech, hearing, and sight. They gave them clothing and names: the male was called Askr, and the female Embla, and of them was mankind begotten, which received a dwelling-place under Midgard. Next they made for themselves in the middle of the world a city which is called Ásgard; men call it Troy. There dwelt the gods and their kindred; and many tidings and tales of it have come to pass both on earth and aloft. There is one abode called Hlidskjálf, and when Allfather sat in the high-seat there, he looked out over the whole world and saw every man's acts, and knew all things which he saw. His wife was called Frigg daughter of Fjörgvinn; and of their blood is come that kindred which we call the races of the Æsir, that have peopled the Elder Ásgard, and those kingdoms which pertain to it; and that is a divine race. For this reason must he be called Allfather: because he is father of all the gods and of men, and of all that was fulfilled of him and of his might. The Earth was his daughter and his wife; on her he begot the first son, which is Ása-Thor: strength and prowess attend him, wherewith he overcometh all living things.

10. Tilkváma Dags ok Nætr. CHAPTER 10
Nörfi eða Narfi hét jötunn, er byggði í Jötunheimum. Hann átti dóttur, er Nótt hét. Hon var svört ok dökk, sem hon átti ætt til. Hon var gift þeim manni, er Naglfari hét. Þeira sonr hét Auðr. Því næst var hon gift þeim, er Ánarr hét. Jörð hét þeira dóttir. Síðast átti hana Dellingr, ok var hann ása ættar. Var þeira sonr Dagr. Var hann ljóss ok fagr eftir faðerni sínu. Þá tók Alföðr Nótt ok Dag, son hennar, ok gaf þeim tvá hesta ok tvær kerrur ok sendi þau upp á himin, at þau skulu ríða á hverjum tveim dægrum umhverfis jörðina. Ríðr Nótt fyrri þeim hesti, er kallaðr er Hrímfaxi, ok at morgni hverjum döggvir hann jörðina af méldropum sínum. Sá hestr, er Dagr á, heitir Skinfaxi, ok lýsir allt loft ok jörðina af faxi hans."

X. "Nörfi or Narfi is the name of a giant that dwelt in Jötunheim: he had a daughter called Night; she was swarthy and dark, as befitted her race. She was given to the man named Naglfari; their son was Audr. Afterward she was wedded to him that was called Annarr; Jörd[1] was their daughter. Last of all Dayspring had her, and he was of the race of the Æsir; their son was Day: he was radiant and fair after his father. Then Allfather took Night, and Day her son, and gave to them two horses and two chariots, and sent them up into the heavens, to ride round about the earth every two half-days. Night rides before with the horse named Frosty-Mane, and on each morning he bedews the earth with the foam from his bit. The horse that Day has is called Sheen-Mane, and he illumines all the air and the earth from his mane."

1. Earth.

11. Frá Sól ok Mána. CHAPTER 11
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hversu stýrir hann gang sólar eða tungls?"
Hárr segir: "Sá maðr er nefndr Mundilfari, er átti tvau börn. Þau váru svá fögr ok fríð, at hann kallaði son sinn Mána, en dóttur sína Sól ok gifti hana þeim manni, er Glenr hét. En goðin reiddust þessu ofdrambi ok tóku þau systkin ok settu upp á himin, létu Sól keyra þá hesta, er drógu kerru sólarinnar, þeirar er goðin höfðu skapat til at lýsa heimana af þeiri síu, er flaug ór Múspellsheimi. Þeir hestar heita svá, Árvakr ok Alsviðr, en undir bógum hestanna settu goðin tvá vindbelgi at kæla þá, en í sumum fræðum er þat kallat ísarnkol. Máni stýrir göngu tungls ok ræðr nýjum ok niðum. Hann tók tvau börn af jörðunni, er svá heita, Bil ok Hjúki, er þau gengu frá brunni þeim er, Byrgir heitir, ok báru á öxlum sér sá, er heitir Sægr, en stöngin Simul. Viðfinnr er nefndr faðir þeira. Þessi börn fylgja Mána, svá sem sjá má af jörðu."

XI. Then said Gangleri: "How does he govern the course of the sun or of the moon?" Hárr answered: "A certain man was named Mundilfari, who had two children; they were so fair and comely that he called his son Moon, and his daughter Sun, and wedded her to the man called Glenr. But the gods were incensed at that insolence, and took the brother and sister, and set them up in the heavens; they caused Sun to drive those horses that drew the chariot of the sun, which the gods had fashioned, for the world's illumination, from that glowing stuff which flew out of Múspellheim. Those horses are called thus: Early-Wake and All-Strong; and under the shoulders of the horses the gods set two wind-bags to cool them, but in some records that is called 'iron-coolness.' Moon steers the course of the moon, and determines its waxing and waning. He took from the earth-two children, called Bil and Hjúki, they that went from the well called Byrgir, bearing on their shoulders the cask called Sægr, and the pole Simul. Their father is named Vidfinnr. These children follow Moon, as may be seen from the earth."

12. Frá úlfakreppu Sólar. CHAPTER 12

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Skjótt ferr sólin ok nær svá sem hon sé hrædd, ok eigi myndi hon þá meir hvata göngunni, at hon hræddist bana sinn."
Þá svarar Hárr: "Eigi er þat undarligt, at hon fari ákafliga. Nær gengr sá, er hana sækir, ok engan útveg á hon nema renna undan."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverr er sá, er henni gerir þann ómaka?"
Hárr segir: "Þat eru tveir úlfar, ok heitir sá, er eftir henni ferr, Skoll. Hann hræðist hon, ok hann mun taka hana. En sá heitir Hati Hróðvitnisson, er fyrir henni hleypr, ok vill hann taka tunglit, ok svá mun verða."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverr er ætt úlfanna?"
Hárr segir: "Gýgr ein býr fyrir austan Miðgarð í þeim skógi, er Járnviðr heitir. Í þeim skógi byggja þær tröllkonur, er Járnviðjur heita. In gamla gýgr fæðir at sonum marga jötna ok alla í vargs líkjum, ok þaðan af eru komnir þessir úlfar. Ok svá er sagt, at af ættinni verðr sá einna máttkastr, er kallaðr er Mánagarmr. Hann fyllist með fjörvi allra þeira manna, er deyja, ok hann gleypir tungl, en stökkvir blóði himin ok loft öll. Þaðan týnir sól skini sínu, ok vindar eru þá ókyrrir ok gnýja heðan ok handan. Svá segir í Völuspá:

13. Austr býr in aldna
í Járnviði
ok fæðir þar
Fenris kindir;
verðr af þeim öllum
einna nökkurr
tungls tjúgari
í trolls hami.

14. Fyllisk fjörvi
feigra manna,
rýðr ragna sjöt
rauðum dreyra;
svört verða sólskin
um sumur eftir,
veðr öll válynd.
Vituð ér enn - eða hvat?"

XII. Then said Gangleri: "The sun fares swiftly, and almost as if she were afraid: she could not hasten her course any the more if she feared her destruction." Then Hárr made answer: "It is no marvel that she hastens furiously: close cometh he that seeks her, and she has no escape save to run away." Then said Gangleri: "Who is he that causes her this disquiet?" Hárr replied: "It is two wolves; and he that runs after her is called Skoll; she fears him, and he shall take her. But he that leaps before her is called Hati Hródvitnisson. He is eager to seize the moon; and so it must be." Then said Gangleri: "What is the race of the wolves?" Hárr answered: "A witch dwells to the east of Midgard, in the forest called Ironwood: in that wood dwell the troll-women, who are known as Ironwood-Women. The old witch bears many giants for sons, and all in the shape of wolves; and from this source are these wolves sprung. The saying runs thus: from this race shall come one that shall be mightiest of all, he that is named Moon-Hound; he shall be filled with the flesh of all those men that die, and he shall swallow the moon, and sprinkle with blood the heavens and all the lair; thereof-shall the sun lose her shining, and the winds in that day shall be unquiet and roar on every side. So it says in Völuspá:

Eastward dwells the Old One | in Ironwood,
And there gives birth | to Fenrir's brethren;
There shall spring of them all | a certain one,
The moon's taker | in troll's likeness.


He is filled with flesh | of fey men.
Reddens the gods' seats | with ruddy blood-gouts;
Swart becomes sunshine | in summers after,
The weather all shifty. | Wit ye yet, or what?"

13. Um Bifröst. CHAPTER 13
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hver er leið til himins af jörðu?"
Þá svarar Hárr ok hló við: "Eigi er nú fróðliga spurt. Er þér eigi sagt þat, er goðin gerðu brú af jörðu til himins, er heitir Bifröst? Hana muntu sét hafa. Kann vera, at þat kallir þú regnboga. Hon er með þrimr litum ok mjök sterk ok ger með list ok kunnáttu meiri en aðrar smíðir. En svá sterk sem hon er, þá mun hon brotna, þá er Múspellsmegir fara ok ríða hana, ok svima hestar þeira yfir stórar ár. Svá koma þeir fram."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Eigi þótti mér goðin gera af trúnaði brúna, ef hon skal brotna mega, er þau megu þó gera sem þau vilja."
Þá mælti Hárr: "Eigi eru goðin hallmælis verð af þessi smíð. Góð brú er Bifröst, en enginn hlutr er sá í þessum heimi er sér megi treystast, þá er Múspellssynir herja."

XIII. Then said Gangleri: "What is the way to heaven from earth?" Then Hárr answered, and laughed aloud: "Now, that is not wisely asked; has it not been told thee, that the gods made a bridge from earth, to heaven, called Bifröst? Thou must have seen it; it may be that ye call it rainbow.' It is of three colors, and very strong, and made with cunning and with more magic art than other works of craftsmanship. But strong as it is, yet must it be broken, when the sons of Múspell shall go forth harrying and ride it, and swim their horses over great rivers; thus they shall proceed." Then said Gangleri: "To my thinking the gods did not build the bridge honestly, seeing that it could be broken, and they able to make it as they would." Then Hárr replied: "The gods are not deserving of reproof because of this work of skill: a good bridge is Bifröst, but nothing in this world is of such nature that it may be relied on when the sons of Múspell go a-harrying."

14. Um bústaði goða ok upphaf dverga. CHAPTER 14

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafðist Alföðr þá at, er gerr var Ásgarðr?"
Hárr mælti: "Í upphafi setti hann stjórnarmenn í sæti ok beiddi þá at dæma með sér örlög manna ok ráða um skipun borgarinnar. Þat var þar, sem heitir Iðavöllur í miðri borginni. Var þat hið fyrsta þeira verk at gera hof þat, er sæti þeira tólf standa í önnur en hásætit, þat er Alföðr á. Þat hús er bezt gert á jörðu ok mest. Allt er þat útan ok innan svá sem gull eitt. Í þeim stað kalla menn Glaðsheim. Annan sal gerðu þeir. Þat var hörgr, er gyðjurnar áttu, ok var hann allfagr. Þat hús kalla menn Vingólf. Þar næst gerðu þeir hús, er þeir lögðu afla í, ok þar til gerðu þeir hamar ok töng ok steðja ok þaðan af öll tól önnur. Ok því næst smíðuðu þeir málm ok stein ok tré ok svá gnógliga þann málm, er gull heitir, at öll búsgögn ok öll reiðigögn höfðu þeir af gulli, ok er sú öld kölluð gullaldr, áðr en spilltist af tilkvámu kvinnanna. Þær kómu ór Jötunheimum. Þar næst settust goðin upp í sæti sín ok réttu dóma sína ok minntust, hvaðan dvergar höfðu kviknat í moldinni ok niðri í jörðunni, svá sem maðkar í holdi. Dvergarnir höfðu skipazt fyrst ok tekit kviknun í holdi Ymis ok váru þá maðkar, en af atkvæðum goðanna urðu þeir vitandi mannvits ok höfðu manns líki ok búa þó í jörðu ok í steinum. Móðsognir var æðstr ok annarr Durinn. Svá segir í Völuspá:

15. Þá gengu regin öll
á rökstóla,
ginnheilög goð,
ok um þat gættusk,
hverr skyldi dverga
drótt of skepja
ór brimi blóðgu
ok ór Bláins leggjum.

16. Þar mannlíkun
mörg of gerðusk,
dvergar í jörðu,
sem Durinn sagði.

Ok þessi segir hon nöfn þeira dverganna:

17. Nýi, Niði,
Norðri, Suðri,
Austri, Vestri,
Alþjófr, Dvalinn,
Nár, Náinn,
Nípingr, Dáinn,
Bífurr, Báfurr,
Bömburr, Nóri,
Óri, Ónarr,
Óinn, Mjöðvitnir.

18. Viggr ok Gandalfr,
Vindalfr, Þorinn,
Fíli, Kíli,
Fundinn, Váli,
Þrór, Þróinn,
Þekkr, Litr ok Vitr,
Nýr, Nýráðr,
Rekkr, Ráðsviðr.

En þessir eru ok dvergar ok búa í steinum, en inir fyrri í moldu:

19. Draupnir, Dolgþvari,
Hárr, Hugstari,
Hleðjolfr, Glóinn,
Dóri, Óri,
Dúfr, Andvari,
Heftifili,
Hárr, Svíarr.

En þessir kómu frá Svarinshaugi til Aurvanga á Jöruvöllu, ok er kominn þaðan Lofarr. Þessi eru nöfn þeira:

20. Skirfir, Virfir,
Skáfiðr, Ái,
Alfr, Yngvi,
Eikinskjaldi,
Falr, Frosti,
Fiðr, Ginnarr."

XIV. Then said Gangleri: "What did Allfather then do when Ásgard was made?" Hárr answered: "In the beginning he established rulers, and bade them ordain fates with him, and give counsel concerning the planning of the town; that was in the place which is called Ida-field, in the midst of the town. It was their first work to make that court in which their twelve seats stand, and another, the high-seat which Allfather himself has. That house is the best-made of any on earth, and the greatest; without and within, it is all like one piece of gold; men call it Gladsheim. They made also a second hall: that was a shrine which the goddesses had, and it was a very fair house; men call it Vingólf. Next they fashioned a house, wherein they placed a forge, and made besides a hammer, tongs, and anvil, and by means of these, all other tools. After this they smithied metal and stone and wood, and wrought so abundantly that metal which is called gold, that they had all their household ware and all dishes of gold; and that time is called the Age of Gold, before it was spoiled by the coming of the Women, even those who came out of Jötunheim. Next after this, the gods enthroned themselves in their seats and held judgment, and called to mind whence the dwarves had quickened in the mould and underneath in the earth, even as do maggots in flesh. The dwarves had first received shape and life in the flesh of Ymir, and were then maggots; but by decree of the gods had become conscious with the intelligence of men, and had human shape. And nevertheless they dwell in the earth and in stones. Módsognir was the first, and Durinn the second; so it says in Völuspá.


Then strode all the mighty | to the seats of judgment,
The gods most holy, | and together held counsel,
Who should of dwarves | shape the peoples
From the bloody surge | and the Blue One's bones.
They made many in man's likeness,
Dwarves in the earth, | as Durinn said.

 

And these, says the Sibyl, are their names:

 

Nýi and Nidi, | Nordri and Sudri,
Austri, Vestri, | Althjófr, Dvalinn;
Nár, Náinn, | Nípingr, Dáinn,
Bifurr, Báfurr, | Bömburr, Nóri,
Óri, Ónarr, | Óinn, Mjödvitnir,

Viggr and Gandálfr, | Vindálfr, Thorinn,
Fíli, Kíli, | Fundinn, Váli;
Thrór, Thróinn, | Thekkr, Litr and Vitr,
Nýr, Nýrádr, | Rekkr, Rádsvidr.

 

And these also are dwarves and dwell in stones, but the first in mould:

 

Draupnir, Dólgthvari,
Hörr, Hugstari, | Hledjólfr, Glóinn;
Dóri, Óri, | Dúfr, Andvari,
Heptifíli, | Hárr, Svíarr.

 

And these proceed from Svarinshaugr to Aurvangar on Jöruplain, and thence is Lovarr come; these are their names:


Skirfir, Virfir | Skáfidr, Ái,
Álfr, Yngvi, | Eikinskjaldi,
Falr, Frosti, | Fidr, Ginnarr."

15. Frá askinum, Urðarbrunni ok nornum. CHAPTER 15

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvar er höfuðstaðrinn eða helgistaðrinn goðanna?"
Hárr svarar: "Þat er at aski Yggdrasils. Þar skulu goðin eiga dóma sína hvern dag."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat er at segja frá þeim stað?"
Þá segir Jafnhárr: "Askrinn er allra trjá mestr ok beztr. Limar hans dreifast um heim allan ok standa yfir himni. Þrjár rætr trésins halda því upp ok standa afarbreitt. Ein er með ásum, en önnur með hrímþursum, þar sem forðum var Ginnungagap. In þriðja stendr yfir Niflheimi, ok undir þeiri rót er Hvergelmir, en Níðhöggr gnagar neðan rótina. En undir þeiri rót, er til hrímþursa horfir, þar er Mímisbrunnr, er spekð ok mannvit er í fólgit, ok heitir sá Mímir, er á brunninn. Hann er fullr af vísendum, fyrir því at hann drekkr ór brunninum af horninu Gjallarhorni. Þar kom Alföðr ok beiddist eins drykkjar af brunninum, en hann fekk eigi, fyrr en hann lagði auga sitt at veði. Svá segir í Völuspá:

21. Allt veit ek, Óðinn,
hvar þú auga falt,
í þeim inum mæra
Mímisbrunni.
Drekkr mjöð Mímir
morgin hverjan
af veði Valföðrs.
Vituð ér enn - eða hvat?

Þriðja rót asksins stendr á himni, ok undir þeiri rót er brunnr sá, er mjök er heilagr, er heitir Urðarbrunnr. Þar eiga goðin dómstað sinn. Hvern dag ríða æsir þangat upp um Bifröst. Hon heitir ok ásbrú. Hestar ásanna heita svá: Sleipnir er baztr, hann á Óðinn. Hann hefir átta fætr. Annar er Glaðr, þriði Gyllir, fjórði Glenr, fimmti Skeiðbrimir, sétti Silfrintoppr, sjaundi Sinir, átti Gísl, níundi Falhófnir, tíundi Gulltoppr, ellifti Léttfeti. Baldrs hestr var brenndr með honum, en Þórr gengr til dómsins ok veðr ár þær, er svá heita:

22. Körmt ok Örmt
ok Kerlaugar tvær,
þær skal Þórr vaða
dag hvern,
er hann dæma ferr
at aski Yggdrasils,
því at ásbrú
brenn öll loga,
heilög vötn hlóa."

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Brenn eldr yfir Bifröst?"
Hárr segir: "Þat, er þú sér rautt í boganum, er eldr brennandi. Upp á himin mundu ganga hrímþursar ok bergrisar, ef öllum væri fært á Bifröst, þeim er fara vilja. Margir staðir eru á himni fagrir, ok er þar allt guðlig vörn fyrir. Þar stendr salr einn fagr undir askinum við brunninn, ok ór þeim sal koma þrjár meyjar, þær er svá heita: Urðr, Verðandi, Skuld. Þessar meyjar skapa mönnum aldr. Þær köllum vér nornir. Enn eru fleiri nornir, þær er koma til hvers barns, er borit er, at skapa aldr, ok eru þessar goðkunnigar, en aðrar álfa ættar, en inar þriðju dverga ættar, svá sem hér segir:

23. Sundrbornar mjök
segi ek nornir vera,
eigu-t þær ætt saman;
sumar eru áskunngar,
sumar eru alfkunngar,
sumar dætr Dvalins."

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Ef nornir ráða örlögum manna, þá skipta þær geysi ójafnt, er sumir hafa gott líf ok ríkuligt, en sumir hafa lítit lén eða lof, sumir langt líf, sumir skammt."
Hárr segir: "Góðar nornir ok vel ættaðar skapa góðan aldr, en þeir menn, er fyrir ósköpum verða, þá valda því illar nornir."

XV. Then said Gangleri: "Where is the chief abode or holy place of the gods?" Hárr answered: 'That is at the Ash of Yggdrasill; there the gods must give judgment everyday." Then Gangleri asked: "What is to be said concerning that place?" Then said Jafnhárr: "The Ash is greatest of all trees and best: its limbs spread out over all the world and stand above heaven. Three roots of the tree uphold it and stand exceeding broad: one is among the Æsir; another among the Rime-Giants, in that place where aforetime was the Yawning Void; the third stands over Niflheim, and under that root is Hvergelmir, and Nídhöggr gnaws the root from below. But under that root which turns toward the Rime-Giants is Mímir's Well, wherein wisdom and understanding are stored; and he is called Mímir, who keeps the well. He is full of ancient lore, since he drinks of the well from the Gjallar-Horn. Thither came Allfather and craved one drink of the well; but he got it not until he had laid his eye in pledge. So says Völuspá:

All know I, Odin, | where the eye thou hiddest,
In the wide-renowned | well of Mímir;
Mímir drinks mead | every morning
From Valfather's wage. | Wit ye yet, or what?

The third root of the Ash stands in heaven; and under that root is the well which is very holy, that is called the Well of Urdr; there the gods hold their tribunal. Each day the Æsir ride thither up over Bifröst, which is also called the Æsir's Bridge. These are the names of the Æsir's steeds: Sleipnir[1] is best, which Odin has; he has eight feet. The second is Gladr,[2] the third Gyllir,[3] the fourth Glenr,[4] the fifth Skeidbrimir,[5] the sixth Silfrintoppr,[6] the seventh Sinir,[7] the eighth Gisl,[8] the ninth Falhófnir,[9] the tenth. Gulltoppr,[10] the eleventh Léttfeti.[11] Baldr's horse was burnt with him; and Thor walks to the judgment, and wades those rivers which are called thus:

Körmt and Örmt | and the Kerlaugs twain,
Them shall Thor wade
Every day | when he goes to doom
At Ash Yggdrasill;
For the Æsir's Bridge | burns all with flame,
And the holy waters howl."

Then said Gangleri: "Does fire burn over Bifröst?" Hárr replied: "That which thou seest to be red in the bow is burning fire; the Hill-Giants might go up to heaven, if passage on Bifröst were open to all those who would cross. There are many fair places in heaven, and over everything there a godlike watch is kept. A hall stands there, fair, under the ash by the well, and out of that hall come three maids, who are called thus: Urdr,[12] Verdandi,[13] Skuld;[14] these maids determine the period of men's lives: we call them Norns; but there are many norns: those who come to each child that is born, to appoint his life; these are of the race of the gods, but the second are of the Elf-people, and the third are of the kindred of the dwarves, as it is said here:

Most sundered in birth | I say the Norns are;
They claim no common kin:
Some are of Æsir-kin, | some are of Elf-kind,
Some are Dvalinn's daughters."

Then said Gangleri: "If the Norns determine the weirds of men, then they apportion exceeding unevenly, seeing that some have a pleasant and luxurious life, but others have little worldly goods or fame; some have long life, others short." Hárr said: "Good norns and of honorable race appoint good life; but those men that suffer evil fortunes are governed by evil norns." 

1. The Slipper. 2. Bright or Glad.  3. Golden.  4. The Starer.  5. Fleet Courser.  6 Silver-top.  7 Sinewy.  8. Beam, Ray.  9. Hairy-hoof.  10. Gold-top.  11. Light-stepper.  12. Past.  13. Present.  14. Future.

16. Enn frá askinum CHAPTER 16

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat er fleira at segja stórmerkja frá askinum?"
Hárr segir: "Margt er þar af at segja. Örn einn sitr í limum asksins, ok er hann margs vitandi, en í milli augna honum sitr haukr, sá er heitir Veðrfölnir. Íkorni sá, er heitir Ratatoskr, renn upp ok niðr eftir askinum ok berr öfundarorð milli arnarins ok Níðhöggs, en fjórir hirtir renna í limum asksins ok bíta barr. Þeir heita svá: Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Duraþrór. En svá margir ormar eru í Hvergelmi með Níðhögg, at engi tunga má telja. Svá segir hér:

24. Askr Yggdrasils
drýgir erfiði
meira en menn viti;
hjörtr bítr ofan,
en á hliðu fúnar,
skerðir Níðhöggr neðan.
Svá er enn sagt:

25. Ormar fleiri liggja
und aski Yggdrasils
en þat of hyggi hverr ósviðra apa.
Góinn ok Móinn,
þeir eru Grafvitnis synir,
Grábakr ok Grafvölluðr,
Ófnir ok Sváfnir,
hygg ek, at æ myni
meiðs kvistum má.

Enn er þat sagt, at nornir þær, er byggja við Urðarbrunn, taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum ok með aurinn þann, er liggr um brunninn, ok ausa upp yfir askinn, til þess at eigi skuli limar hans tréna eða fúna. En þat vatn er svá heilagt, at allir hlutir, þeir er þar koma í brunninn, verða svá hvítir sem hinna sú, er skjall heitir, er innan liggr við eggskurn, svá sem hér segir:

26. Ask veit ek ausinn,
heitir Yggdrasill,
hárr baðmr, heilagr,
hvíta auri;
þaðan koma döggvar,
er í dali falla;
stendr hann æ yfir grænn
Urðarbrunni.

Sú dögg, er þaðan af fellr á jörðina, þat kalla menn hunangfall, ok þar af fæðast býflugur. Fuglar tveir fæðast í Urðarbrunni. Þeir heita svanir, ok af þeim fuglum hefir komit þat fuglakyn, er svá heitir."

XVI. Then said Gangleri: "What more mighty wonders are to be told of the Ash?"

Hárr replied: "Much is to be told of it. An eagle sits in the limbs of the Ash, and he has understanding of many a thing; and between his eyes sits the hawk that is called Vedrfölnir. The squirrel called Ratatöskr runs up and down the length of the Ash, bearing envious words between the eagle and Nídhöggr; and four harts run in the limbs of the Ash and bite the leaves. They are called thus: Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durathrór. Moreover, so many serpents are in Hvergelmir with Nídhöggr, that no tongue can tell them, as is here said:

Ash Yggdrasill | suffers anguish,
More than men know of:
The stag bites above; | on the side it rotteth,
And Nídhöggr gnaws from below.


And it is further said:


More serpents lie | under Yggdrasill's stock
Than every unwise ape can think:
Góinn and Móinn | (they're Grafvitnir's sons),
Grábakr and Grafvölludr;
Ófnir and Sváfnir | I think shall aye
Tear the trunk's twigs.

It is further said that these Norns who dwell by the Well of Urdr take water of the well every day, and with it that clay which lies about the well, and sprinkle it over the Ash, to the end that its limbs shall not wither nor rot; for that water is so holy that all things which come there into the well become as white as the film which lies within the egg-shell,--as is here said:

I know an Ash standing | called Yggdrasill,
A high tree sprinkled | with snow-white clay;
Thence come the dews | in the dale that fall--
It stands ever green | above Urdr's Well.

That dew which falls from it onto the earth is called by men honey-dew, and thereon are bees nourished. Two fowls are fed in Urdr's Well: they are called Swans, and from those fowls has come the race of birds which is so called."

17. Höfuðstaðir goðanna CHAPTER 17

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Mikil tíðendi kannt þú at segja af himninum. Hvat er þar fleira höfuðstaða en at Urðarbrunni?"
Hárr segir: "Margir staðir eru þar göfugligir. Sá er einn staðr þar, er kallaðr er Álfheimr. Þar byggvir fólk þat, er Ljósálfar heita, en Dökkálfar búa niðri í jörðu, ok eru þeir ólíkir þeim sýnum ok miklu ólíkari reyndum. Ljósálfar eru fegri en sól sýnum, en Dökkálfar eru svartari en bik. Þar er einn sá staðr, er Breiðablik er kallaðr, ok engi er þar fegri staðr. Þar er ok sá, er Glitnir heitir, ok eru veggir hans ok steðr allar ok stólpar af rauðu gulli, en þak hans af silfri. Þar er enn sá staðr, er Himinbjörg heita. Sá stendr á himins enda við brúarsporð, þar er Bifröst kemr til himins. Þar er enn mikill staðr, er Valaskjálf heitir. Þann stað á Óðinn. Þann gerðu goðin ok þökðu skíru silfri, ok þar er Hliðskjálfin í þessum sal, þat hásæti, er svá heitir, ok þá er Alföðr sitr í því sæti, þá sér hann of alla heima. Á sunnanverðum himins enda er sá salr, er allra er fegrstr ok bjartari en sólin, er Gimlé heitir. Hann skal standa, þá er bæði himinn ok jörð hefir farizt, ok byggja þann stað góðir menn ok réttlátir of allar aldir. Svá segir í Völuspá:

27. Sal veit ek standa
sólu fegra,
gulli þakðan,
á Gimlé;
þar skulu dyggvar
dróttir byggva
ok um aldrdaga
ynðis njóta."

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat gætir þess staðar, þá er Surtalogi brennir himin ok jörð?"
Hárr segir: "Svá er sagt, at annarr himinn sé suðr ok upp frá þessum himni, ok heitir sá Andlangr, en inn þriði himinn sé enn upp frá þeim, ok heitir sá Víðbláinn, ok á þeim himni hyggjum vér þenna stað vera. En Ljósálfar einir, hyggjum vér, at nú byggvi þá staði."

XVII. Then said Gangleri: "Thou knowest many tidings to tell of the heaven. What chief abodes are there more than at Urdr's Well?" Hárr said: "Many places are there, and glorious. That which is called Álfheimr[1] is one, where dwell the peoples called Light-Elves; but the Dark-Elves dwell down in the earth, and they are unlike in appearance, but by far more unlike in nature. The Light-Elves are fairer to look upon than the sun, but the Dark-Elves are blacker than pitch. Then there is also in that place the abode called Breidablik,[2] and there is not in heaven a fairer dwelling. There, too, is the one called Glitnir,[3] whose walls, and all its posts and pillars, are of red gold, but its roof of silver. There is also the abode called Himinbjörg;[4] it stands at heaven's end by the bridge-head, in the place where Bifröst joins heaven. Another great abode is there, which is named Valaskjálf;[5] Odin possesses that dwelling; the gods made it and thatched it with sheer silver, and in this hall is the Hlidskjálf,[6] the high-seat so called. Whenever Allfather sits in that seat, he surveys all lands. At the southern end of heaven is that hall which is fairest of all, and brighter than the sun; it is called Gimlé.[7] It shall stand when both heaven and earth have departed; and good men and of righteous conversation shall dwell therein: so it is said in Völuspá.--

A hall I know standing | than the sun fairer,
Thatched with gold | in Gimlé bright;
There shall dwell | the doers of righteousness
And ever and ever | enjoy delight."

Then said Gangleri: "What shall guard this place, when the flame of Surtr shall consume heaven and earth?" Hárr answered: "It is sad that another heaven is to the southward and upward of this one, and it is called Andlangr;[8] but the third heaven is yet above that, and it is called Vídbláinn,[9] and in that heaven we think this abode is. But we believe that none but Light-Elves inhabit these mansions now." 

1. Elf-home.  2. Broad-gleaming.  3. Glittering. 4. Heaven-crag. 5. Seat or shelf of the Fallen. 6. Gate-seat. 7. Either dative of Himill = Heaven (?) (Cl.-Vig.), or Gem-decked (Bugge). 8. Wide-reaching, extensive. 9. Wide-blue.
18. Um uppruna vindsins. CHAPTER 18

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvaðan kemr vindr? Hann er sterkr, svá at hann hrærir stór höf, ok hann æsir eld. En svá sterkr sem hann er, þá má eigi sjá hann, því er hann undarliga skapaðr."
Þá mælti Hárr: "Þat kann ek vel segja þér. Á norðanverðum himins enda sitr jötunn sá, er Hræsvelgr heitir. Hann hefir arnarham, en er hann beinir flug, þá standa vindar undan vængjum hans. Hér segir svá:

28. Hræsvelgr heitir,
er sitr á himins enda,
jötunn í arnar ham;
af hans vængjum
kveða vind koma
alla menn yfir."

XVIII. Then said Gangleri: "Whence comes the wind? It is strong, so that it stirs great seas, and it swells fire; but, strong as it is, none may see it, for it is wonderfully shapen." Then said Hárr: "That I am well able to tell thee. At the northward end of heaven sits the giant called Hræsvelgr: he has the plumes of an eagle, and when he stretches his wings for flight, then the wind rises from under his wings, as is here said:

Hræsvelgr hight he | who sits at heaven's ending,
Giant in eagle's coat;
From his wings, they say, | the wind cometh
All men-folk over."

19. Um mismun Sumars ok Vetrar. CHAPTER 19
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hví skilr svá mikit, at sumar skal vera heitt, en vetr kaldr?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi mundi svá fróðr maðr spyrja, því at þetta vitu allir at segja. En ef þú einn ert orðinn svá fávíss, at eigi hefir þetta heyrt, þá vil ek þó þat vel virða, at heldr spyrir þú eitt sinn ófróðliga en þú gangir lengr duliðr þess, er skylt er at vita. Svásuðr heitir sá, er faðir Sumars er, ok er hann svá sællífr, svá at af hans heiti er þat kallat svásligt, er blítt er.
En faðir Vetrar er ýmist kallaðr Vindlóni eða Vindsvalr. Hann er Vásaðar son, ok váru þeir áttungar grimmir ok svalbrjóstaðir, ok hefir Vetr þeira skaplyndi."
XIX. Then said Gangleri: "Why is there so much difference, that summer should be hot, but winter cold?" Hárr answered: "A wise man would not ask thus, seeing that all are able to tell this; but if thou alone art become-so slight of understanding as not to have heard it, then I will yet permit that thou shouldst rather ask foolishly once, than that thou shouldst be kept longer in ignorance of a thing which it is proper to know. He is called Svásudr[1] who is father of Summer; and he is of pleasant nature, so that from his name whatsoever is pleasant is called 'sweet.'
But the father of Winter is variously called Vindljóni[2] or Vindsvalr;[3] he is the son of Vásadr;[4] and these were kinsmen grim and chilly-breasted, and Winter has their temper."

1 Delightful.
2. Wind-bringer? (Simrock). 3 Wind-chill. 4 Wet and sleety (Cl.-Vig.).
20. Frá Óðni ok nöfnum hans. CHAPTER 20

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverjir eru æsir, þeir er mönnum er skylt at trúa á?"
Hárr segir: "Tólf eru æsir goðkunnigir."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Eigi eru ásynjurnar óhelgari, ok eigi megu þær minna."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Óðinn er æðstr ok elztr ásanna. Hann ræðr öllum hlutum, ok svá sem önnur goðin eru máttug, þá þjóna honum öll svá sem börn föður, en Frigg er kona hans, ok veit hon örlög manna, þótt hon segi eigi spár, svá sem hér er sagt, at Óðinn mælti sjálfr við þann ás, er Loki heitir:

29. Ærr ertu, Loki,
ok örviti,
hví né lezk-a þú, Loki?
Örlög Frigg,
hygg ek, at öll viti,
þótt hon sjalfgi segi.

Óðinn heitir Alföðr, því at hann er faðir allra goða. Hann heitir ok Valföðr, því at hans óskasynir eru allir þeir, er í val falla. Þeim skipar hann Valhöll ok Vingólf, ok heita þeir þá Einherjar. Hann heitir ok Hangaguð ok Haftaguð, Farmaguð, ok enn hefir hann nefnzt á fleiri vega, þá er hann var kominn til Geirröðar konungs:

30. Hétumk Grímr
ok Gangleri,
Herjann, Hjalmberi,
Þekkr, Þriði,
Þuðr, Uðr,
Helblindi, Hárr,

31. Saðr, Svipall,
Sanngetall,
Herteitr, Hnikarr,
Bileygr, Báleygr,
Bölverkr, Fjölnir,
Grímnir, Glapsviðr, Fjölsviðr,

Síðhöttr, Síðskeggr,
Sigföðr, Hnikuðr,
Alföðr, Atríðr, Farmatýr,
Óski, Ómi,
Jafnhárr, Biflindi,
Göndlir, Hárbarðr,
Sviðurr, Sviðrir,
Jalkr, Kjalarr, Viðurr,
Þrór, Yggr, Þundr,
Vakr, Skilfingr,
Váfuðr, Hroftatýr,
Gautr, Veratýr."

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Geysimörg heiti hafit þér gefit honum, ok þat veit trúa mín, at þat mun vera mikill fróðleikr, sá er hér kann skyn ok dæmi, hverir atburðir hafa orðit sér til hvers þessa nafns."
Þá segir Hárr: "Mikil skynsemi er at rifja þat vandliga upp, en þó er þér þat skjótast at segja, at flest heiti hafa verit gefin af þeim atburð, at svá margar sem eru greinir tungnanna í veröldinni, þá þykkjast allar þjóðir þurfa at breyta nafni hans til sinnar tungu til ákalls ok bæna fyrir sjálfum sér, en sumir atburðir til þessa heita hafa gerzt í ferðum hans, ok er þat fært í frásagnir, ok muntu eigi mega fróðr maðr heita, ef þú skalt eigi kunna segja frá þeim stórtíðendum."

XX. Then said Gangleri: "Who are the Æsir, they in whom it behoves men to believe?" Hárr answered: "The divine Æsir are twelve." Then said Jafnhárr: "Not less holy are the Ásynjur, the goddesses, and they are of no less authority." Then said Thridi: "Odin is highest and eldest of the Æsir: he rules all things, and mighty as are the other gods, they all serve him as children obey a father. Frigg is his wife, and she knows all the fates of men, though she speaks no prophecy,--as is said here, when Odin himself spake with him of the Æsir whom men call Loki:

Thou art mad now, | Loki, and reft of mind,--
Why, Loki, leav'st thou not off?
Frigg, methinks, | is wise in all fates,
Though herself say them not!

Odin is called Allfather because he is father of all the gods. He is also called Father of the Slain, because all those that fall in battle are the sons of his adopt on; for them he appoints Valhall[4] and Vingólf,[5] and they are then called Champions. He is also called God of the Hanged, God of Gods, God of Cargoes; and he has also been named in many more ways, after he had come to King Geirrödr:

We were called Grímr | and Gangleri,
Herjann, Hjálmberi;
Thekkr, Thridi, | Thudr, Udr,
Helblindi, Hárr.

Sadr, Svipall, | Sann-getall,
Herteitr, Hnikarr;
Bileygr, Báleygr, | Bölverkr, Fjölnir,
Grímnir, Glapsvidr, Fjölsvidr.

Sídhöttr, Sidskeggr, | Sigfödr, Hnikudr,
Alfödr, Atrídr, Farmatýr;
Óski, Ómi, | Jafnhárr, Biflindi,
Göndlir, Hárbardr.

Svidurr, Svidrir, | Jálkr, Kjalarr, Vidurr,
Thrór, Yggr, Thundr;
Vakr, Skilfingr, | Váfudr, Hroptatýr,
Gautr, Veratýr."

Then said Gangleri: "Exceeding many names have ye given him; and, by my faith, it must indeed be a goodly wit that knows all the lore and the examples of what chances have brought about each of these names." Then Hárr made answer: "It is truly a vast sum of knowledge to gather[6] together and set forth fittingly. But it is briefest to tell thee that most of his names have been given him by reason of this chance: there being so many branches of tongues in the world, all peoples believed that it was needful for them to turn his name into their own tongue, by which they might the better invoke him and entreat him on their own behalf. But some occasions for these names arose in his wanderings; and that matter is recorded in tales. Nor canst thou ever be called a wise man if thou shalt not be able to tell of those great events."

1. Wind-bringer? (Simrock). 2 Wind-chill. 3 Wet and sleety (Cl.-Vig.). 4 Hall of the Slain. 5 Friendly Floor.]  6. Literally, to rake into rows.

21. Frá Ása-Þór. CHAPTER 21

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hver eru nöfn annarra ásanna, eða hvat hafast þeir at, eða hvat hafa þeir gert til frama?"
Hárr segir: "Þórr er þeira framast, sá er kallaðr er Ása-Þórr eða Öku-Þórr. Hann er sterkastr allra goðanna ok manna. Hann á þar ríki, er Þrúðvangar heita, en höll hans heitir Bilskirrnir. Í þeim sal eru fimm hundruð gólfa ok fjórir tigir. Þat er hús mest, svá at menn viti. Svá segir í Grímnismálum:

33. Fimm hundruð golfa
ok umb fjórum tögum,
svá hygg ek Bilskirrni með bugum;
ranna þeira,
er ek reft vita,
míns veit ek mest magar.

Þórr á hafra tvá, er svá heita: Tanngnjóstr ok Tanngrisnir, ok reið þá, er hann ekr, en hafrarnir draga reiðna. Því er hann kallaðr Öku-Þórr. Hann á ok þrjá kostgripi. Einn þeira er hamarrinn Mjöllnir, er hrímþursar ok bergrisar kenna, þá er hann kemr á loft, ok er þat eigi undarligt. Hann hefir lamit margan haus á feðrum eða frændum þeira. Annan grip á hann beztan, megingjarðar, ok er hann spennir þeim um sik, þá vex honum ásmegin hálfu. Inn þriðja hlut á hann, þann er mikill gripr er í. Þat eru járnglófar. Þeira má hann eigi missa við hamarskaftit. En engi er svá fróðr, at telja kunni öll stórvirki hans, en segja kann ek þér svá mörg tíðendi frá honum, at dveljast munu stundirnar, áðr en sagt er allt, þat er ek veit."


XXI. Then said Gangleri: "What are the names of the other Æsir, or what is their office, or what deeds of renown have they done?" Hárr answered: "Thor is the foremost of them, he that is called Thor of the Æsir, or Öku-Thor; he is strongest of all the gods and men. He has his realm in the place called Thrúdvangar, and his hall is called Bilskirnir;[2] in that hall are five hundred rooms and forty. That is the greatest house that men know of; It is thus said in Grímnismál:

Five hundred floors | and more than forty,
So reckon I Bilskirnir with bending ways;
Of those houses | that I know of hall-roofed,
My son's I know the most.

Thor has two he-goats, that are called Tooth-Gnasher and Tooth-Gritter, and a chariot wherein he drives, and the he-goats draw the chariot; therefore is he called Öku-Thor.[3] He has also three things of great price: one is the hammer Mjöllnir, which the Rime-Giants and the Hill-Giants know, when it is raised on high; and that is no wonder, it has bruised many a skull among their fathers or their kinsmen. He has a second costly thing, best of all: the girdle of might; and when he clasps it about him, then the godlike strength within him is increased by half. Yet a third thing he has, in which there is much virtue: his iron gloves; he cannot do without them when he uses his hammer-shaft. But no one is so wise that he can tell all his mighty works; yet I can tell thee so much tidings of him that the hours would be spent before all that I know were told."

1. Plains of strength. 2. From the flashing of light (Cl.-Vig.). 3. According to Cleasby-Vigfússon, a popular etymology. "Öku is not to be derived from áka (to drive), but is rather of Finnish origin, Ukko being the Thunder-god of the Chudic tribes." Jónsson, however, allows Snorri's etymology to stand.

22. Frá Baldri. CHAPTER 22

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Spyrja vil ek tíðenda af fleirum ásunum."
Hárr segir: "Annarr sonr Óðins er Baldr, ok er frá honum gott at segja. Hann er beztr, ok hann lofa allir. Hann er svá fagr álitum ok bjartr, svá at lýsir af honum, ok eitt gras er svá hvítt, at jafnat er til Baldrs brár. Þat er allra grasa hvítast, ok þar eftir máttu marka fegurð hans bæði á hár ok á líki. Hann er vitrastr ásanna ok fegrst talaðr ok líknsamastr, en sú náttúra fylgir honum, at engi má haldast dómr hans. Hann býr þar, sem heitir Breiðablik. Þat er á himni. Í þeim stað má ekki vera óhreint, svá sem hér segir:

34. Breiðablik heita,
þar er Baldr hefir
sér of görva sali,
á því landi,
er ek liggja veit
fæsta feiknstafi.

XXII. Then said Gangleri: "I would ask tidings of more Æsir." Hárr replied: "The second son of Odin is Baldr, and good things are to be said of him. He is best, and all praise him; he is so fair of feature, and so bright, that light shines from him. A certain herb is so white that it is likened to Baldr's brow; of all grasses it is whitest, and by it thou mayest judge his fairness, both in hair and in body. He is the wisest of the Æsir, and the fairest-spoken and most gracious; and that quality attends him, that none may gainsay his judgments. He dwells in the place called Breidablik,[1] which is in heaven; in that place may nothing unclean be, even as is said here:

Breidablik 't is called, | where Baldr has
A hall made for himself:
In that land | where I know lie
Fewest baneful runes.

1. Broad-gleaming.

23. Frá Nirði ok Skaða. CHAPTER 23

Inn þriði áss er sá, er kallaðr er Njörðr. Hann býr á himni, þar sem heitir Nóatún. Hann ræðr fyrir göngu vinds ok stillir sjá ok eld. Á hann skal heita til sæfara ok til veiða. Hann er svá auðigr ok fésæll, at hann má gefa þeim auð landa eða lausafjár. Á hann skal til þess heita. Eigi er Njörðr ása ættar. Hann var upp fæddr í Vanaheimi, en Vanir gísluðu hann goðunum ok tóku í mót at gíslingu þann, er Hænir heitir. Hann varð at sætt með goðum ok Vönum. Njörðr á þá konu, er Skaði heitir, dóttir Þjaza jötuns. Skaði vill hafa bústað þann, er átt hafði faðir hennar, þat er á fjöllum nökkurum, þar sem heitir Þrymheimr, en Njörðr vill vera nær sæ. Þau sættust á þat, at þau skyldu vera níu nætr í Þrymheimi, en þá aðrar níu at Nóatúnum. En er Njörðr kom aftr til Nóatúna af fjallinu, þá kvað hann þetta:

35. Leið erumk fjöll,
vark-a ek lengi á,
nætr einar níu;
ulfa þytr
mér þótti illr vera
hjá söngvi svana.

Þá kvað Skaði þetta:

36. Sofa ek né máttak
sævar beðjum á
fugls jarmi fyrir;
sá mik vekr,
er af víði kemr,
morgin hverjan már.

Þá fór Skaði upp á fjall ok byggði í Þrymheimi, ok ferr hon mjök á skíðum ok með boga ok skýtr dýr. Hon heitir öndurgoð eða öndurdís. Svá er sagt:

37. Þrymheimr heitir,
er Þjazi bjó,
sá inn ámáttki jötunn;
en nú Skaði byggvir,
skír brúðr goða,
fornar toftir föður.

XXIII. "The third among the Æsir is he that is called Njördr: he dwells in heaven, in the abode called Nóatún. He rules the course of the wind, and stills sea and fire; on him shall men call for voyages and for hunting. He is so prosperous and abounding in wealth, that he may give them great plenty of lands or of gear; and him shall men invoke for such things. Njördr is not of the race of the Æsir: he was reared in the land of the Vanir, but the Vanir delivered him as hostage to the gods, and took for hostage in exchange him that men call Hœnir; he became an atonement between the gods and the Vanir. Njördr has to wife the woman called Skadi, daughter of Thjazi the giant. Skadi would fain dwell in the abode which her father had had, which is on certain mountains, in the place called Thrymheimr; but Njördr would be near the sea. They made a compact on these terms: they should be nine nights in Thrymheimr, but the second nine at Nóatún. But when Njördr came down from the mountain back to Nóatún, he sang this lay:

Loath were the hills to me, | I was not long in them,
Nights only nine;
To me the wailing of | wolves seemed ill,
After the song of swans.

Then Skadi sang this:

Sleep could I never | on the sea-beds,
For the wailing of waterfowl;
He wakens me, | who comes from the deep--
The sea-mew every morn.

Then Skadi went up onto the mountain, and dwelt in Thrymheimr. And she goes for the more part on snowshoes and with a bow and arrow, and shoots beasts; she is called Snowshoe-Goddess or Lady of the Snowshoes. So it is said:

Thrymheimr 't is called, | where Thjazi dwelt,
He the hideous giant;
But now Skadi abides, | pure bride of the gods,
In her father's ancient freehold.

24. Frá Frey ok Freyju. CHAPTER 24

Njörðr í Nóatúnum gat síðan tvau börn. Hét annat Freyr, en dóttir Freyja. Þau váru fögr álitum ok máttug. Freyr er inn ágætasti af ásum. Hann ræðr fyrir regni ok skini sólar ok þar með ávexti jarðar, ok á hann er gott at heita til árs ok friðar. Hann ræðr ok fésælu manna. En Freyja er ágætust af ásynjum. Hon á þann bæ á himni, er Fólkvangr heitir. Ok hvar sem hon ríðr til vígs, þá á hon hálfan val, en hálfan Óðinn, svá sem hér segir:

38. Folkvangr heitir,
en þar Freyja ræðr
sessa kostum í sal;
halfan val
hon kýss hverjan dag,
en halfan Óðinn á.

Salr hennar Sessrúmnir, hann er mikill ok fagr. En er hon ferr, þá ekr hon köttum tveim ok sitr í reið. Hon er nákvæmust mönnum til á at heita, ok af hennar nafni er þat tignarnafn, er ríkiskonur eru kallaðar fróvur. Henni líkaði vel mansöngr. Á hana er gott at heita til ásta."

XXIV. "Njördr in Nóatún begot afterward two children: the son was called Freyr, and the daughter Freyja; they were fair of face and mighty. Freyr is the most renowned of the Æsir; he rules over the rain and the shining of the sun, and therewithal the fruit of the earth; and it is good to call on him for fruitful seasons and peace. He governs also the prosperity of men. But Freyja is the most renowned of the goddesses; she has in heaven the dwelling called Fólkvangr,[1] and wheresoever she rides to the strife, she has one-half of the kill, and Odin half, as is here said:

Fólkvangr 't is called, | where Freyja rules
Degrees of seats in the hall;
Half the kill | she keepeth each day,
And half Odin hath.

Her hall Sessrúmnir[2] is great and fair. When she goes forth, she drives her cats and sits in a chariot; she is most conformable to man's prayers, and from her name comes the name of honor, Frú, by which noblewomen are called. Songs of love are well-pleasing to her; it is good to call on her for furtherance in love."

25. Frá Tý. CHAPTER 25
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Miklir þykkja mér þessir fyrir sér æsirnir, ok eigi er undarligt, at mikill kraftr fylgi yðr, er þér skuluð kunna skyn goðanna ok vita, hvert biðja skal hverrar bænarinnar. Eða eru fleiri enn goðin?"
Hárr segir: "Sá er enn áss, er Týr heitir. Hann er djarfastr ok bezt hugaðr, ok hann ræðr mjök sigri í orrostum. Á hann er gott at heita hreystimönnum. Þat er orðtak, at sá er týhraustr, er um fram er aðra menn ok ekki sést fyrir. Hann var ok vitr, svá at þat er ok mælt, at sá er týspakr, er vitrastr er. Þat er eitt mark um djarfleik hans, þá er æsir lokkuðu Fenrisúlf til þess at leggja fjöturinn á hann, Gleipni, þá trúði hann þeim eigi, at þeir mundu leysa hann, fyrr en þeir lögðu honum at veði hönd Týs í munn hans, en þá er æsir vildu eigi leysa hann, þá beit hann höndina af, þar er nú heitir úlfliðr, ok er hann einhendr ok ekki kallaðr sættir manna.

XXV. Then said Gangleri: "Great in power do these Æsir seem to me; nor is it a marvel, that much authority attends you who are said to possess understanding of the gods, and know which one men should call on for what boon soever. Or are the gods yet more?" Hárr said: "Yet remains that one of the Æsir who is called Týr: he is most daring, and best in stoutness of heart, and he has much authority over victory in battle; it is good for men of valor to invoke him. It is a proverb, that he is Týr-valiant, who surpasses other men and does not waver. He is wise, so that it is also said, that he that is wisest is Týr-prudent. This is one token of his daring: when the Æsir enticed Fenris-Wolf to take upon him the fetter Gleipnir, the wolf did not believe them, that they would loose him, until they laid Týr's hand into his mouth as a pledge. But when the Æsir would not loose him, then he bit off the hand at the place now called 'the wolf's joint;' and Týr is one-handed, and is not called a reconciler of men.

1. Folk-plain, Host-plain.  2. Seat-roomy.

26. Frá Braga ok Iðunni. CHAPTER 26

Bragi heitir einn. Hann er ágætr at speki ok mest at málsnilld ok orðfimi. Hann kann mest af skáldskap, ok af honum er bragr kallaðr skáldskapr, ok af hans nafni er sá kallaðr bragr karla eða bragr kvinna, er orðsnilld hefir framar en aðrir, kona eða karlmaðr. Kona hans er Iðunn. Hon varðveitir í eski sínu epli þau, er goðin skulu á bíta, þá er þau eldast, ok verða þá allir ungir, ok svá mun vera allt til ragnarökrs."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmikit þykkir mér goðin eiga undir gæzlu eða trúnaði Iðunnar."
Þá mælti Hárr ok hló við: "Nær lagði þat ófæru einu sinni. Kunna mun ek þar af at segja, en þú skalt nú fyrst heyra fleiri nöfn ásanna.

XXVI. "One is called Bragi: he is renowned for wisdom, and most of all for fluency of speech and skill with words. He knows most of skaldship, and after him skaldship is called bragr,[1] and from his name that one is called bragr-man or -woman, who possesses eloquence surpassing others, of women or of men. His wife is Idunn: she guards in her chest of ash those apples which the gods must taste whensoever they grow old; and then they all become young, and so it shall be even unto the Weird of the Gods." Then said Gangleri: "A very great thing, methinks, the gods entrust to the watchfulness and good faith of Idunn." Then said Hárr, laughing loudly: "'T was near being desperate once; I may be able to tell thee of it, but now thou shalt first hear more of the names of the Æsir.

1. Bragr, as a noun, means "poetry" as an adjective, it seems to mean "foremost" (Cl.-Vig.). Thus the phrase bragr karla seems to be "foremost of men," with apparent reference to poetic preëminence.

27. Frá Heimdalli. CHAPTER 27

Heimdallr heitir einn. Hann er kallaðr hvíti áss. Hann er mikill ok heilagr. Hann báru at syni meyjar níu ok allar systr. Hann heitir ok Hallinskíði ok Gullintanni. Tennr hans váru af gulli. Hestr hans heitir Gulltoppr. Hann býr þar, er heita Himinbjörg við Bifröst. Hann er vörðr goða ok sitr þar við himins enda at gæta brúarinnar fyrir bergrisum. Hann þarf minna svefn en fugl. Hann sér jafnt nótt sem dag hundrað rasta frá sér. Hann heyrir ok þat, er gras vex á jörðu eða ull á sauðum, ok allt þat er hæra lætr. Hann hefir lúðr þann, er Gjallarhorn heitir, ok heyrir blástr hans í alla heima. Heimdallar sverð er kallat höfuð manns. Hér er svá sagt:

39. Himinbjörg heita,
en þar Heimdall
kveða valda véum;
þar vörðr goða
drekkr í væru ranni
glaðr inn góða mjöð.

Ok enn segir hann sjálfr í Heimdallargaldri:

40. Níu em ek mæðra mögr,
níu em ek systra sonr.

XXVII. "Heimdallr is the name of one: he is called the White God. He is great and holy; nine maids, all sisters, bore him for a son. He is also called Hallinskídi[1] and Gullintanni;[2] his teeth were of gold, and his horse is called Gold-top. He dwells in the place called Himinbjörg,[3] hard by Bifröst: he is the warder of the gods, and sits there by heaven's end to guard the bridge from the Hill-Giants. He needs less sleep than a bird; he sees equally well night and day a hundred leagues from him, and hears how grass grows on the earth or wool on sheep, and everything that has a louder sound. He has that trumpet which is called Gjallar-Horn, and its blast is heard throughout all worlds. Heimdallr's sword is called Head. It is said further:

Himinbjörg 't is called, | where Heimdallr, they say,
Aye has his housing;
There the gods' sentinel | drinks in his snug hall
Gladly good mead.
And furthermore, he himself says in Heimdalar-galdr:
I am of nine | mothers the offspring,
Of sisters nine | am I the son.

1. Ram (Cl.-Vig.).  2. Golden-teeth.  3. Heaven-fells.

28.  Frá Heði CHAPTER 28

Höðr heitir einn ásinn. Hann er blindr. Ærit er hann sterkr, en vilja mundu goðin, at þenna ás þyrfti eigi at nefna, því at hans handaverk munu lengi vera höfð at minnum með goðum ok mönnum.

XXVIII. "One of the Æsir is named Hödr: he is blind. He is of sufficient strength, but the gods would desire that no occasion should rise of naming this god, for the work of his hands shall long be held in memory among gods and men.

29.  Frá Heði CHAPTER 29

Víðarr heitir einn, inn þögli áss. Hann hefir skó þjokkvan. Hann er sterkr, næst því sem Þórr. Af honum hafa goðin mikit traust í allar þrautir.

XXIX. "Vídarr is the name of one, the silent god. He has a thick shoe. He is nearly as strong as Thor; in him the gods have great trust in all struggles.

30.  Frá Vála. CHAPTER 30

Áli eða Váli heitir einn, sonr Óðins ok Rindar. Hann er djarfr í orrostum ok mjök happskeytr.

XXX. "One is called Áli or Váli, son of Odin and Rindr: he is daring in fights, and a most fortunate marksman.

31.  Frá Ulli CHAPTER 31

Ullr heitir einn, sonr Sifjar, stúpsonr Þórs. Hann er bogmaðr svá góðr ok skíðfærr svá, at engi má við hann keppast. Hann er ok fagr álitum ok hefir hermanns atgervi. Á hann er ok gott at heita í einvígi.

XXXI. "One is called Ullr, son of Sif, step-son of Thor; he is so excellent a bowman, and so swift on snowshoes, that none may contend with him. He is also fair of aspect and has the accomplishments of a warrior; it is well to call on him in single-combats.

32.  Frá Forseta. CHAPTER 32

Forseti heitir sonr Baldrs ok Nönnu Nepsdóttur. Hann á þann sal á himni, er Glitnir heitir. En allir, er til hans koma með sakarvandræði, þá fara allir sáttir á braut. Sá er dómstaðr beztr með goðum ok mönnum. Svá segir hér:

41. Glitnir heitir salr,
hann er gulli studdr
ok silfri þakðr it sama;
en þar Forseti
byggvir flestan dag
ok svæfir allar sakar.

XXXII. "Forseti is the name of the son of Baldr and Nanna daughter of Nep: he has that hall in heaven which is called Glitnir. All that come to him with such quarrels as arise out of law-suits, all these return thence reconciled. That is the best seat of judgment among gods and men; thus it is said here:

A hall is called Glitnir, | with gold 't is pillared,
And with silver thatched the same;
There Forseti bides | the full day through,
And puts to sleep all suits.

33.  Frá Loka Laufeyjarsyni. CHAPTER 33
Sá er enn talðr með ásum, er sumir kalla rógbera ásanna ok frumkveða flærðanna ok vömm allra goða ok manna. Sá er nefndr Loki eða Loftr, sonr Fárbauta jötuns. Móðir hans heitir Laufey eða Nál. Bræðr hans eru þeir Býleistr ok Helblindi. Loki er fríðr ok fagr sýnum, illr í skaplyndi, mjök fjölbreytinn at háttum. Hann hafði þá speki um fram aðra menn, er slægð heitir, ok vélar til allra hluta. Hann kom ásum jafnan í fullt vandræði, ok oft leysti hann þá með vélræðum. Kona hans heitir Sigyn, sonr þeira Nari eða Narfi.

XXXIII. "Also numbered among the Æsir is he whom some call the mischief-monger of the Æsir, and the first father of falsehoods, and blemish of all gods and men: he is named Loki or Loptr, son of Fárbauti the giant; his mother was Laufey or Nál; his brothers are Býleistr and Helblindi. Loki is beautiful and comely to look upon, evil in spirit., very fickle in habit. He surpassed other men in that wisdom which is called 'sleight,' and had artifices for all occasions; he would ever bring the Æsir into great hardships, and then get them out with crafty counsel. His wife was called Sigyn, their son Nari or Narfi.

34.  Frá börnum Loka ok bundinn Fenrisúlfr. CHAPTER 34
Enn átti Loki fleiri börn. Angrboða hét gýgr í Jötunheimum. Við henni gat Loki þrjú börn. Eitt var Fenrisúlfr, annat Jörmungandr, þat er Miðgarðsormr, þriðja er Hel. En er goðin vissu til, at þessi þrjú systkin fæddust upp í Jötunheimum, ok goðin rökðu til spádóma, at af systkinum þessum myndi þeim mikit mein ok óhapp standa, ok þótti öllum mikils ills af væni, fyrst af móðerni ok enn verra af faðerni, þá sendi Alföðr til goðin at taka börnin ok færa sér. Ok er þau kómu til hans, þá kastaði hann orminum í inn djúpa sæ, er liggr um öll lönd, ok óx sá ormr svá, at hann liggr í miðju hafinu of öll lönd ok bítr í sporð sér.
Hel kastaði hann í Niflheim ok gaf henni vald yfir níu heimum, at hon skyldi skipta öllum vistum með þeim, er til hennar váru sendir, en þat eru sóttdauðir menn ok ellidauðir. Hon á þar mikla bólstaði, ok eru garðar hennar forkunnarhávir ok grindr stórar. Éljúðnir heitir salr hennar, Hungr diskr hennar, Sultr knífr hennar, Ganglati þrællinn, Ganglöt ambátt, Fallandaforað þresköldr hennar, er inn gengr, Kör sæing, Blíkjandaböl ársali hennar. Hon er blá hálf, en hálf með hörundarlit. Því er hon auðkennd ok heldr gnúpleit ok grimmlig.
Úlfinn fæddu æsir heima, ok hafði Týr einn djarfleik at ganga til at ok gefa honum mat. En er goðin sá, hversu mikit hann óx hvern dag, ok allar spár sögðu, at hann myndi vera lagðr til skaða þeim, þá fengu æsirnir þat ráð, at þeir gerðu fjötur allsterkan, er þeir kölluðu Læðing, ok báru hann til úlfsins ok báðu hann reyna afl sitt við fjöturinn, en úlfinum þótti sér þat ekki ofrefli ok lét þá fara með sem þeir vildu. En it fyrsta sinn, er úlfrinn spyrnði við, brotnaði sá fjöturr. Svá leystist hann ór Læðingi. Því næst gerðu æsirnar annan fjötr hálfu sterkara, er þeir kölluðu Dróma, ok báðu enn úlfinn reyna þann fjötur ok tölðu hann verða mundu ágætan mjök at afli, ef slík stórsmíði mætti eigi halda honum. En úlfrinn hugsaði, at þessi fjöturr var sterkr mjök, ok þat með, at honum hafði afl vaxit, síðan er hann braut Læðing - kom þat í hug, at hann myndi verða at leggja sik í hættu, ef hann skyldi frægr verða, ok lét leggja á sik fjöturinn. Ok er æsir tölðust búnir, þá hristi úlfrinn sik ok laust fjötrinum á jörðina ok knúðist fast at, spyrnði við, braut fjöturinn, svá at fjarri flugu brotin. Svá drap hann sik ór Dróma. Þat er síðan haft fyrir orðtak, at leysi ór Læðingi eða drepi ór Dróma, þá er einhver hlutr er ákafliga sóttr.
Eftir þat óttuðust æsirnar, at þeir myndi eigi fá bundit úlfinn. Þá sendi Alföðr þann, er Skírnir er nefndr, sendimaðr Freys, ofan í Svartálfaheim til dverga nökkurra ok lét gera fjötur þann, er Gleipnir heitir. Hann var gerr af sex hlutum: af dyn kattarins ok af skeggi konunnar ok af rótum bjargsins ok af sinum bjarnarins ok af anda fisksins ok af fugls hráka.
Ok þóttú vitir eigi áðr þessi tíðendi, þá máttu nú finna skjótt hér sönn dæmi, at eigi er logit at þér. Sét munt þú hafa, at konan hefir ekki skegg ok engi dynr verðr af hlaupi kattarins ok eigi eru rætr undir bjarginu. Ok þat veit trúa mín, at jafnsatt er þat allt, er ek hef sagt þér, þótt þeir sé sumir hlutir, er þú mátt eigi reyna."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þetta má ek at vísu skilja, at satt er. Þessa hluti má ek sjá, er þú hefir nú til dæma tekit. En hvernig varð fjöturrinn smíðaðr?"
Hárr segir: "Þat kann ek þér vel segja. Fjöturrinn varð sléttr ok blautr sem silkiræma, en svá traustr ok sterkr sem nú skaltu heyra. Þá er fjöturrinn var færðr ásunum, þökkuðu þeir vel sendimanni sitt erindi. Þá fóru æsirnir út í vatn þat, er Ámsvartnir heitir, í hólm þann, er Lyngvi er kallaðr, ok kölluðu með sér úlfinn, sýndu honum silkibandit ok báðu hann slíta ok kváðu vera nökkuru traustara en líkendi þætti á fyrir digrleiks sakir, ok seldi hverr öðrum ok treysti með handafli, ok slitnaði eigi, en þó kváðu þeir úlfinn slíta mundu.
Þá svarar úlfrinn: "Svá lízt mér á þenna dregil sem enga frægð munak af hljóta, þótt ek slíta í sundr svá mjótt band. En ef þat er gert með list ok vél, þótt þat sýnist lítit, þá kemr þat band eigi á mína fætr."
Þá sögðu æsirnir, at hann myndi skjótt sundr slíta mjótt silkiband, er hann hafði fyrr brotit stóra járnfjötra, - "en ef þú fær eigi þetta band slitit, þá muntu ekki hræða mega goðin. Skulum vér þá leysa þik."
Úlfrinn segir: "Ef þér bindið mik, svá at ek fæk eigi leyst mik, þá skollið þér svá, at mér mun seint verða at taka af yðr hjálp. Ófúss em ek at láta þetta band á mik leggja, en heldr en þér frýið mér hugar, þá leggi einn hverr yðarr hönd sína í munn mér at veði, at þetta sé falslaust gert."
En hverr ásanna sá til annars ok þótti nú vera tvau vandræði, ok vildi engi sína hönd fram selja, fyrr en Týr lét fram hönd sína hægri ok leggr í munn úlfinum. En er úlfrinn spyrnir, þá harðnaði bandit, ok því harðara er hann brauzt um, því skarpara var bandit. Þá hlógu allir nema Týr. Hann lét hönd sína. Þá er æsirnir sá, at úlfrinn var bundinn at fullu, þá tóku þeir festina, er ór var fjötrinum, er Gelgja heitir, ok drógu hana gegnum hellu mikla, - sú heitir Gjöll, - ok festu helluna langt í jörð niðr. Þá tóku þeir mikinn stein ok skutu enn lengra í jörðina, - sá heitir Þviti, - ok höfðu þann stein fyrir festarhælinn. Úlfrinn gapði ákafliga ok fekksk um mjök ok vildi bíta þá. Þeir skutu í munn honum sverði nökkuru. Nema hjöltin við neðra gómi, en efra gómi blóðrefillinn. Þat er gómsparri hans. Hann grenjar illiliga, ok slefa renn ór munni hans. Þat er á sú, er Ván heitir. Þar liggr hann til ragnarökrs."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Furðu illa barna eign gat Loki, en öll þessi systkin eru mikil fyrir sér. En fyrir hví drápu æsir eigi úlfinn, er þeim er ills ván af honum?"
Hárr svarar: "Svá mikils virðu goðin vé sín ok griðastaði, at eigi vildu þau saurga þá með blóði úlfsins, þótt svá segi spárnar, at hann myni verða at bana Óðni."

XXXIV. Yet more children had Loki. Angrboda was the name of a certain giantess in Jötunheim, with whom Loki gat three children: one was Fenris-Wolf, the second Jörmungandr--that is the Midgard Serpent,--the third is Hel. But when the gods learned that this kindred was nourished in Jötunheim, and when the gods perceived by prophecy that from this kindred great misfortune should befall them; and since it seemed to all that there was great prospect of ill--(first from the mother's blood, and yet worse from the father's)-then Allfather sent gods thither to take the children and bring them to him. When they came to him, straightway he cast the serpent into the deep sea, where he lies about all the land; and this serpent grew so greatly that he lies in the midst of the ocean encompassing all the land, and bites upon his own tail. Hel he cast into Niflheim, and gave to her power over nine worlds, to apportion all abodes among those that were sent to her: that is, men dead of sickness or of old age. She has great possessions there; her walls are exceeding high and her gates great. Her hall is called Sleet-Cold; her dish, Hunger; Famine is her knife; Idler, her thrall; Sloven, her maidservant; Pit of Stumbling, her threshold, by which one enters; Disease, her bed; Gleaming Bale, her bed-hangings. She is half blue-black and half flesh-color (by which she is easily recognized), and very lowering and fierce.
The Wolf the Æsir brought up at home, and Týr alone dared go to him to give him meat. But when the gods saw. how much he grew every day, and when all prophecies declared that he was fated to be their destruction, then the Æsir seized upon this way of escape: they made a very strong fetter, which they called Lædingr, and brought it before the Wolf, bidding him try his strength against the fetter. The Wolf thought that no overwhelming odds, and let them do with him as they would. The first time the Wolf lashed out against it, the fetter broke; so he was loosed out of Lædingr. After this, the Æsir made a second fetter, stronger by half, which they called Drómi, and bade the Wolf try that fetter, saying he would become very famous for strength, if such huge workmanship should not suffice to hold him. But the Wolf thought that this fetter was very strong; he considered also that strength had increased in him since the time he broke Lædingr: it came into his mind, that he must expose himself to danger, if he would become famous. So he let the fetter be laid upon him. Now when the Æsir declared themselves ready, the Wolf shook himself, dashed the fetter against the earth and struggled fiercely with it, spurned against it, and broke the fetter, so that the fragments flew far. So he dashed himself out of Drómi. Since then it passes as a proverb, 'to loose out of Lædingr,' or 'to dash out of Drómi,' when anything is exceeding hard.
"After that the Æsir feared that they should never be able to get the Wolf bound. Then Allfather sent him who is called Skírnir, Freyr's messenger, down into the region of the Black Elves, to certain dwarves, and caused to be made the fetter named Gleipnir. It was made of six things: the noise a cat makes in foot-fall, the beard of a woman, the roots of a rock, the sinews of a bear, the breath of a fish, and the spittle of a bird. And though thou understand not these matters already, yet now thou mayest speedily find certain proof herein, that no lie is told thee: thou must have seen that a woman has no beard, and no sound comes from the leap of a cat, and there are no roots under a rock; and by my troth, all that I have told thee is equally true, though there be some things which thou canst not put to the test."
Then said Gangleri: "This certainly I can perceive to be true: these things which thou hast taken for proof, I can see; but how was the fetter fashioned?" Hárr answered: "That I am well able to tell thee. The fetter was soft and smooth as a silken ribbon, but as sure and strong as thou shalt now hear. Then, when the fetter was brought to the Æsir, they thanked the messenger well for his errand. Then the Æsir went out upon the lake called Ámsvartnir, to the island called Lyngvi, and summoning the Wolf with them, they showed him the silken ribbon and bade him burst it, saying that it was somewhat stouter than appeared from its thickness. And each passed it to the others, and tested it with the strength of their hands and it did not snap; yet they said the Wolf could break it. Then the Wolf answered: 'Touching this matter of the ribbon, it seems to me that I shall get no glory of it, though I snap asunder so slender a band; but if it be made with cunning and wiles, then, though it seem little, that band shall never come upon my feet.' Then the Æsir answered that he could easily snap apart a slight silken band, he who had before broken great fetters of iron,--'but if thou shalt not be able to burst this band, then thou wilt not be able to frighten the gods; and then we shall unloose thee.' The Wolf said: 'If ye bind me so that I shall not get free again, then ye will act in such a way that it will be late ere I receive help from you; I am unwilling that this band  should be laid upon me. Yet rather than that ye should impugn my courage, let some one of you lay his hand in my mouth, for a pledge that this is done in good faith.' Each of the Æsir looked at his neighbor, and none was willing to part with his hand, until Týr stretched out his right hand and laid it in the Wolf's mouth. But when the Wolf lashed out, the fetter became hardened; and the more he struggled against it, the tighter the band was. Then all laughed except Týr: he lost his hand.
"When the Æsir saw that the Wolf was fully bound, they took the chain that was fast to the fetter, and which is called Gelgja, and passed it through a great rock--it is called Gjöll--and fixed the rock deep down into the earth. Then they took a great stone and drove it yet deeper into the earth--it was called Thviti--and used the stone for a fastening-pin. The Wolf gaped terribly, and thrashed about and strove to bite them; they thrust into his mouth a certain sword: the guards caught in his lower jaw, and the point in the upper; that is his gag. He howls hideously, and slaver runs out of his mouth: that is the river called Ván; there he lies till the Weird of the Gods." Then said Gangleri: 'Marvellous ill children did Loki beget, but all these brethren are of great might. Yet why did not the Æsir kill the Wolf, seeing they had expectation of evil from him?" Hárr answered: "So greatly did the gods esteem their holy place and sanctuary, that they would not stain it with the Wolf's blood; though (so say the prophecies) he shall be the slayer of Odin."

35.  Frá ásynjum. CHAPTER 35

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverjar eru ásynjurnar?"
Hárr segir: "Frigg er æðst. Hon á þann bæ, er Fensalir heita, ok er hann allvegligr.
Önnur er Sága. Hon býr á Sökkvabekk, ok er þat mikill staðr.
Þriðja er Eir. Hon er læknir beztr.
Fjórða er Gefjun. Hon er mær, ok henni þjóna þær, er meyjar andast.
Fimmta er Fulla. Hon er enn mær ok ferr laushár ok gullband um höfuð. Hon berr eski Friggjar ok gætir skóklæða hennar ok veit launráð með henni.
Freyja er tignust með Frigg. Hon giftist þeim manni, er Óðr heitir. Dóttir þeira er Hnoss. Hon er svá fögr, at af hennar nafni eru hnossir kallaðar, þat er fagrt er ok gersimligt. Óðr fór í braut langar leiðir, en Freyja grætr eftir, en tár hennar er gull rautt. Freyja á mörg nöfn, en sú er sök til þess, at hon gaf sér ýmis heiti, er hon fór með ókunnum þjóðum at leita Óðs. Hon heitir Mardöll ok Hörn, Gefn, Sýr. Freyja átti Brísingamen. Hon er ok kölluð Vanadís.
Sjaunda Sjöfn, hon gætir mjök til at snúa hugum manna til ásta, kvinna ok karla, ok af hennar nafni er elskhuginn kallaðr sjafni.
Átta Lofn, hon er svá mild ok góð til áheita, at hon fær leyfi af Alföðr eða Frigg til manna samgangs, kvinna ok karla, þótt áðr sé bannat eða þvertekit þykki. Þat er af hennar nafni lof kallat ok svá þat, at hon er lofuð mjök af mönnum.
Níunda Vár, hon hlýðir á eiða manna ok einkamál, er veita sín á milli konur ok karlar. Því heita þau mál várar. Hon hefnir ok þeim, er brigða.
Tíunda Vör, hon er vitr ok spurul, svá at engi hlut má hana leyna. Þat er orðtak, at kona verði vör þess, er hon verðr vís.
Ellifta Syn, hon gætir dura í höllinni ok lýkr fyrir þeim, er eigi skulu inn ganga, ok hon er sett til varnar á þingum fyrir þau mál, er hon vill ósanna. Því er þat orðtak, at syn sé fyrir sett, þá er maðr neitar.
Tólfta Hlín, hon er sett til gæzlu yfir þeim mönnum, er Frigg vill forða við háska nökkurum. Þaðan af er þat orðtak, at sá, er forðast, hleinir.
Þrettánda Snotra, hon er vitr ok látprúð. Af hennar heiti er kallat snotr kona eða karlmaðr, sá er hóflátr er.
Fjórtánda Gná, hana sendir Frigg í ýmsa heima at erendum sínum. Hon á þann hest, er renn loft ok lög ok heitir Hófvarpnir. Þat var eitt sinn, er hon reið, at vanir nökkurir sá reið hennar í loftinu. Þá mælti einn:

42. "Hvat þar flýgr,
hvat þar ferr
eða at lofti líðr?"

Hon svarar:

43. "Né ek flýg,
þó ek ferk
ok at lofti líðk
á Hófvarpni,
þeim er Hamskerpir
gat við Garðrofu."

Af Gnár nafni er svá kallat, at þat gnæfar, er hátt ferr.
Sól ok Bil eru talðar með ásynjum, en sagt er fyrr frá eðli þeira.

XXXV. Then said Gangleri: "Which are the Ásynjur? Hárr said: "Frigg is the foremost: she has that estate which is called Fensalir, and it is most glorious. The second is Sága: she dwells at Søkkvabekkr, and that is a great abode. The third is Fir: she is the best physician. The fourth is Gefjun: she is a virgin, and they that die maidens attend her. The fifth is Fulla: she also is a maid, and goes with loose tresses and a golden band about her head; she bears the ashen coffer of Frigg, and has charge over her footgear, and knows her secret counsel. Freyja is most gently born (together with Frigg): she is wedded to the man named Ódr. Their daughter is Hnoss: she is so fair, that those things which are fair and precious are called hnossir. Ódr went away on long journeys, and Freyja weeps for him, and her tears are red gold. Freyja has many names, and this is the cause thereof: that she gave herself sundry names, when she went out among unknown peoples seeking Ódr: she is called Mardöll and Hörn, Gefn, Sýr. Freyja had the necklace Brísinga-men. She is also called Lady of the Vanir. The seventh is Sjöfn: she is most diligent in turning the thoughts of men to love, both of women and of men; and from her name love-longing is called sjafni. The eighth is Lofn: she is so gracious and kindly to those that call upon her, that she wins Allfather's or Frigg's permission for the coming together of mankind in marriage, of women and of men, though it were forbidden before, or seem flatly denied; from her name such permission is called 'leave,' and thus also she is much 'loved' of men. The ninth is Vár: she harkens to the oaths and compacts made between men and women; wherefore such covenants are called 'vows.' She also takes vengeance on those who perjure themselves. The tenth is Vör: she is wise and of searching spirit, so that none can conceal anything from her; it is a saying, that a woman becomes 'ware' of that of which she is informed. The eleventh is Syn: she keeps the door in the hall, and locks it before those who should not go in; she is also set at trials as a defence against such suits as she wishes to refute: thence is the expression, that syn[1] is set forward, when a man denies. The twelfth is Hlín: she is established as keeper over those men whom Frigg desires to preserve from any danger; thence comes the saying, that he who escapes 'leans.' Snotra is thirteenth: she is prudent and of gentle bearing; from her name a woman or a man who is moderate is called snotr.[2] The fourteenth is Gná: her Frigg sends into divers lands on her errands; she has that horse which runs over sky and sea and is called Hoof-Tosser. Once when she was riding, certain of the Vanir saw her course in the air; then one spake:

What flieth there? | What fareth there,
Or glideth in the air?

She made answer:

I fly not, | though I fare
And in the air glide
On Hoof-Tosser, | him that Hamskerpir
Gat with Gardrofa.

From Gná's name that which soars high is said to gnæfa.[3] Sól and Bil are reckoned among the Ásynjur, but their nature has been told before.

1. Denial, refutation.  2. Wise, prudent. 3. Project, be eminent, tower.

36.  Frá valkyrjum CHAPTER 36

Enn eru þær aðrar, er þjóna skulu í Valhöll, bera drykkju ok gæta borðbúnaðar ok ölgagna. Svá eru þær nefndar í Grímnismálum:

44. Hrist ok Mist,
vil ek, at mér horn beri,
Skeggjöld ok Skögul,
Hildr ok Þrúðr,
Hlökk ok Herfjötur,
Göll ok Geirahöð,
Randgríðr ok Ráðgríðr,
ok Reginleif,
þær bera Einherjum öl.

Þessar heita valkyrjur. Þær sendir Óðinn til hverrar orrustu. Þær kjósa feigð á menn ok ráða sigri. Guðr ok Róta ok norn in yngsta, er Skuld heitir, ríða jafnan at kjósa val ok ráða vígum. Jörð, móðir Þórs, ok Rindr, móðir Vála, eru talðar með ásynjum.

XXXVI. "There are also those others whose office it is to serve in Valhall, to bear drink and mind the table-service and ale-flagons; thus are they named in Grímnismál:

Hrist and Mist | I would have bear the horn to me,
Skeggjöld and Skögull;
Hildr and Thrúdr, | Hlökk and Herfjötur,
Göll and Geirahöd,
Randgrídr and Rádgrídr | and Reginleif
These bear the Einherjar ale.

These are called Valkyrs: them Odin sends to every battle; they determine men's feyness and award victory. Gudr and Róta and the youngest Norn, she who is called Skuld, ride ever to take the slain and decide fights. Jörd, the mother of Thor, and Rindr, Váli's mother, are reckoned among the Ásynjur.

37.  Freyr fekk Gerðar Gymisdóttir. CHAPTER 37

Gymir hét maðr, en kona hans Aurboða. Hon var bergrisa ættar. Dóttir þeira er Gerðr, er allra kvinna var fegrst. Þat var einn dag, at Freyr hafði gengit í Hliðskjálf ok sá of heima alla. En er hann leit í norðrætt, þá sá hann á einum bæ mikit hús ok fagrt, ok til þess húss gekk kona, ok er hon tók upp höndum ok lauk hurð fyrir sér, þá lýsti af höndum hennar bæði í loft ok á lög, ok allir heimar birtust af henni. Ok svá hefnði honum þat mikla mikillæti, er hann hafði setzt í þat it helga sæti, at hann gekk í braut fullr af harmi. Ok er hann kom heim, mælti hann ekki. Ekki svaf hann, ekki drakk hann. Engi þorði ok at krefja hann orða.
Þá lét Njörðr kalla til sín Skírni, skósvein Freys, ok bað hann ganga til Freys ok beiða hann orða ok spyrja, hverjum hann væri svá reiðr, at hann mælti ekki við menn. En Skírnir lézt ganga mundu ok eigi fúss ok kvað illra svara vera ván af honum. En er hann kom til Freys, þá spurði hann, hví Freyr var svá hnipinn ok mælti ekki við menn.
Þá svarar Freyr ok sagði, at hann hefði sét konu fagra ok fyrir hennar sakir var hann svá harmfullr, at eigi myndi hann lengi lifa, ef hann skyldi eigi ná henni - "ok nú skaltu fara ok biðja hennar mér til handa ok hafa hana heim hingat, hvárt er faðir hennar vill eða eigi, ok skal ek þat vel launa þér."
Þá svarar Skírnir, sagði svá, at hann skal fara sendiferð, en Freyr skal fá honum sverð sitt. Þat var svá gott sverð, at sjálft vást. En Freyr lét eigi þat til skorta ok gaf honum sverðit. Þá fór Skírnir ok bað honum konunnar ok fekk heit hennar, ok níu nóttum síðar skyldi hon þar koma, er Barrey heitir, ok ganga þá at brullaupinu með Frey. En er Skírnir sagði Frey sitt erindi, þá kvað hann þetta:

45. Löng er nótt,
löng er önnur,
hvé mega ek þreyja þrjár?
Oft mér mánaðr
minni þótti

en sjá half hýnótt.

Þessi sök er til þess, er Freyr var svá vápnlauss, er hann barðist við Belja ok drap hann með hjartarhorni."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Undr mikit, er þvílíkr höfðingi sem Freyr er vildi gefa sverð, svá at hann átti eigi annat jafngott. Geysimikit mein var honum þat, þá er hann barðist við þann, er Beli heitir. Þat veit trúa mín, at þeirar gjafar myndi hann þá iðrast."
Þá svarar Hárr: "Lítit mark var þá at, er þeir Beli hittust. Drepa mátti Freyr hann með hendi sinni. Verða mun þat, er Frey mun þykkja verr við koma, er hann missir sverðsins, þá er Múspellssynir fara at herja."

XXXVII. "A certain man was called Gýmir, and his wife Aurboda: she was of the stock of the Hill-Giants; their daughter was Gerdr, who was fairest of all women. It chanced one day that Freyr had gone to Hlidskjálf, and gazed over all the world; but when he looked over into the northern region, he saw on an estate a house great and fair. And toward this house went a woman; when she raised her hands and opened the door before her, brightness gleamed from her hands, both over sky and sea, and all the worlds were illumined of her. Thus his overweening pride, in having presumed to sit in that holy seat, was avenged upon him, that he went away full of sorrow. When he had come home, he spake not, he slept not, he drank not; no man dared speak to him. Then Njördr summoned to him Skírnir, Freyr's foot-page, and bade him go to Freyr and beg speech of him and ask for whose sake he was so bitter that he would not speak with men. But Skírnir said he would go, albeit unwillingly; and said that evil answers were to be expected of Freyr.
"But when he came to Freyr, straightway he asked why Freyr was so downcast, and spake not with men. Then Freyr answered and said that he had seen a fair woman; and for her sake he was so full of grief that he would not live long if he were not to obtain her. 'And now thou shalt go and woo her on my behalf and have her hither, whether her father will or no. I will reward thee well for it.' Then Skírnir answered thus: he would go on his errand, but Freyr should give him his own sword--which is so good that it fights of itself;--and Freyr did not refuse, but gave him the sword. Then Skírnir went forth and wooed the woman for him, and received her promise; and nine nights later she was to come to the place called Barrey, and then go to the bridal with Freyr. But when Skírnir told Freyr his answer, then he sang this lay:

Long is one night, | long is the second;
How can I wait through three?
Often a month | to me seemed less
Than this one night of waiting.

This was to blame for Freyr's being so weaponless, when he fought with Beli, and slew him with the horn of a hart." Then said Gangleri: "'T is much to be wondered at, that such a great chief as Freyr is would give away his sword, not having another equally good. It was a great privation to him, when he fought with him called Beli; by my faith, he must have rued that gift." Then answered Hárr: "There was small matter in that, when he and Beli met; Freyr could have killed him with his hand. It shall come to pass that Freyr will think a worse thing has come upon him, when he misses his sword on that day that the Sons of Múspell go a-harrying."

38. Frá vist Einherja ok Óðins CHAPTER 38

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þat segir þú, at allir þeir menn, er í orrustu hafa fallit frá upphafi heims eru nú komnir til Óðins í Valhöll. Hvat hefir hann at fá þeim at vistum? Ek hugða, at þar skyldi vera allmikit fjölmenni."
Þá svarar Hárr: "Satt er þat, er þú segir, allmikit fjölmenni er þar. En miklu fleira skal enn verða, ok mun þó oflítit þykkja, þá er úlfrinn kemr. En aldri er svá mikill mannfjölði í Valhöll, at eigi má þeim endast flesk galtar þess, er Sæhrímnir heitir. Hann er soðinn hvern dag, ok heill at aftni. En þessi spurning, er nú spyrr þú, þykkir mér líkara, at fáir myni svá vísir vera, at hér kunni satt af at segja. Andhrímnir heitir steikarinn, en Eldhrímnir ketillinn. Svá er hér sagt:

46. Andhrímnir
lætr í Eldhrímni
Sæhrímni soðinn,
fleska bazt,
en þat fáir vitu,
við hvat einherjar alask."

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvárt hefir Óðinn þat sama borðhald sem einherjar?"
Hárr segir: "Þá vist, er á hans borði stendr, gefr hann tveim úlfum, er hann á, er svá heita, Geri ok Freki. En enga vist þarf hann: Vín er honum bæði drykkr ok matr. Svá segir hér:

47. Gera ok Freka
seðr gunntamiðr,
hróðigr Herjaföður;
en við vín eitt
vápngöfigr
Óðinn æ lifir.

Hrafnar tveir sitja á öxlum honum ok segja í eyru honum öll tíðendi, þau er þeir sjá eða heyra. Þeir heita svá, Huginn ok Muninn. Þá sendir hann í dagan at fljúga um heim allan, ok koma þeir aftr at dögurðarmáli. Þar af verðr hann margra tíðenda víss. Því kalla menn hann Hrafnaguð, svá sem sagt er:

48. Huginn ok Muninn
fljúga hverjan dag
jörmungrund yfir;
óumk ek Hugin,
at hann aftr né komi,
þó sjáumk ek meir of Munin."

XXXVIII. Then said Gangleri: "Thou sayest that all those men who have fallen in battle from the beginning of the world are now come to Odin in Valhall. What has he to give them for food? I should think that a very great host must be there." Then Hárr answered: "That which thou sayest is true: a very mighty multitude is there, but many more shall be, notwithstanding which it will seem all too small, in the time when the Wolf shall come. But never is so vast a multitude in Valhall that the flesh of that boar shall fail, which s called Sæhrímnir; he is boiled every day and is whole at evening. But this question which thou askest now: I think it likelier that few may be so wise as to be able to report truthfully concerning it. His name who roasts is Andhrímnir, and the kettle is Eldhrímnir; so it is said here:

Andhrímnir | has in Eldhrímnir
Sæhrímnir sodden,
Best of hams; | yet how few know
With what food the champions are fed."

Then said Gangleri: "Has Odin the same fare as the champions?" Hárr answered: "That food which stands on his board he gives to two wolves which he has, called Geri[1] and Freki;[2] but no food does he need; wine is both food and drink to him; so it says here:

Geri and Freki | the war-mighty glutteth,
The glorious God of Hosts;
But on wine alone | the weapon-glorious
Odin aye liveth.

The ravens sit on his shoulders and say into his ear all the tidings which they see or hear; they are called thus: Huginn[3] and Muninn.[4] He sends them at day-break to fly about all the world, and they come back at undern-meal; thus he is acquainted with many tidings. Therefore men call him Raven-God, as is said:

Huginn and Muninn hover each day
The wide earth over;
I fear for Huginn lest he fare not back,--
Yet watch I more for Muninn."

1. Ravener.  2. Glutton, greedy.  3. Thought.  4. Memory.

39.  Frá drykk Einherja. CHAPTER 39

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafa einherjar at drykk, þat er þeim endist jafngnógliga sem vistin, eða er þar vatn drukkit?"
Þá segir Hárr: "Undarliga spyrr þú nú, at Alföðr mun bjóða til sín konungum eða jörlum eða öðrum ríkismönnum ok myni gefa þeim vatn at drekka. Ok þat veit trúa mín, at margr kemr sá til Valhallar, er dýrt mundi þykkjast kaupa vatnsdrykkinn, ef eigi væri betra fagnaðar þangat at vitja, sá er áðr þolir sár ok sviða til banans. Annat kann ek þér þaðan segja. Geit sú, er Heiðrún heitir, stendr uppi á Valhöll ok bítr barr af limum trés þess, er mjök er nafnfrægt, er Læraðr heitir, en ór spenum hennar rennr mjöðr sá, er hon fyllir skapker hvern dag. Þat er svá mikit, at allir Einherjar verða fulldrukknir af."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þat er þeim geysihaglig geit. Forkunnargóðr viðr mun þat vera, er hon bítr af."
Þá mælti Hárr: "Enn er meira mark at of hjörtinn Eikþyrni, er stendr á Valhöll ok bítr af limum þess trés, en af hornum hans verðr svá mikill dropi, at niðr kemr í Hvergelmi, ok þaðan af falla þær ár, er svá heita: Síð, Víð, Sækin, Ekin, Svöl, Gunnþró, Fjörm, Fimbulþul, Gípul, Göpul, Gömul, Geirvimul. Þessar falla um ása byggðir. Þessar eru enn nefndar: Þyn, Vín, Þöll, Höll, Gráð, Gunnþráin, Nyt, Nöt, Nönn, Hrönn, Vína, Vegsvinn, Þjóðnuma."

XXXIX. Then said Gangleri: "What have the champions to drink, that may suffice them as abundantly as the food? Or is water drunk there?"' Then said Hárr: "Now thou askest strangely; as if Allfather would invite to him kings or earls or other men of might and would give them water to drink! I know, by my faith! that many a man comes to Valhall who would think he had bought his drink of water dearly, if there were not better cheer to be had there, he who before had suffered wounds and burning pain unto death. I can tell thee a different tale of this. The she-goat, she who is called Heidrún, stands up in Valhall and bites the needles from the limb of that tree which is very famous, and is called Lærádr; and from her udders mead runs so copiously, that she fills a tun every day. That tun is so great that all the champions become quite drunk from it." Then said Gangleri: "That is a wondrous proper goat for them; it must be an exceeding good tree from which she eats." Then spake Hárr: "Even more worthy of note is the hart Eikthyrni, which stands in Valhall and bites from the limbs of the tree; and from his horns distils such abundant exudation that it comes down into Hvergelmir, and from thence fall those rivers called thus: Síd, Víd, Søkin, Eikin, Svöl, Gunnthrá, Fjörm, Fimbulthul, Gípul, Göpul, Gömul, Geirvimul. Those fall about the abodes of the Æsir; these also are recorded: Thyn, Vín, Thöll, Höll, Grád, Gunnthráin, Nyt, Nöt, Nönn, Hrönn, Vína, Vegsvinn, Thjódnuma."

40.  Um stærð Valhallar. CHAPTER 40
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þetta eru undarlig tíðendi, er nú sagðir þú. Geysimikit hús mun Valhöll vera. Allþröngt mun þar oft vera fyrir durum."
Þá svarar Hárr: "Hví spyrr þú eigi þess, hversu margar dyrr eru á höllinni eða hversu stórar? Ef þú heyrir þat sagt, þá muntu segja, at hitt er undarligt, ef eigi má ganga út ok inn hverr, er vill. En þat er með sönnu at segja, at eigi er þröngra at skipa hana en ganga í hana. Hér máttu heyra í Grímnismálum:
49. Fimm hundrað dura
ok of fjórum tögum,
svá hygg ek á Valhöllu vera;
átta hundruð Einherja
ganga senn ór einum durum
þá er þeir fara með vitni at vega."

XL. Then said Gangleri: "These are marvellous tidings which thou now tellest. A wondrous great house Valhall must be; it must often be exceeding crowded before the doors." Then Hárr answered: "Why dost thou not ask how many doors there are in the hall, or how great? If thou hearest that told, then thou wilt say that it is strange indeed if whosoever will may not go out and in; but it may be said truly that it is no more crowded to find place therein than to enter into it; here thou mayest read in Grímnismál:

Five hundred doors | and forty more
So I deem stand in Valhall;
Eight hundred champions | go out at each door
When they fare to fight with the Wolf."

41.  Frá skemmtan Einherja. CHAPTER 41

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmikill mannfjölði er í Valhöll. Svá njóta trú minnar, at allmikill höfðingi er Óðinn, er hann stýrir svá miklum her. Eða hvat er skemmtun Einherja, þá er þeir drekka eigi?"
Hárr segir: "Hvern dag, þá er þeir hafa klæðzt, þá hervæða þeir sik ok ganga út í garðinn ok berjask, ok fellir hverr annan. Þat er leikr þeira. Ok er líðr at dögurðarmáli, þá ríða þeir heim til Valhallar ok setjast til drykkju, svá sem hér segir:

50. Allir Einherjar
Óðins túnum í
höggvask hverjan dag,
val þeir kjósa
ok ríða vígi frá,
sitja meir of sáttir saman.

En satt er þat, er þú sagðir. Mikill er Óðinn fyrir sér. Mörg dæmi finnast til þess. Svá er hér sagt í orðum sjálfra ásanna:

51. Askr Yggdrasils,
hann er æðstr viða,
en Skíðblaðnir skipa,
Óðinn ása,
en jóa Sleipnir,
Bifröst brúa,
en Bragi skalda,
Hábrók hauka,
en hunda Garmr."

XLI. Then said Gangleri: "A very mighty multitude of men is in Valhall, so that, by my faith, Odin is a very great chieftain, since he commands so large an army. Now what is the sport of the champions, when they are not fighting?" Hárr replied: "Every day, as soon as they are clothed, they straightway put on their armor and go out into the court and fight, and fell each other. That is their sport; and when the time draws near to undern-meal, they ride home to Valhall and sit down to drink, even as is said here:

All the Einherjar | in Odin's court
Deal out blows every day;
The slain they choose | and ride from the strife,
Sit later in love together.

But what thou hast said is true: Odin is of great might. Many examples are found in proof of this, as is here said in the words of the Æsir themselves:

Ash Yggdrasill's trunk | of trees is foremost,
And Skídbladnir of ships;
Odin of Æsir, | of all steeds Sleipnir,
Bifröst of bridges, | and Bragi of skalds;
Hábrók of hawks, | and of hounds Garmr."

42.  Æsir rufu eiða sína á borgarsmiðnum. CHAPTER 42
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverr á þann hest, Sleipni, eða hvat er frá honum at segja?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi kanntu deili á Sleipni, ok eigi veiztu atburði, af hverju hann kom, en þat mun þér þykkja frásagnar vert. Þat var snimma í öndverða byggð goðanna, þá er goðin höfðu sett Miðgarð ok gert Valhöll, þá kom þar smiðr nökkurr ok bauð at gera þeim borg á þrim misserum svá góða, at trú ok örugg væri fyrir bergrisum ok hrímþursum, þótt þeir kæmi inn um Miðgarð, en hann mælti sér þat til kaups, at hann skyldi eignast Freyju, ok hafa vildi hann sól ok mána. Þá gengu æsirnir á tal ok réðu ráðum sínum, ok var þat kaup gert við smiðinn, at hann skyldi eignast þat, er hann mælti til, ef hann fengi gert borgina á einum vetri, en inn fyrsta sumarsdag, ef nökkurr hlutr væri ógerr at borginni, þá skyldi hann af kaupinu. Skyldi hann af engum manni lið þiggja til verksins. Ok er þeir sögðu honum þessa kosti, þá beiddist hann, at þeir skyldu lofa, at hann hefði lið af hesti sínum, er Svaðilfari hét, en því réð Loki, er þat var til lagt við hann. Hann tók til inn fyrsta vetrardag at gera borgina, en of nætr dró hann til grjót á hestinum. En þat þótti ásunum mikit undr, hversu stór björg sá hestr dró, ok hálfu meira þrekvirki gerði hestrinn en smiðrinn. En at kaupi þeira váru sterk vitni ok mörg særi, fyrir því at jötnum þótti ekki tryggt at vera með ásum griðalaust, ef Þórr kæmi heim, en þá var hann farinn í austrveg at berja tröll. En er á leið vetrinn, þá sóttist mjök borgargerðin, ok var hon svá há ok sterk, at eigi mátti á þat leita.
En þá er þrír dagar váru til sumars, þá var komit mjök at borghliði. Þá settust goðin á dómstóla sína ok leituðu ráða ok spurði hverr annan, hverr því hefði ráðit at gifta Freyju í Jötunheima eða spilla loftinu ok himninum svá, at taka þaðan sól ok tungl ok gefa jötnum. En þat kom ásamt með öllum, at þessu myndi ráðit hafa sá, er flestu illu ræðr, Loki Laufeyjarson, ok kváðu hann verðan ills dauða, ef eigi hitti hann ráð til, at smiðrinn væri af kaupinu, ok veittu Loka atgöngu. En er hann varð hræddr, þá svarði hann eiða, at hann skyldi svá til haga, at smiðrinn væri af kaupinu, hvat sem hann kostaði til.
Ok it sama kveld, er smiðrinn ók út eftir grjótinu með hestinn Svaðilfara, þá hljóp ór skógi nökkurum merr ok at hestinum ok hrein við. En er hestrinn kenndi, hvat hrossi þetta var, þá æddist hann ok sleit sundr reipin ok hljóp til merarinnar, en hon undan til skógar ok smiðrinn eftir ok vill taka hestinn, en þessi hross hlaupa alla nótt, ok dvelst smíðin þá nótt, ok eftir um daginn varð ekki svá smíðat sem fyrr hafði orðit. Ok þá er smiðrinn sér, at eigi mun lokit verða verkinu, þá færist smiðrinn í jötunmóð. En er æsirnir sá þat til víss, at þar var bergrisi kominn, þá varð eigi þyrmt eiðunum, ok kölluðu þeir á Þór, ok jafnskjótt kom hann, ok því næst fór á loft hamarinn Mjöllnir. Galt hann þá smíðarkaupit ok eigi sól eða tungl, heldr synjaði hann honum at byggva í Jötunheimum ok laust þat it fyrsta högg, er haussinn brotnaði í smán mola, ok sendi hann niðr undir Niflheim.
En Loki hafði þá ferð haft til Svaðilfara, at nökkuru síðar bar hann fyl. Þat var grátt ok hafði átta fætr, ok er sá hestr beztr með goðum ok mönnum. Svá segir í Völuspá:
52. Þá gengu regin öll
á rökstóla
ginnheilög goð,
ok um þat gættusk,
hverr hefði loft allt
lævi blandit
eða ætt jötuns
Óðs mey gefna.

53. Á gengusk eiðar,
orð ok særi,
mál öll meginlig,

er á meðal fóru;
Þórr einn þar vá
þrunginn móði,
hann sjaldan sitr,
er hann slíkt of fregn."
XLII. Then said Gangleri: "Who owns that horse Sleipnir, or what is to be said of him?" Hárr answered: "Thou hast no knowledge of Sleipnir's points, and thou knowest not the circumstances of his begetting; but it will seem to thee worth the telling. It was early in the first days of the gods' dwelling here, when the gods had established the Midgard and made Valhall; there came at that time a certain wright and offered to build them a citadel in three seasons, so good that it should be staunch and proof against the Hill-Giants and the Rime-Giants, though they should come in over Midgard. But he demanded as wages that he should have possession of Freyja, and would fain have had the sun and the moon. Then the Æsir held parley and took counsel together; and a bargain was made with the wright, that he should have that which he demanded, if he should succeed in completing the citadel in one winter. On the first day of summer, if any part of the citadel were left unfinished, he should lose his reward; and he was to receive help from no man in the work. When they told him these conditions, he asked that they would give him leave to have the help of his stallion, which was called Svadilfari; and Loki advised it, so that the wright's petition was granted. He set to work the first day of winter to make the citadel, and by night he hauled stones with the stallion's aid; and it seemed very marvellous to the Æsir what great rocks that horse drew, for the horse did more rough work by half than did the wright. But there were strong witnesses to their bargain, and many oaths, since it seemed unsafe to the giant to be among the Æsir without truce, if Thor should come home. But Thor had then gone away into the eastern region to fight trolls.
"Now when the winter drew nigh unto its end, the building of the citadel was far advanced; and it was so high and strong that it could not be taken. When it lacked three days of summer, the work had almost reached the gate of the stronghold. Then the gods sat down in their judgment seats, and sought means of evasion, and asked one another who had advised giving Freyja into Jötunheim, or so destroying the air and the heaven as to take thence the sun and the moon and give them to the giants. The gods agreed that he must have counselled this who is wont to give evil advice, Loki Laufeyarson, and they declared him deserving of an ill death, if he could not hit upon a way of losing the wright his wages; and they threatened Loki with violence. But when he became frightened, then he swore oaths, that he would so contrive that the wright should lose his wages, cost him what it might.
"That same evening, when the wright drove out after stone with the stallion Svadilfari, a mare bounded forth from a certain wood and whinnied to him. The stallion, perceiving what manner of horse this was, straightway became frantic, and snapped the traces asunder, and leaped over to the mare, and she away to the wood, and the wright after, striving to seize the stallion. These horses ran all night, and the wright stopped there that night; and afterward, at day, the work was not done as it had been before. When the wright saw that the work could not be brought to an end, he fell into giant's fury. Now that the Æsir
saw surely that the hill-giant was come thither, they did not regard their oaths reverently, but called on Thor, who came as quickly. And straightway the hammer Mjöllnir was raised aloft; he paid the wright's wage, and not with the sun and the moon. Nay, he even denied him dwelling in Jötunheim, and struck but the one first blow, so that his skull was burst into small crumbs, and sent him down bellow under Niflhel. But Loki had such dealings with Svadilfari, that somewhat later he gave birth to a foal, which was gray and had eight feet; and this horse is the best among gods and men. So is said in Völuspá:

Then all the Powers strode | to the seats of judgment,
The most holy gods | council held together:
Who had the air all | with evil envenomed,
Or to the Ettin-race | Ódr's maid given.

Broken were oaths then, | bond and swearing,
Pledges all sacred | which passed between them;
Thor alone smote there, | swollen with anger:
He seldom sits still | when such he hears of."

43.  Frá Skíðblaðni. CHAPTER 43

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat er at segja frá Skíðblaðni, er hann er beztr skipa, hvárt er ekki skip jafnmikit sem hann?"
Hárr segir: "Skíðblaðnir er beztr skipanna ok með mestum hagleik gerr, en Naglfar er mest skip. Þat á Múspell. Dvergar nökkurir, synir Ívalda, gerðu Skíðblaðni ok gáfu Frey skipit. Hann er svá mikill, at allir æsir megu skipa hann með vápnum ok herbúnaði, ok hefir hann byr, þegar er segl er dregit, hvert er fara skal, en þá er eigi skal fara með hann á sæ, þá er hann gerr af svá mörgum hlutum ok með svá mikilli list, at hann má vefja saman sem dúk ok hafa í pungi sínum.

XLIII. Then said Gangleri: "What is to be said of Skídbladnir, that which is best of ships? Is there no ship equally great?" Hárr replied: "Skídbladnir is best of ships and made with most skill of craftsmanship; but Naglfar is the largest ship; Múspell has it. Certain dwarves, sons of Ívaldi, made Skídbladnir and gave the ship to Freyr. It is so great that all the Æsir may man it, with their weapons and armaments, and it has a favoring wind as soon as the sail is hoisted, whithersoever it is bound; but when there is no occasion for going to sea in it, it is made of so many things and with so much cunning that then it may be folded together like a napkin and kept in one's pouch."

44.  Þórr hóf för sína til Útgarða-Loka. CHAPTER 44
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Gott skip er Skíðblaðnir, en allmikil fjölkynngi mun vera við höfð, áðr svá fái gert. Hvárt hefir Þórr hvergi svá farit, at hann hafi hitt fyrir sér svá ríkt eða rammt, at honum hafi ofrefli verit fyrir afls sakar eða fjölkynngi?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Fár maðr, vættir mik, at frá því kunni at segja, en margt hefir honum harðfært þótt. En þótt svá hafi verit, at nökkurr hlutr hafi svá verit rammr eða sterkr, at Þórr hafi eigi sigr fengit á unnit, þá er eigi skylt at segja frá, fyrir því at mörg dæmi eru til þess ok því eru allir skyldir at trúa, at Þórr er máttkastr."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Svá lízt mér sem þess hlutar mynda ek yðr spurt hafa, er engi er til færr at segja."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Heyrt höfum vér sagt frá þeim atburðum, er oss þykkja ótrúligir, at sannir myni vera. En hér mun sá sitja nær, er vita mun sönn tíðendi af at segja, ok muntu því trúa, at hann mun eigi ljúga nú it fyrsta sinn, er aldri laug fyrr."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hér mun ek standa ok hlýða, ef nökkur órlausn fæst þessa máls, en at öðrum kosti kalla ek yðr vera yfir komna, ef þér kunnuð eigi at segja, þat er ek spyr."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Auðsýnt er nú, at hann vill þessi tíðendi vita, þótt oss þykki eigi fagrt at segja.
Þat er upphaf þessa máls, at Öku-Þórr fór með hafra sína ok reið ok með honum sá áss, er Loki er heitir. Koma þeir at kveldi til eins búanda ok fá þar náttstað. En um kveldit tók Þórr hafra sína ok skar báða. Eftir þat váru þeir flegnir ok bornir til ketils. En er soðit var, þá settist Þórr til náttverðar ok þeir lagsmenn. Þórr bauð til matar með sér búandanum ok konu hans ok börnum þeira. Sonr búanda hét Þjálfi, en Röskva dóttir. Þá lagði Þórr hafrstökurnar útar frá eldinum ok mælti, at búandi ok heimamenn hans skyldu kasta á hafrstökurnar beinunum. Þjálfi, sonr búanda, hélt á lærlegg hafrsins ok spretti á knífi sínum ok braut til mergjar. Þórr dvalðist þar of nóttina. En í óttu fyrir dag stóð hann upp ok klæddi sik, tók hamarinn Mjöllni ok brá upp ok vígði hafrstökurnar. Stóðu þá upp hafrarnir, ok var þá annarr haltr eftra fæti. Þat fann Þórr ok talði, at búandinn eða hans hjón myndu eigi skynsamliga hafa farit með beinum hafrsins. Kennir hann, at brotinn var lærleggrinn. Eigi þarf langt frá því at segja. Vita mega þat allir, hversu hræddr búandinn mundi vera, er hann sá, at Þórr lét síga brýnnar ofan fyrir augun, en þat er hann sá augnanna, þá hugðist hann falla mundu fyrir sjónum hans einum saman. Hann herði hendrnar at hamarskaftinu, svá at hvítnuðu knúarnir. En búandinn gerði sem ván var ok öll hjúnin, kölluðu ákafliga, báðu sér friðar, buðu at yfirbótum allt þat, er þau áttu. En er hann sá hræðslu þeira, þá gekk af honum móðrinn, ok sefaðist hann ok tók af þeim í sætt börn þeira, Þjálfa ok Röskvu, ok gerðust þau þá skyldir þjónustumenn hans, ok fylgja þau honum jafnan síðan.
XLIV. Then spake Gangleri: "'A good ship is Skídbladnir, but very great magic must have been used upon it before it got to be so fashioned. Has Thor never experienced such a thing, that he has found in his path somewhat so mighty or so powerful that it has overmatched him through strength of magic?" Then said Hárr: "Few men, I ween, are able to tell of this; yet many a thing has seemed to him hard to overcome. Though there may have been something so powerful or strong that Thor might not have succeeded in winning the victory, yet it is not necessary to speak of it; because there are many examples to prove, and because all are bound to believe, that Thor is mightiest." Then said Gangleri: "It seems to me that I must have asked you touching this matter what no one is able to tell of. Then spake Jafnhárr: "We have heard say concerning some matters which seem to us incredible, but here sits one near at hand who will know how to tell true tidings of this. Therefore thou must believe that he will not lie for the first time now, who never lied before." Gangleri said: "Here will I stand and listen, if any answer is forthcoming to this word; but otherwise I pronounce you overcome, if ye cannot tell that which I ask you."
Then spake Thridi: "Now it is evident that he is resolved to know this matter, though it seem not to us a pleasant thing to tell. This is the beginning of this tale: Öku-Thor drove forth with his he-goats and chariot, and with him that Ás called Loki; they came at evening to a husbandman's, and there received a night's lodging. About evening, Thor took his he-goats and slaughtered them both; after that they were flayed and borne to the caldron. When the cooking was done, then Thor and his companion sat down to supper. Thor invited to meat with him the husbandman and his wife, and their children: the husbandman's son was called Thjálfi, and the daughter Röskva. Then Thor laid the goat-hides farther away from the fire, and said that the husbandman and his servants should cast the bones on the goat-hides. Thjálfi, the husbandman's son, was holding a thigh-bone of the goat, and split it with his knife and broke it for the marrow.
"Thor tarried there overnight; and in the interval before day he rose up and clothed himself, took the hammer Mjöllnir, swung it up, and hallowed the goat-hides; straightway the he-goats rose up, and then one of them was lame in a hind leg. Thor discovered this, and declared that the husbandman or his household could not have dealt wisely with the bones of the goat: be knew that the thighbone was broken. There is no need to make a long story of it; all may know how frightened the husbandman must have been when he saw how Thor let his brows sink down before his eyes; but when he looked at the eyes, then it seemed to him that he must fall down before their glances alone. Thor clenched his hands on the hammer-shaft so that the knuckles whitened; and the husbandman and all his household did what was to be expected: they cried out lustily, prayed for peace, offered in recompense all that they had. But when he saw their terror, then the fury departed from him, and he became appeased, and took of them in atonement their children, Thjálfi and Röskva, who then became his bond-servants; and they follow him ever since.
45.  Frá skiptum Þórs ok Skrýmis. CHAPTER 45
Lét hann þar eftir hafra ok byrjaði ferðina austr í Jötunheima ok allt til hafsins, ok þá fór hann út yfir hafit þat it djúpa. En er hann kom til lands, þá gekk hann upp ok með honum Loki ok Þjálfi ok Röskva. Þá er þau höfðu litla hríð gengit, varð fyrir þeim mörk stór. Gengu þau þann dag allan til myrkurs. Þjálfi var allra manna fóthvatastr. Hann bar kýl Þórs, en til vista var eigi gott.
Þá er myrkt var orðit, leituðu þeir sér náttstaðar ok fundu fyrir sér skála nokkurn mjök mikinn. Váru dyrr á enda ok jafnbreiðar skálanum. Þar leituðu þeir sér náttbóls. En of miðja nótt varð landskjálfti mikill. Gekk jörðin undir þeim skykkjum, ok skalf húsit. Þá stóð Þórr upp ok hét á lagsmenn sína, ok leituðust fyrir ok fundu afhús til hægri handar í miðjum skálanum ok gengu þannig. Settist Þórr í dyrrnar, en önnur þau váru innar frá honum, ok váru þau hrædd, en Þórr helt hamarskaftinu ok hugði at verja sik. Þá heyrðu þau ym mikinn ok gný.
En er kom at dagan, þá gekk Þórr út ok sér mann, hvar lá skammt frá honum í skóginum, ok var sá eigi lítill. Hann svaf ok hraut sterkliga. Þá þóttist Þórr skilja, hvat látum verit hafði of nóttina. Hann spennir sik megingjörðum, ok óx honum ásmegin. Ok í því bili vaknar sá maðr ok stóð skjótt upp, en þá er sagt, at Þór varð bilt einu sinni at slá hann með hamrinum ok spurði hann at nafni.
En sá nefndist Skrýmir, - "en eigi þarf ek", sagði hann, "at spyrja þik at nafni. Kenni ek, at þú ert Ása-þórr. En hvárt hefir þú dregit á braut hanzka minn?"
Seildist þá Skrýmir til ok tók upp hanzkann. Sér Þórr þá, at þat hafði hann haft of nóttina fyrir skála, en afhúsit, þat var þumlungrinn hanzkans.
Skrýmir spurði, ef Þórr vildi hafa föruneyti hans, en Þórr játti því. Þá tók Skrýmir ok leysti nestbagga sinn ok bjóst til at eta dögurð, en Þórr í öðrum stað ok hans félagar. Skrýmir bauð þá, at þeir legðu mötuneyti sitt, en Þórr játti því. Þá batt Skrýmir nest þeira allt í einn bagga ok lagði á bak sér. Hann gekk fyrir of daginn ok steig heldr stórum, en síð at kveldi leitaði Skrýmir þeim náttstaðar undir eik nökkurri mikilli.
Þá mælti Skrýmir til Þórs, at hann vill leggjast niðr at sofa, - "en þér takið nestbaggan ok búið til nótturðar yðr."
Því næst sofnar Skrýmir ok hraut fast, en Þórr tók nestbaggann ok skal leysa, en svá er at segja, sem ótrúligt mun þykkja, at engi knút fekk hann leyst ok engi álarendann hreyft, svá at þá væri lausari en áðr. Ok er hann sér, at þetta verk má eigi nýtast, þá varð hann reiðr, greip þá hamarinn Mjöllni tveim höndum ok steig fram öðrum fæti at þar, er Skrýmir lá, ok lýstr í höfuð honum, en Skrýmir vaknar ok spyrr, hvárt laufsblað nakkvat felli í höfuð honum eða hvárt þeir hafi þá matazt ok sé búnir til rekkna.
Þórr segir, at þeir munu þá sofa ganga. Ganga þau þá undir aðra eik. Er þat þér satt at segja, at ekki var þá óttalaust at sofa.
En at miðri nótt, þá heyrir Þórr, at Skrýmir hrýtr ok sefr fast, svá at dunar í skóginum. Þá stendr hann upp ok gengr til hans, reiðir hamarinn títt ok hart ok lýstr ofan í miðjan hvirfil honum. Hann kennir, at hamarsmuðrinn sökkr djúpt í höfuðit.
En í því bili vaknar Skrýmir ok mælti: "Hvat er nú? Fell akarn nökkut í höfuð mér, eða hvat er títt um þik, Þórr?"
En Þórr gekk aftr skyndiliga ok svarar, at hann var þá nývaknaðr, sagði, at þá var mið nótt ok enn væri mál at sofa. Þá hugsaði Þórr þat, ef hann kæmi svá í færi at slá hann it þriðja högg, at aldri skyldi hann sjá sik síðan, liggr nú ok gætir, ef Skrýmir sofnaði enn fast. En litlu fyrir dagan þá heyrir hann, at Skrýmir mun sofnat hafa, stendr þá upp ok hleypr at honum, reiðir þá hamarinn af öllu afli ok lýstr á þunnvangann, þann er upp vissi. Sökkr þá hamarrinn upp at skaftinu.
En Skrýmir settist upp ok strauk of vangann ok mælti: "Hvárt munu fuglar nökkurir sitja í trénu yfir mér? Mik grunaði, er ek vaknaða, at tros nökkut af kvistunum felli í höfuð mér. Hvárt vakir þú, Þórr? Mál mun vera upp at standa ok klæðast, en ekki eiguð þér nú langa leið fram til borgarinnar, er kölluð er Útgarðr. Heyrt hefi ek, at þér hafit kvisat í milli yðvar, at ek væra ekki lítill maðr vexti, en sjá skuluð þér þar stærri menn, ef þér komit í Útgarð. Nú mun ek ráða yðr heilræði. Látið þér eigi stórliga yfir yðr. Ekki munu hirðmenn Útgarða-Loka vel þola þvílíkum kögursveinum köpuryrði. En at öðrum kosti hverfið aftr, ok þann ætla ek yðr betra af at taka. En ef þér vilið fram fara, þá stefnið þér í austr, en ek á nú norðr leið til fjalla þessa, er þér meguð nú sjá."
Tekr Skrýmir nestbaggann ok kastar á bak sér ok snýr þvers á braut í skóginn frá þeim, ok er þess eigi getit, at æsirnir bæði þá heila hittast.

XLV. "Thereupon he left his goats behind, and began his journey eastward toward Jötunheim and clear to the sea; and then he went out over the sea, that deep one; but when he came to land, he went up, and Loki and Thjálfi and Röskva with him. Then, when they had walked a little while, there stood before them a great forest; they walked all that day till dark. Thjálfi was swiftest-footed of all men; he bore Thor's bag, but there was nothing good for food. As soon as it had become dark, they sought themselves shelter for the night, and found before them a certain hall, very great: there was a door in the end, of equal width with the hall, wherein they took up quarters for the night. But about midnight there came a great earthquake: the earth rocked under them exceedingly, and the house trembled. Then Thor rose up and called to his companions, and they explored farther, and found in the middle of the hall a side-chamber on the right hand, and they went in thither. Thor sat down in the doorway, but the others were farther in from him, and they were afraid; but Thor gripped his hammer-shaft and thought to defend himself. Then they heard a great humming sound, and a crashing.
"But when it drew near dawn, then Thor went out and saw a man lying a little way from him in the wood; and that man was not small; he slept and snored mightily. Then Thor thought he could perceive what kind of noise it was which they had heard during the night. He girded himself with his belt of strength, and his divine power waxed; and on the instant the man awoke and rose up swiftly; and then, it is said, the first time Thor's heart failed him, to strike him with the hammer. He asked him his name, and the man called himself Skrýmir,--'but I have no need,' he said, 'to ask thee for thy name; I know that thou art Ása-Thor. But what? Hast thou dragged. away my glove?' Then Skrýmir stretched out his hand and took up the glove; and at once Thor saw that it was that which he had taken for a hall during the night; and as for the side-chamber, it was the thumb of the glove. Skrýmir asked whether Thor would have his company, and Thor assented to this. Then Skrýmir took and unloosened his provision wallet and made ready to eat his morning meal, and Thor and his fellows in another place. Skrýmir then proposed to them to lay their supply of food together, and Thor assented. Then Skrýmir bound all the food in one bag and laid it on his own back; he went before during the day, and stepped with very great strides; but late in the evening Skrýmir found them night-quarters under a certain great oak. Then Skrýmir said to Thor that he would lay him down to sleep,--'and do ye take the provision-bag and make ready for your supper.'
"Thereupon Skrýmir slept and snored hard, and Thor took the provision-bag and set about to unloose it; but such things must be told as will seem incredible: he got no knot loosened and no thong-end stirred, so as to be looser than before. When he saw that this work might not avail, then he became angered, gripped the hammer Mjöllnir in both hands, and strode with great strides to that place where Skrýmir lay, and smote him in the head. Skrýmir awoke, and asked whether a leaf had fallen upon his head; or whether they had eaten and were ready for bed? Thor replied that they were just then about to go to sleep; then they went under another oak. It must be told thee, that there was then no fearless sleeping. At midnight Thor heard how Skrýmir snored and slept fast, so that it thundered in the woods; then he stood up and went to him, shook his hammer eagerly and hard, and smote down upon the middle of his crown: he saw that the face of the hammer sank deep into his head. And at that moment Skrýmir awoke arid said: 'What is it now? Did some acorn fall on my head? Or what is the news with thee, Thor?' But Thor went back speedily, and replied that he was then but new-wakened; said that it was then midnight, and there was yet time to sleep.
"Thor meditated that if he could get to strike him a third blow, never should the giant see himself again; he lay now and watched whether Skrýmir were sleeping soundly yet. A little before day, when he perceived that Skrýmir must have fallen asleep, he stood up at once and rushed over to him, brandished his hammer with all his strength, and smote upon that one of his temples which was turned up. But Skrýmir sat up and stroked his cheek, and said: 'Some birds must be sitting in the tree above me; I imagined, when I awoke, that some dirt from the twigs fell upon my head. Art thou awake, Thor? It will be time to arise and clothe us; but now ye have no long journey forward to the castle called Útgardr. I have heard how ye have whispered among yourselves that I am no little man in stature; but ye shall see taller men, if ye come into Útgardr. Now I will give you wholesome advice: do not conduct yourselves boastfully, for the henchmen of Útgarda-Loki will not well endure big words from such swaddling-babes. But if not so, then turn back, and I think it were better for you to do that; but if ye will go forward, then turn to the east. As for me, I hold my way north to these hills, which ye may how see.' Skrýmir took the provision-bag and cast it on his back, and turned from them across the forest; and it is not recorded that the Æsir bade him god-speed.

46. Frá íþróttum Þórs ok félaga hans. CHAPTER 46

Þórr snýr fram á leið ok þeir félagar ok gengr framan til miðs dags. Þá sá þeir borg standa á völlum nökkurum ok settu hnakkann á bak sér aftr, áðr þeir fengu séð yfir upp, ganga til borgarinnar, ok var grind fyrir borghliðinu ok lokin aftr. Þórr gekk á grindina ok fekk eigi upp lokit, en er þeir þreyttu at komast í borgina, þá smugu þeir milli spalanna ok kómu svá inn, sá þá höll mikla ok gengu þannig. Var hurðin opin. Þá gengu þeir inn ok sá þar marga menn á tvá bekki ok flesta ærit stóra.
Því næst koma þeir fyrir konunginn Útgarða-Loka ok kvöddu hann, en hann leit seint til þeira ok glotti við tönn ok mælti: "Seint er um langan veg at spyrja tíðenda, eða er annan veg en ek hygg, er þessi sveinstauli orðinn Öku-Þórr? En meiri muntu vera en mér lízt þú, eða hvat íþrótta er þat, er þér félagar þykkizt vera við búnir? Engi skal hér vera með oss, sá er eigi kunni nökkurs konar list eða kunnandi um fram flesta menn."
Þá segir sá, er síðast gekk, er Loki heitir: "Kann ek þá íþrótt, er ek em albúinn at reyna, at engi er hér sá inni, er skjótara skal eta mat sinn en ek."
Þá svarar Útgarða-Loki: "Íþrótt er þat, ef þú efnir, ok freista skal þá þessar íþróttar." - kallaði útar á bekkinn, at sá, er Logi heitir, skal ganga á gólf fram ok freista sín í móti Loka.
Þá var tekit trog eitt ok borit inn á hallargólfit ok fyllt af slátri. Settist Loki at öðrum enda, en Logi at öðrum, ok át hvárrtveggi sem tíðast ok mættust í miðju troginu. Hafði þá Loki etið slátr allt af beinum, en Logi hafði ok etit slátr allt ok beinin með ok svá trogit, ok sýndist nú öllum sem Loki hefði látit leikinn.
Þá spyrr Útgarða-Loki, hvat sá inn ungi maðr kunni leika, en Þjálfi segir, at hann mun freista at renna skeið nökkur við einhvern þann, er Útgarða-Loki fær til. Þá segir Útgarða-Loki, at þetta er góð íþrótt, ok kallar þess meiri ván, at hann sé vel at sér búinn of skjótleikinn, ef hann skal þessa íþrótt inna, en þó lætr hann skjótt þessa skulu freista. Stendr þá upp Útgarða-Loki ok gengr út, ok var þar gott skeið at renna eftir sléttum velli. Þá kallar Útgarða-Loki til sín sveinstaula nökkurn, er nefndr er Hugi, ok bað hann renna í köpp við Þjálfa. Þá taka þeir it fyrsta skeið, ok er Hugi því framar, at hann snýst aftr í móti honum at skeiðsenda.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Þurfa muntu, Þjálfi, at leggja þik meir fram, ef þú skalt vinna leikinn, en þó er þat satt, at ekki hafa hér komit þeir menn, er mér þykkja fóthvatari en svá."
Þá taka þeir aftr annat skeið, ok þá er Hugi er kemr til skeiðsenda ok hann snýst aftr, þá var langt kólfskot til Þjálfa.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Vel þykkir mér Þjálfi renna skeiðit, en eigi trúi ek honum nú, at hann vinni leikinn, en nú mun reyna, er þeir renna it þriðja skeiðit."
Þá taka þeir enn skeið, en er Hugi er kominn til skeiðsenda ok snýst aftr, ok er Þjálfi eigi þá kominn á mitt skeið. Þá segja allir, at reynt er um þenna leik.
Þá spyrr Útgarða-Loki Þór, hvat þeira íþrótta mun vera, er hann myni vilja birta fyrir þeim, svá miklar sögur sem menn hafa gert um stórvirki hans. Þá mælti Þórr, at helzt vill hann þat taka til at þreyta drykkju við einhvern mann. Útgarða-Loki segir, at þat má vel vera, ok gengr inn í höllina ok kallar skutilsvein sinn, biðr, at hann taki vítishorn þat, er hirðmenn eru vanir at drekka af. Því næst kemr fram skutilsveinn með horninu ok fær Þór í hönd.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Af horni þessu þykkir þá vel drukkit, ef í einum drykk gengr af, en sumir menn drekka af í tveim drykkjum, en engi er svá lítill drykkjumaðr, at eigi gangi af í þrimr."
Þórr lítr á hornit ok sýnist ekki mikit ok er þó heldr langt, en hann er mjök þyrstr, tekr at drekka ok svelgr allstórum ok hyggr, at eigi skal hann þurfa at lúta oftar í hornit. En er hann þraut örendit ok hann laut ór horninu ok sér, hvat leið drykkinum, ok lízt honum svá sem alllítill munr mun vera, at nú sé lægra í horninu en áðr.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Vel er drukkit ok eigi til mikit. Eigi myndak trúa, ef mér væri sagt frá, at Ása-Þórr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka, en þó veit ek, at þú munt vilja drekka af í öðrum drykk."
Þórr svarar engu, setr hornit á munn sér ok hyggr nú, at hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok þreytir á drykkjuna, sem honum vannst til örendi, ok enn sér hann, at stikillinn hornsins vill ekki upp svá mjök sem honum líkar. Ok er hann tók hornið af munni sér ok sér í, lízt honum nú svá sem minna hafi þorrit men í inu fyrra sinni. Er nú gott beranda borð á horninu.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Hvat er nú, Þórr, muntu nú eigi sparast til eins drykkjar meira en þér mun hagr á vera? Svá lízt mér, ef þú skalt nú drekka af horninu inn þriðja drykkinn, sem þessi mun mestr ætlaðr. En ekki muntu mega hér með oss heita svá mikill maðr sem æsir kalla þik, ef þú gerir eigi meira af þér um aðra leika en mér lízt, at um þenna mun vera."
Þá varð Þórr reiðr, setr hornit á munn sér ok drekkr sem ákafligast má hann ok þreytur sem mest á drykkinn. En er hann sá í hornit, þá hafði helst nú nökkut munr á fengizt, ok þá býðr hann upp hornit ok vill eigi drekka meira.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Auðsætt er nú, at máttr þinn er ekki svá mikill sem vér hugðum, en viltu freista um fleiri leika? Sjá má nú, at ekki nýtir þú hér af."
Þórr svarar: "Freista má ek enn of nökkura leika, en undarliga myndi mér þykkja, þá er ek var heima með ásum, ef þvílíkir drykkir væri svá litlir kallaðir. En hvat leik vilið þér nú bjóða mér?"
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Þat gera hér ungir sveinar, er lítit mark mun at þykkja, at hefja upp af jörðu kött minn, en eigi myndak kunna at mæla þvílíkt við Ása-Þór, ef ek hefða eigi sét fyrr, at þú er miklu minni fyrir þér en ek hugða."
Því næst hljóp fram köttr einn grár á hallargólfit ok heldr mikill, en Þórr gekk til ok tók hendi sinni niðr undir miðjan kviðinn ok lyfti upp, en kötttrinn beygði kenginn, svá sem Þórr rétti upp höndina. En er Þórr seildist svá langt upp sem hann mátti lengst, þá létti kötturinn einum fæti, ok fekk Þórr eigi framit þenna leik meir.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Svá fór þessi leikr sem mik varði. Köttrinn er heldr mikill, en Þórr er lágr ok lítill hjá stórmenni því, sem hér er með oss."
Þá mælti Þórr: "Svá lítinn sem þér kallið mik, þá gangi nú til einn hverr ok fáist við mik! Nú em ek reiðr."
Þá svarar Útgarða-Loki ok litast um á bekkina ok mælti: "Eigi sé ek þann mann hér inni, er eigi mun lítilræði í þykkja at fást við þik."
Ok enn mælti hann: "Sjám fyrst, kalli mér hingat kerlinguna fóstru mína, Elli, ok fáist Þórr við hana, ef hann vill. Fellt hefir hon þá menn, er mér hafa litizt eigi ósterkligri en Þórr er."
Því næst gekk í höllina kerling ein gömul. Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki, at hon skal taka fang við Ása-þór. Ekki er langt um að gera. Svá fór fang þat, at því harðara er Þórr knúðist at fanginu, því fastara stóð hon. Þá tók kerling at leita til bragða, ok varð Þórr þá lauss á fótum, ok váru þær sviptingar allharðar ok eigi lengi, áðr en Þórr féll á kné öðrum fæti. Þá gekk til Útgarða-Loki ok bað þau hætta fanginu ok sagði svá, at Þórr myndi eigi þurfa at bjóða fleirum mönnum fang í hans hirð. Var þá ok liðit at nótt. Vísaði Útgarða-Loki Þór ok þeim félögum til sætis, ok dveljast þar náttlangt í góðum fagnaði.


XLVI. "Thor turned forward on his way, and his fellows, and went onward till mid-day. Then they saw a castle standing in a certain plain, and set their necks down on their backs before they could see up over it. They went to the cattle; and there was a grating in front of the castle-gate, and it was closed. Thor went up to the grating, and did not succeed in opening it; but when they struggled to make their way in, they crept between the bars and came in that way. They saw a great hall and went thither; the door was open; then they went in, and saw there many men on two benches, and most of them were big enough. Thereupon they came before the king Útgarda-Loki and saluted him; but he looked at them in his own good time, and smiled scornfully over his teeth, and said: 'It is late to ask tidings of a long journey; or is it otherwise than I think: that this toddler is Öku-Thor? Yet thou mayest be greater than thou appearest to me. What manner of accomplishments are those, which thou and thy fellows think to be ready for? No one shall be here with us who knows not some kind of craft or cunning surpassing most men.'
"Then spoke the one who came last, 'Who was called Loki: 'I know such a trick, which I am ready to try: that there is no one within here who shall eat his food more quickly than I.' Then Útgarda-Loki answered: 'That is a feat, if thou accomplish it; and this feat shall accordingly be put to the proof.' He called to the farther end of the bench, that he who was called Logi should come forth on the floor and try his prowess against Loki. Then a trough was taken and borne in upon the hall-floor and filled with flesh; Loki sat down at the one end and Logi at the other, and each ate as fast as he could, and they met in the middle of the trough. By that time Loki had eaten all the meat from the bones, but Logi likewise had eaten all the meat, and the bones with it, and the trough too; and now it seemed to all as if Loki had lost the game.
"Then Útgarda-Loki asked what yonder young man could play at; and Thjálfi answered that he would undertake to run a race with whomsoever Útgarda-Loki would bring up. Then Útgarda-Loki said that that was a good accomplishment, and that there was great likelihood that he must be well endowed with fleetness if he were to perform that feat; yet he would speedily see to it that the matter should be tested. Then Útgarda-Loki arose and went out; and there was a good course to run on over the level plain. Then Útgarda-Loki called to him a certain lad, who was named Hugi, and bade him run a match against Thjálfi. Then they held the first heat; and Hugi was so much ahead that he turned back to meet Thjálfi at the end of the course. Then said Útgarda-Loki: 'Thou wilt need to lay thyself forward more, Thjálfi, if thou art to win the game; but it is none the less true that never have any men come hither who seemed to me fleeter of foot than this.' Then they began another heat; and when Hugi had reached the course's end, and was turning back, there was still a long bolt-shot to Thjálfi. Then spake Útgarda-Loki: 'Thjálfi appears to me to run this course well, but I do not believe of him now that he will win the game. But it will be made manifest presently, when they run the third heat.' Then they began the heat; but when Hugi had come to the end of the course and turned back, Thjálfi had not yet reached mid-course. Then all said that that game had been proven.
"Next, Útgarda-Loki asked Thor what feats there were which he might desire to show before them: such great tales as men have made of his mighty works. Then Thor answered that he would most willingly undertake to contend with any in drinking. Útgarda-Loki said that might well be; he went into the hall and called his serving-boy, and bade him bring the sconce-horn which the henchmen were wont to drink off. Straightway the serving-lad came forward with the horn and put it into Thor's hand. Then said Útgarda-Loki: 'It is held that this horn is well drained if it is drunk off in one drink, but some drink it off in two; but no one is so poor a man at drinking that it fails to drain off in three.' Thor looked upon the horn, and it did not seem big to him; and yet it was somewhat long. Still he was very thirsty; he took and drank, and swallowed enormously, and thought that he should not need to bend oftener to the horn. But when his breath failed, and he raised his head from the horn and looked to see how it had gone with the drinking, it seemed to him that there was very little space by which the drink was lower now in the horn than before. Then said Útgarda-Loki: 'It is well drunk, and not too much; I should not have believed, if it had been told me, that Ása-Thor could not drink a greater draught. But I know that thou wilt wish to drink it off in another draught.' Thor answered nothing; he set the horn to his mouth, thinking now that he should drink a greater drink, and struggled with the draught until his breath gave out; and yet he saw that the tip of the horn would not come up so much as he liked. When he took the horn from his mouth and looked into it, it seemed to him then as if it had decreased less than the former time; but now there was a clearly apparent lowering in the horn. Then said Útgarda-Loki: 'How now, Thor? Thou wilt not shrink from one more drink than may he well for thee? If thou now drink the third draught from the horn, it seems to me as if this must he esteemed the greatest; but thou canst not be called so great a man here among us as the Æsir call thee, if thou give not a better account of thyself in the other games than it seems to me may come of this.' Then Thor became angry, set- the horn to his mouth, and drank with all his might, and struggled with the drink as much as he could; and when he looked into the horn, at least some space had been made. Then he gave up the horn and would drink no more.
"Then said Útgarda-Loki: Now it is evident that thy prowess is not so great as we thought it to be; but wilt thou try thy hand at more games? It may readily be seen that thou gettest no advantage hereof.' Thor answered: "will make trial of yet other games; but it would have seemed wonderful to me, when I was at home with the Æsir, if such drinks had been called so little. But what game will ye now offer me?' Then said Útgarda-Loki: 'Young lads here are wont to do this (which is thought of small consequence): lift my cat up from the earth; but I should not have been able to speak of such a thing to Ása-Thor if I had not seen that thou hast far less in thee than I had thought.' Thereupon there leaped forth on the hall-floor a gray cat, and a very big one; and Thor went to it and took it with his hand down under the middle of the belly and lifted up. But the cat bent into an arch just as Thor stretched up his hands; and when Thor reached up as high as he could at the very utmost, then the cat lifted up one foot, and Thor got this game no further advanced. Then said Útgarda-Loki: 'This game went even as I had foreseen; the cat is very great, whereas Thor is low and little beside the huge men who are here with us.'
"Then said Thor: 'Little as ye call me, let any one come up now and wrestle with me; now I am angry.' Then Útgarda-Loki answered, looking about him on the benches, and spake: 'I see no such man here within, who would not hold it a disgrace to wrestle with thee;' and yet he said: 'Let us see first; let the old woman my nurse be called hither, Elli, and let Thor wrestle with her if he will. She has thrown such men as have seemed to me no less strong than Thor.' Straightway there came into the hall an old woman, stricken in years. Then Útgarda-Loki said that she should grapple with Ása-Thor. There is no need to make a long matter of it: that struggle went in such wise that the harder Thor strove in gripping, the faster she stood; then the old woman essayed a hold, and then Thor became totty on his feet, and their tuggings were very hard. Yet it was not long before Thor fell to his knee, on one foot. Then Útgarda-Loki went up and bade them cease the wrestling, saying that Thor should not need to challenge more men of his body-guard to wrestling. By then it had passed toward night; Útgarda-Loki showed Thor and his companions to a seat, and they tarried there the night long in good cheer.

47.  Skilnaðr Þórs ok Útgarða-Loka. CHAPTER 47
En at morgni, þegar dagaði, stendr Þórr upp ok þeir félagar, klæða sik ok eru búnir braut at ganga. Þá kom þar Útgarða-Loki ok lét setja þeim borð. Skorti þá eigi góðan fagnað, mat ok drykk. En er þeir hafa matazt, þá snúast þeir til ferðar.
Útgarða-Loki fylgir þeim út, gengr með þeim braut ór borginni, en at skilnaði þá mælti Útgarða-Loki til Þórs ok spyrr, hvernig honum þykkir ferð sín orðin, eða hvárt hann hefir hitt ríkara mann nökkurn en sik.
Þórr segir, at eigi mun hann þat segja, at eigi hafi hann mikla ósæmð farit í þeira viðskiptum, - "en þó veit ek, at þér munuð kalla mik lítinn mann fyrir mér, ok uni ek því illa."
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Nú skal segja þér it sanna, er þú ert út kominn ór borginni, at ef ek lifi ok megak ráða, þá skaltu aldri oftar í hana koma. Ok þat veit trúa mín, at aldri hefðir þú í hana komit, ef ek hefða vitat áðr, at þú hefðir svá mikinn kraft með þér ok þú hafðir svá nær haft oss mikilli ófæru. En sjónhverfingar hef ek gert þér, svá at fyrsta sinn á skóginum kom ek til fundar við yðr, ok þá er þú skyldir leysa nestbaggann, þá hafðak bundit hann með grésjárni, en þú fannt eigi, hvar upp skyldi lúka. En því næst laust þú mik með hamrinum þrjú högg, ok var it fyrsta minnst ok var þó svá mikit, at mér mundi endast til bana, ef á hefði komit. En þar er þú sátt hjá höll minni setberg ok þar sáttu ofan í þrjá dali ferskeytta ok einn djúpastan, þar váru hamarspor þín. Setberginu brá ek fyrir höggin, en eigi sást þú þat. Svá var ok of leikana, er þér þreyttuð við hirðmenn mína, þá var þat it fyrsta er, Loki gerði. Hann var mjök soltinn ok át títt, en sá er Logi hét, þat var villieldr, ok brenndi hann eigi seinna trogið en slátrit. En er Þjálfi þreytti rásina við þann, er Hugi hét, þat var hugr minn, ok var Þjálfa eigi vænt at þreyta skjótfæri við hann. En er þú drakkt af horninu ok þótti þér seint líða, en þat veit trúa mín, at þá varð þat undr, er ek mynda eigi trúa, at vera mætti. Annarr endir hornsins var úti í hafi, en þat sáttu eigi, en nú, er þú kemr til sjávarins, þá muntu sjá mega, hvern þurrð þú hefir drukkit á sænum. Þat eru nú fjörur kallaðar."
Ok enn mælti hann: "Eigi þótti mér hitt minna vera vert, er þú lyftir upp kettinum, ok þér satt at segja, þá hræddust allir þeir, er sá, er þú lyftir af jörðu einum fætinum. En sá köttr var eigi sem þér sýndist. Þat var Miðgarðsormr, er liggr um öll lönd, ok vannst honum varliga lengð til, at jörðina tæki sporðr ok höfuð, svá langt seildist þú upp, at skammt var þá til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er þú stótt svá lengi við ok fellt eigi meir en á kné öðrum fæti, er þú fékkst við Elli, fyrir því at engi hefir sá orðit ok engi mun verða, ef svá gamall verðr, at elli bíðr, at eigi komi ellin öllum til falls. Ok er nú þat satt at segja, at vér munum skiljast, ok mun þá betr hvárratveggju handar, at þér komit eigi oftar mik at hitta. Ek mun enn annat sinn verja borg mína með þvílíkum vélum eða öðrum, svá at ekki vald munuð þér á mér fá."
En er Þórr heyrði þessa tölu, greip hann til hamarsins ok bregðr á loft, en er hann skal fram reiða, þá sér hann þar hvergi Útgarða-Loka. Ok þá snýst hann aftr til borgarinnar ok ætlast þá fyrir at brjóta borgina. Þá sér hann þar völlu víða ok fagra, en enga borg. Snýst hann þá aftr ok ferr leið sína, til þess er hann kom aftr í Þrúðvanga. En þat er satt at segja, at þá hafi hann ráðit fyrir sér at leita til, ef saman mætti bera fundi þeira Miðgarðsorms, sem síðar varð. Nú ætla ek engan kunna þér sannara at segja frá þessi ferð Þórs."

XLVII. "But at morning, as soon as it dawned, Thor and his companions arose, clothed themselves, and were ready to go away. Then came there Útgarda-Loki and caused a table to be set for them; there was no lack of good cheer, meat and drink. So soon as they had eaten, he went out from the castle with them; and at parting Útgarda-Loki spoke to Thor and asked how he thought his journey had ended, or whether he had met any man mightier than himself. Thor answered that he could not say that he had not got much shame in their dealings together. 'But yet I know that ye will call me a man of little might, and I am ill-content with that.' Then said Útgardi-Loki: 'Now I will tell thee the truth, now that thou art come out of the castle; and if I live and am able to prevail, then thou shalt never again come into it. And this I know, by my troth! that thou shouldst never have come into it, If I had known before that thou haddest so much strength in thee, and that thou shouldst so nearly have had us in great peril. But I made ready against thee eye-illusions; and I came upon you the first time in the wood, and when thou wouldst have unloosed the provision-bag, I had bound it with iron, and thou didst not find where to undo it. But next thou didst smite me three blows with the hammer; and the first was least, and was yet so great that it would have sufficed to slay me, if it had come upon me. Where thou sawest near my hall a saddle-backed mountain, cut at the top into threesquare dales, and one the deepest, those were the marks of thy hammer. I brought the saddle-back before the blow, but thou didst not see that. So it was also with the games, in which ye did contend against my henchmen: that was the first, which Loki did; he was very hungry and ate zealously, but he who was called Logi was "wild-fire," and he burned the trough no less swiftly than the meat. But when Thjálfi ran the race with him called Hugi, that was my "thought," and it was not to be expected of Thjálfi that he should match swiftness with it.
"Moreover, when thou didst drink from the horn, and it seemed to thee to go slowly, then, by my faith, that was a wonder which I should not have believed possible: the other end of the horn was out in the sea, but thou didst not perceive it. But now, when thou comest to the sea, thou shalt be able to mark what a diminishing thou hast drunk in the sea: this is henceforth called "ebb-tides."'
"And again he said: 'It seemed to me not less noteworthy when thou didst lift up the cat; and to tell thee truly, then all were afraid who saw how thou didst lift one foot clear of the earth. That cat was not as it appeared to thee: it was the Midgard Serpent, which lies about all the land, and scarcely does its length suffice to encompass the earth with head and tail. So high didst thou stretch up thine arms that it was then but a little way more to heaven. It was also a great marvel concerning the wrestling-match, when thou didst withstand so long, and didst not fall more than on one knee, wrestling with Elli; since none such has ever been and none shall be, if he become so old as to abide "Old Age," that she shall not cause him to fall. And now it is truth to tell that we must part; and it will be better on both sides that ye never come again to seek me. Another time I will defend my castle with similar wiles or with others, so that ye shall get no power over me.'
"When Thor had heard these sayings, he clutched his hammer and brandished it aloft; but when he was about to launch it forward, then he saw Útgarda-Loki nowhere. Then he turned back to the castle, purposing to crush it to pieces; and he saw there a wide and fair plain, but no castle. So he turned back and went his way, till he was come back again to Thrúdvangar. But it is a true tale that then he resolved to seek if he might bring about a meeting between himself and the Midgard Serpent, which after ward came to pass. Now I think no one knows how to tell thee more truly concerning this journey of Thor's."

48.  Þórr reri á sæ með Hymi. CHAPTER 48

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmikill er fyrir sér Útgarða-Loki, en með vélum ok fjölkynngi ferr hann mjök, en þat má sjá, at hann er mikill fyrir sér, at hann átti hirðmenn þá, er mikinn mátt hafa, eða hvárt hefir Þórr ekki þessa hefnt?"
Hárr svarar: "Eigi er þat ókunnigt, þótt eigi sé fræðimenn, at Þórr leiðrétti þessa ferðina, er nú var frá sagt, ok dvalðist ekki lengi heima, áðr hann bjóst svá skyndiliga til ferðarinnar, at hann hafði eigi reið ok eigi hafrana ok ekki föruneyti. Gekk hann út of Miðgarð svá sem ungr drengr ok kom einn aftan at kveldi til jötuns nökkurs. Sá er Hymir nefndr. Þórr dvalðist þar at gistingu of nóttina.
En í dagan stóð Hymir upp ok klæddist ok bjóst at róa á sæ til fiskjar, en Þórr spratt upp ok varð skjótt búinn ok bað, at Hymir skyldi hann láta róa á sæ með sér, en Hymir segir, at lítil liðsemð myndi at honum vera, er hann var lítill ok ungmenni eitt - "ok mun þik kala, ef ek sit svá lengi ok útarliga sem ek em vanr."
En Þórr sagði, at hann myndi róa mega fyrir því langt frá landi, at eigi var víst, hvárt hann myndi fyrr beiðast at róa útan, ok reiddist Þórr jötninum svá, at þá var búit, at hann myndi þegar láta hamarinn skjalla honum, en hann lét þat við berast, því at hann hugðist þá at reyna afl sitt í öðrum stað. Hann spurði Hymi hvat, þeir skyldu hafa at beitum, en Hymir bað hann fá sér sjálfan beitur.
Þá snerist Þórr á braut þangat, er hann sá öxnaflokk nökkurn, er Hymir átti. Hann tók inn mesta uxann, er Himinhrjóðr hét, ok sleit af höfuðit ok fór með til sjávar. Hafði þá Hymir út skotit nökkvanum. Þórr gekk á skipit ok settist í austrrúm, tók tvær árar ok reri, ok þótti Hymi skriðr verða af róðri hans. Hymir reri í hálsinum fram, ok sóttist skjótt róðrinn. Sagði þá Hymir, at þeir váru komnir á þær vastir, er hann var vanr at sitja ok draga flata fiska, en Þórr kveðst vilja róa miklu lengra, ok tóku þeir enn snertiróðr. Sagði Hymir þá, at þeir váru komnir svá langt út, at hætt var at sitja útar fyrir Miðgarðsormi, en Þórr kveðst myndu róa enn um hríð, ok svá gerði hann, en Hymir var þá allókátr.
En þá er Þórr lagði upp árarnar, greiddi hann til vað heldr sterkjan, ok eigi var öngullinn minni eða óramligri. Þar lét Þórr koma á öngulinn uxahöfuðit ok kastaði fyrir borð, ok fór öngullinn til grunns, ok er þér þat satt at segja, at engu ginnti þá Þórr miðr Miðgarðsorm en Útgarða-Loki hafði spottat Þór, þá er hann hóf orminn upp á hendi sér.

Miðgarðsormr gein yfir uxahöfuðit, en öngullinn vá í góminn orminum. En er ormrinn kenndi þess, brá hann við svá hart, at báðir hnefar Þórs skullu út at borðinu. Þá varð Þórr reiðr ok færðist í ásmegin, spyrnði við fast, svá at hann hljóp báðum fótum gegnum skipit ok spyrnði við grunni, dró þá orminn upp at borði. En þat má segja, at engi hefir sá sét allógurligar sjónir, er eigi mátti þat sjá, er Þórr hvessti augun á orminn, en ormrinn starði neðan í mót ok blés eitrinu. Þá er sagt, at jötunninn Hymir gerðist litverpr, fölnaði ok hræddist, er hann sá orminn ok þat er særinn féll út ok inn of nökkvann. Ok í því bili, er Þórr greip hamarinn ok færði á loft, þá fálmaði jötunninn til agnsaxinu ok hjó vað Þórs á borði, en ormrinn sökkðist í sæinn. En Þórr kastaði hamrinum eftir honum, ok segja menn, at hann lysti af honum höfuðit við hrönnunum, en ek hygg hitt vera þér satt at segja, at Miðgarðsormr lifir enn ok liggr í umsjá. En Þór reiddi til hnefann ok setr við eyra Hymi, svá at hann steypðist fyrir borð, ok sér í iljar honum, en Þórr óð til lands."


XLVIII. Then said Gangleri: "Very mighty is Útgarda-Loki, and he deals much in wiles and in magic; and his might may be seen in that he had such henchmen as have great prowess. Now did Thor ever take vengeance for this?" Hárr answered: "It is not unknown, though one be not a scholar, that Thor took redress for this journey of which the tale has but now been told; and he did not tarry at home long before he made ready for his journey so hastily that he had with him no chariot and no he-goats and no retinue. He went out over Midgard in the guise of a young lad, and came one evening at twilight to a certain giant's, who was called Hymir. Thor abode as guest there overnight; but at dawn Hymir arose and clothed himself and made ready to row to sea a-fishing. Then Thor sprang up and was speedily ready, and asked Hymir to let him row to sea with him. But Hymir said that Thor would be of little help to him, being so small and a youth, 'And thou wilt freeze, if I stay so long and so far out as I am wont.' But Thor said that he would be able to row far out from land, for the reason that it was not certain whether he would be the first to ask to row back. Thor became so enraged at the giant that he was forthwith ready to let his hammer crash against him; but he forced himself to forbear, since he purposed to try his strength in another quarter. He asked Hymir what they should have for bait, but Hymir bade him get bait for himself. Then Thor turned away thither where he, saw a certain herd of oxen, which Hymir owned; he took the largest ox, called Himinbrjotr,[1] and cut off its head and went therewith to the sea. By that time Hymir had shoved out the boat.
"Thor went aboard the skiff and sat down in the stern-seat, took two oars and rowed; and it seemed to Hymir that swift progress came of his rowing. Hymir rowed forward in the bow, and the rowing proceeded rapidly; then Hymir said that they had arrived at those fishing-banks where he was wont to anchor and angle for flat-fish. But Thor said that he desired to row much further, and they took a sharp pull; then Hymir said that they had come so far that it was perilous to abide out farther because of the Midgard Serpent. Thor replied that they would row a while yet, and so he did; but Hymir was then sore afraid. Now as soon as Thor had laid by the oars, he made ready a very strong fishing-line, and the hook was no less large and strong. Then Thor put the ox-head on the hook and cast it overboard, and the hook went to the bottom; and it is telling thee the truth to say that then Thor beguiled the Midgard Serpent no less than Útgarda-Loki had mocked Thor, at the time when he lifted up the Serpent in his hand.
"The Midgard Serpent snapped at the ox-head, and the hook caught in its jaw; but when the Serpent was aware of this, it dashed away so fiercely that both Thor's fists crashed against the gunwale. Then Thor was angered, and took upon him his divine strength, braced his feet so strongly that he plunged through the ship with both feet, and dashed his feet against the bottom; then he drew the Serpent up to the gunwale. And it may be said that no one has seen very fearful sights who might not see that: bow Thor flashed fiery glances at the Serpent, and the Serpent in turn stared up toward him from below and blew venom. Then, it is said, the giant Hymir grew pale, became yellow, and was sore afraid, when he saw the Serpent, and how the sea rushed out and in through the boat. In the very moment when Thor clutched his hammer and raised it on high, then the giant fumbled for his fish-knife and hacked off Thor's line at the gunwale, and the Serpent sank down into the sea. Thor hurled his hammer after it; and men say that he struck off its head against the bottom; but I think it were true to tell thee that the Midgard Serpent yet lives and lies in the encompassing sea. But 'Thor swung his fist and brought it against Hymir's ear, so that he plunged overboard, and Thor saw the soles of his feet. And Thor waded to land."

1. Heaven-bellowing?

49.  Dauði Baldrs ins góða. CHAPTER 49

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hafa nökkur meiri tíðendi orðit með ásunum? Allmikit þrekvirki vann Þórr í þessi ferð."
Hárr svarar: "Vera mun at segja frá þeim tíðendum, er meira þótti vert ásunum. En þat er upphaf þeirar sögu, at Baldr inn góða dreymði drauma stóra ok hættliga um líf sitt. En er hann sagði ásunum draumana, þá báru þeir saman ráð sín, ok var þat gert at beiða griða Baldri fyrir allskonar háska, ok Frigg tók svardaga til þess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, járn ok alls konar málmr, steinar, jörðin, viðirnir, sóttirnar, dýrin, fuglarnir, eitrit, ormarnir.
En er þetta var gert ok vitat, þá var þat skemmtun Baldrs ok ásanna, at hann skyldi standa upp á þingum, en allir aðrir skyldu sumir skjóta á hann, sumir höggva til, sumir berja grjóti, en hvat sem at var gert, sakaði hann ekki, ok þótti þetta öllum mikill frami.
En er þetta sá Loki Laufeyjarson, þá líkaði honum illa, er Baldr sakaði ekki. Hann gekk til Fensalar til Friggjar ok brá sér í konu líki. Þá spyrr Frigg, ef sú kona vissi, hvat æsir höfðust at á þinginu. Hon sagði, at allir skutu at Baldri ok þat, at hann sakaði ekki.
Þá mælti Frigg: "Eigi munu vápn eða viðir granda Baldri. Eiða hefi ek þegit af öllum þeim."
Þá spyr konan: "Hafa allir hlutir eiða unnit at eira Baldri?"
Þá svarar Frigg: "Vex viðarteinungr einn fyrir vestan Valhöll. Sá er mistilteinn kallaðr. Sá þótti mér ungr at krefja eiðsins."
Því næst hvarf konan á braut, en Loki tók mistiltein ok sleit upp ok gekk til þings. En Höðr stóð útarliga í mannhringnum, því at hann var blindr.
Þá mælti Loki við hann: "Hví skýtr þú ekki at Baldri?"
Hann svarar: "Því, at ek sé eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok þat annat, at ek em vápnlauss."
Þá mælti Loki: "Gerðu þó í líking annarra manna ok veit Baldri sæmð sem aðrir menn. Ek mun vísa þér til, hvar hann stendr. Skjót at honum vendi þessum."
Höðr tók mistiltein ok skaut at Baldri at tilvísun Loka. Flaug skotit í gegnum Baldr, ok féll hann dauðr til jarðar, ok hefir þat mest óhapp verit unnit með goðum ok mönnum.
Þá er Baldr var fallinn, þá féllust öllum ásum orðtök ok svá hendr at taka til hans, ok sá hverr til annars, ok váru allir með einum hug til þess, er unnit hafði verkit, en engi mátti hefna. Þar var svá mikill griðastaðr. En þá er æsirnir freistuðu at mæla, þá var hitt þó fyrr, at grátrinn kom upp, svá at engi mátti öðrum segja með orðunum frá sínum harmi. En Óðinn bar þeim mun verst þenna skaða sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hversu mikil aftaka ok missa ásunum var í fráfalli Baldrs.
En er goðin vitkuðust, þá mælti Frigg ok spurði, hverr sá væri með ásum, er eignast vildi allar ástir hennar ok hylli ok vili hann ríða á helveg ok freista, ef hann fái fundit Baldr, ok bjóða Helju útlausn, ef hon vill láta fara Baldr heim í Ásgarð. En sá er nefndr Hermóðr inn hvati, sonr Óðins, er til þeirar farar varð. Þá var tekinn Sleipnir, hestr Óðins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig Hermóðr á þann hest ok hleypði braut.
En æsirnir tóku lík Baldrs ok fluttu til sævar. Hringhorni hét skip Baldrs. Hann var allra skipa mestr. Hann vildu goðin fram setja ok gera þar á bálför Baldrs, en skipit gekk hvergi fram. Þá var sent í Jötunheima eftir gýgi þeiri, er Hyrrokkin hét. En er hon kom ok reið vargi ok hafði höggorm at taumum, þá hljóp hon af hestinum, en Óðinn kallaði til berserki fjóra at gæta hestsins, ok fengu þeir eigi haldit, nema þeir felldi hann. Þá gekk Hyrrokkin á framstafn nökkvans ok hratt fram í fyrsta viðbragði, svá at eldr hraut ór hlunnunum ok lönd öll skulfu. Þá varð Þórr reiðr ok greip hamarinn ok myndi þá brjóta höfuð hennar, áðr en goðin öll báðu henni friðar. Þá var borit út á skipit lík Baldrs, ok er þat sá kona hans, Nanna Nepsdóttir, þá sprakk hon af harmi ok dó. Var hon borin á bálit ok slegit í eldi. Þá stóð Þórr at ok vígði bálit með Mjöllni. En fyrir fótum honum rann dvergr nökkurr; sá er Litr nefndr; en Þórr spyrnði fæti sínum á hann ok hratt honum í eldinn, ok brann hann. En þessa brennu sótti margs konar þjóð, fyrst at segja frá Óðni, at með honum fór Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans, en Freyr ók í kerru með gelti þeim, er Gullinbursti heitir eða Slíðrugtanni, en Heimdallr reið hesti þeim, er Gulltoppr heitir, en Freyja ók köttum sínum. Þar kom ok mikit fólk hrímþursa ok bergrisar. Óðinn lagði á bálit gullhring þann, er Draupnir heitir. Honum fylgði sú náttúra, at ina níundu hverja nótt drupu af honum átta gullhringar jafnhöfgir. Hestr Baldrs var leiddr á bálit með öllu reiði.
En þat er at segja frá Hermóði, at hann reið níu nætr dökkva dala ok djúpa, svá at hann sá ekki, fyrr en hann kom til árinnar Gjallar ok reið á Gjallarbrúna. Hon var þökð lýsigulli.
Móðguðr er nefnd mær sú, er gætir brúarinnar. Hon spurði hann at nafni eða at ætt ok sagði, at inn fyrra dag riðu um brúna fimm fylki dauðra manna - "en eigi dynr brúin minnr undir einum þér, ok eigi hefir þú lit dauðra manna. Hví ríðr þú hér á helveg?"
Hann svarar, at -"ek skal ríða til Heljar at leita Baldrs, eða hvárt hefir þú nakkvat sét Baldr á helvegi?"
En hon sagði, at Baldr hafði þar riðit um Gjallarbrú, "en niðr ok norðr liggr helvegr."
Þá reið Hermóðr, þar til er hann kom at helgrindum. Þá sté hann af hestinum ok gyrði hann fast, steig upp ok keyrði hann sporum, en hestrinn hljóp svá hart ok yfir grindina, at hann kom hvergi nær. Þá reið Hermóðr heim til hallarinnar ok steig af hesti, gekk inn í höllina, sá þar sitja í öndugi, Baldr bróður sinn, ok dvalðist Hermóðr þar um nóttina. En at morgni þá beiddist Hermóðr af Helju, at Baldr skyldi ríða heim með honum, ok sagði, hversu mikill grátr var með ásum.
En Hel sagði, at þat skyldi svá reyna, hvárt Baldr var svá ástsæll - "sem sagt er. Ok ef allir hlutir í heiminum, kykvir ok dauðir, gráta hann, þá skal hann fara til ása aftr, en haldast með Helju, ef nakkvarr mælir við eða vill eigi gráta."
Þá stóð Hermóðr upp, en Baldr leiddi hann út ór höllinni ok tók hringinn Draupni ok sendi Óðni til minja, en Nanna sendi Frigg rifti ok enn fleiri gjafar. Fullu fingrgull. Þá reið Hermóðr aftr leið sína ok kom í Ásgarð ok sagði öll tíðendi, þau er hann hafði séð ok heyrt. Því næst sendu æsir um allan heim erendreka at biðja, at Baldr væri grátinn ór helju, en allir gerðu þat, mennirnir ok kykvendin ok jörðin ok steinarnir ok tré ok allr málmr, svá sem þú munt sét hafa, at þessir hlutir gráta þá, er þeir koma ór frosti ok í hita.
Þá er sendimenn fóru heim ok höfðu vel rekit sín erendi, finna þeir í helli nökkurum, hvar gýgr sat. Hon nefndist Þökk. Þeir biðja hana gráta Baldr ór Helju. Hon segir:

54. "Þökk mun gráta
þurrum tárum
Baldrs bálfarar;
kyks né dauðs
nautk-a ek Karls sonar,
haldi Hel því, er hefir."


En þess geta menn, at þar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjarson, er flest hefir illt gert með ásum."

XLIX. Then spake Gangleri: "Have any more matters of note befallen among the Æsir? A very great deed of valor did Thor achieve on that journey." Hárr made answer: "Now shall be told of those tidings which seemed of more consequence to the Æsir. The beginning of the story is this, that Baldr the Good dreamed great and perilous dreams touching his life. When he told these dreams to the Æsir, then they took counsel together: and this was their decision: to ask safety for Baldr from all kinds of dangers. And Frigg took oaths to this purport, that fire and water should spare Baldr, likewise iron and metal of all kinds, stones, earth, trees, sicknesses, beasts, birds, venom, serpents. And when that was done and made known, then it was a diversion of Baldr's and the Æsir, that he should stand up in the Thing,[1] and all the others should some shoot at him, some hew at him, some beat him with stones; but whatsoever was done hurt him not at all, and that seemed to them all a very worshipful thing.
"But when Loki Laufeyarson saw this, it pleased him ill that Baldr took no hurt. He went to Fensalir to Frigg, and made himself into the likeness of a woman. Then Frigg asked if that woman knew what the Æsir did at the Thing. She said that all were shooting at Baldr, and moreover, that he took no hurt. Then said Frigg: 'Neither weapons nor trees may hurt Baldr: I have taken oaths of them all.' Then the woman asked: 'Have all things taken oaths to spare Baldr?' and Frigg answered: 'There grows a tree-sprout alone westward of Valhall: it is called Mistletoe; I thought it too young to ask the oath of.' Then straightway the woman turned away; but Loki took Mistletoe and pulled it up and went to the Thing.
"Hödr stood outside the ring of men, because he was blind. Then spake Loki to him: 'Why dost thou not shoot at Baldr?' He answered: 'Because I see not where Baldr is; and for this also, that I am weaponless.' Then said Loki: 'Do thou also after the manner of other men, and show Baldr honor as the other men do. I will direct thee where he stands; shoot at him with this wand.' Hödr took Mistletoe and shot at Baldr, being guided by Loki: the shaft flew through Baldr, and he fell dead to the earth; and that was the greatest mischance that has ever befallen among gods and men.
"Then, when Baldr was fallen, words failed all the, Æsir, and their hands likewise to lay hold of him; each looked at the other, and all were of one mind as to him who had. wrought the work, but none might take vengeance, so great a sanctuary was in that place. But when the Æsir tried to speak, then it befell first that weeping broke out, so that none might speak to the others with words concerning his grief. But Odin bore that misfortune by so much the worst, as he had most perception of how great harm and loss for the Æsir were in the death of Baldr.
"Now when the gods had come to themselves, Frigg spake, and asked who there might be among the Æsir who would fain have for his own all her love and favor: let him ride the road to Hel, and seek if he may find Baldr, and offer Hel a ransom if she will let Baldr come home to Ásgard. And he is named Hermódr the Bold, Odin's son, who undertook that embassy. Then Sleipnir was taken, Odin's steed, and led forward; and Hermódr mounted on that horse and galloped off.
"The Æsir took the body of Baldr and brought it to the sea. Hringhorni is the name of Baldr's ship: it was greatest of all ships; the gods would have launched it and made Baldr's pyre thereon, but the ship stirred not forward. Then word was sent to Jötunheim after that giantess who is called Hyrrokkin. When she had come, riding a wolf and having a viper for bridle, then she leaped off the steed; and Odin called to four berserks to tend the steed; but they were not able to hold it until they had felled it. Then Hyrrokkin went to the prow of the boat and thrust it out at the first push, so that fire burst from the rollers, and all lands trembled. Thor became angry and clutched his hammer, and would straightway have broken her head, had not the gods prayed for peace for her.
"Then was the body of Baldr borne out on shipboard; and when his wife, Nanna the daughter of Nep, saw that, straightway her heart burst with grief, and she died; she was borne to the pyre, and fire was kindled. Then Thor stood by and hallowed the pyre with Mjöllnir; and before his feet ran a certain dwarf which was named Litr; Thor kicked at him with his foot and thrust him into the fire, and he burned. People of many races visited this burning: First is to be told of Odin, how Frigg and the Valkyrs went with him, and his ravens; but Freyr drove in his chariot with the boar called Gold-Mane, or Fearful-Tusk, and Heimdallr rode the horse called Gold-Top, and Freyja drove her cats. Thither came also much people of the Rime-Giants and the Hill-Giants. Odin laid on the pyre that gold ring which is called Draupnir; this quality attended it, that every ninth night there dropped from it eight gold rings of equal weight. Baldr's horse was led to the bale-fire with all his trappings.
"Now this is to be told concerning Hermódr, that he rode nine nights through dark dales and deep, so that he saw not before he was come to the river Gjöll and rode onto the Gjöll-Bridge; which bridge is thatched with glittering gold. Módgudr is the maiden called who guards the bridge; she asked him his name and race, saying that the day before there had ridden over the bridge five companies of dead men; but the bridge thunders no less under thee alone, and thou hast not the color of dead men. Why ridest thou hither on Hel-way?' He answered: 'I am appointed to ride to Hel to seek out Baldr. Hast thou perchance seen Baldr on Hel-way?' She said that Baldr had ridden there over Gjöll's Bridge,--'but down and north lieth Hel-way.'
'Then Hermódr rode on till he came to Hel-gate; he dismounted from his steed and made his girths fast, mounted and pricked him with his spurs; and the steed leaped so hard over the gate that he came nowise near to it. Then Hermódr rode home to the hall and dismounted from his steed, went into the hall, and saw sitting there in the high-seat Baldr, his brother; and Hermódr tarried there overnight. At morn Hermódr prayed Hel that Baldr might ride home with him, and told her how great weeping was among the Æsir. But Hel said that in this wise it should be put to the test, whether Baldr were so all-beloved as had been said: 'If all things in the world, quick and dead, weep for him, then he shall go back to the Æsir; but he shall remain with Hel if any gainsay it or will not weep.' Then Hermódr arose; but Baldr led him out of the hall, and took the ring Draupnir and sent it to Odin for a remembrance. And Nanna sent Frigg a linen smock, and yet more gifts, and to Fulla a golden finger-ring.
"Then Hermódr rode his way back, and came into Ásgard, and told all those tidings which he had seen and heard. Thereupon the Æsir sent over all the world messengers to pray that Baldr be wept out of Hel; and all men did this, and quick things, and the earth, and stones, and trees, and all metals,--even as thou must have seen that these things weep when they come out of frost and into the heat. Then, when the messengers went home, having well wrought their errand, they found, in a certain cave, where a giantess sat: she called herself Thökk. They prayed her to weep Baldr out of Hel; she answered:

Thökk will weep | waterless tears
For Baldr's bale-fare;
Living or dead, | I loved not the churl's son;
Let Hel hold to that she hath!

And men deem that she who was there was Loki Laufeyarson, who hath wrought most ill among the Æsir."

1. The Thing was the legislative assembly of Iceland; less specifically, a formal assembly held for judicial purposes or to settle questions of moment; an assembly of men.

50.  Loki bundin. CHAPTER 50

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmiklu kom Loki á leið, er hann olli fyrst því, er Baldr var veginn, ok svá því, er hann varð eigi leystr frá helju. Eða hvárt varð honum þessa nakkvat hefnt?"
Hárr segir: "Goldit var honum þetta, svá at hann mun lengi kennast. Þá er goðin váru orðin honum svá reið sem ván var, hljóp hann á braut ok fal sik á fjalli nökkuru, gerði þar hús ok fjórar dyrr, at hann mátti sjá ór húsinu í allar ættir, en oft um daga, brá hann sér í laxlíki ok falst þá þar, sem heitir Fránangrsfoss. Þá hugsaði hann fyrir sér, hverja vél æsir mundu til finna at taka hann í forsinum. En er hann sat í húsinu, tók hann língarn ok reið á ræksna, svá sem net er síðan gert, en eldr brann fyrir honum. Þá sá hann, at æsir áttu skammt til hans, ok hafði Óðinn sét ór Hliðskjálfinni, hvar hann var. Hann hljóp þegar upp ok út í ána, en kastaði netinu fram á eldinn.

 

En er æsir koma til hússins, þá gekk sá fyrst inn, er allra var vitrastr, er Kvasir heitir, ok er hann sá á eldinum fölskvann, er netit hafði brunnit, þá skilði hann, at þat myndi vél vera til at taka fiska, ok sagði ásunum. Því næst tóku þeir ok gerðu sér net eftir því, sem þeir sá á fölskvanum, at Loki hafði gert. Ok er búit var netit, þá fara æsir til árinnar ok kasta neti í forsinn. Hélt Þórr öðrum netshálsi, en öðrum héldu allir æsir ok drógu netit, en Loki fór fyrir ok leggst niðr í milli steina tveggja. Drógu þeir netið yfir hann ok kenndu, at kykt var fyrir, ok fara í annat sinn upp til forsins ok kasta út netinu ok binda við svá þungt, at eigi skyli undir mega fara. Ferr þá Loki fyrir netinu. En er hann sér, at skammt var til sævar þá hleypr hann upp yfir þinulinn ok rennir upp í forsinn. Nú sá æsirnir, hvar hann fór, fara enn upp til forsins ok skipta liðinu í tvá staði, en Þórr veðr eftir miðri ánni, ok fara svá út til sævar. En er Loki sér tvá kosti, var þat lífsháski at hlaupa á sæinn, en hinn var annarr at hlaupa enn yfir netit, ok þat gerði hann, hljóp sem snarast yfir netþinulinn. Þórr greip eftir honum ok tók um hann, ok renndi hann í hendi honum, svá at staðar nam höndin við sporðinn, ok er fyrir þá sök laxinn aftrmjór.

 

Nú var Loki tekinn griðalauss ok farit með hann í helli nökkurn. Þá tóku þeir þrjár hellur ok settu á egg ok lustu rauf á hellunni hverri. Þá váru teknir synir Loka, Váli ok Nari eða Narfi. Brugðu æsir Vála í vargslíki ok reif hann í sundr Narfa, bróður sinn. Þá tóku æsir þarma hans ok bundu Loka með yfir þá þrjá eggsteina. Stendr einn undir herðum, annarr undir lendum, þriði undir knésbótum, ok urðu þau bönd at járni. Þá tók Skaði eitrorm ok festi upp yfir hann, svá at eitrit skyldi drjúpa ór orminum í andlit honum, en Sigyn, kona hans, stendr hjá honum ok heldr mundlaug undir eitrdropa. En þá er full er mundlaugin, þá gengr hon ok slær út eitrinu, en meðan drýpr eitrit í andlit honum. Þá kippist hann svá hart við, at jörð öll skelfr. Þat kallið þér landskjálfta. Þar liggr hann í böndum til ragnarökrs."

L. Then said Gangleri: "Exceeding much Loki had brought to pass, when he had first been cause that Baldr was slain, and then that he was not redeemed out of Hel. Was any vengeance taken on him for this?" Hárr answered: "This thing was repaid him in such wise that he shall remember it long. When the gods had become as wroth with him as was to be looked for, he ran off and hid himself in a certain mountain; there he made a house with four doors, so that he could see out of the house in all directions. Often throughout the day he turned himself into the likeness of a salmon and hid himself in the place called Fránangr-Falls; then he would ponder what manner of wile the gods would devise to take him in the water-fall. But when he sat in the house, he took twine of linen and knitted meshes as a net is made since; but a fire burned before him. Then he saw that the Æsir were close upon him; and Odin had seen from Hlidskjálf where he was. He leaped up at once and out into the river, but cast the net into the fire.
"When the Æsir had come to the house, he went in first who was wisest of all, who is called Kvasir; and when he saw in the fire the white ash where the net had burned, then he perceived that that thing must be a device for catching fish, and told it to the Æsir. Straightway they took hold, and made themselves a net after the pattern of the one which they perceived, by the burnt-out ashes, that Loki had made. When the net was ready, then the Æsir went to the river and cast the net into the fall; Thor held one end of the net, and all of the Æsir held the other, and they drew the net. But Loki darted ahead and lay down between two stones; they drew the net over him, and perceived that something living was in front of it. A second time they went up to the fall and cast out the net, having bound it to something so heavy that nothing should be able to pass under it. Then Loki swam ahead of the net; but when he saw that it was but a short distance to the sea, then he jumped up over the net-rope and ran into the fall. Now the Æsir saw where he went, and went up again to the fall and divided the company into two parts, but Thor waded along in mid-stream; and so they went out toward the sea. Now Loki saw a choice of two courses: it was a mortal peril to dash out into the sea; but this was the second--to leap over the net again. And so he did: be leaped as swiftly as he could over the net-cord. Thor clutched at him and got hold of him, and he slipped in Thor's hand, so that the hand stopped at the tail; and for this reason the salmon has a tapering back.
"Now Loki was taken truceless, and was brought with them into a certain cave. Thereupon they took three flat stones, and set them on edge and drilled a hole in each stone. Then were taken Loki's sons, Vili and Nari or Narfi; the Æsir changed Váli into the form of a wolf, and he tore asunder Narfi his brother. And the Æsir took his entrails and bound Loki with them over the three stones: one stands under his shoulders, the second under his loins, the third under his boughs; and those bonds were turned to iron. Then Skadi took a venomous serpent and fastened it up over him, so that the venom should drip from the serpent into his face. But Sigyn, his wife, stands near him and holds a basin under the venom-drops; and when the basin is full, she goes and pours out the venom, but in the meantime the venom drips into his face. Then he writhes against it with such force that all the earth trembles: ye call that 'earthquakes.' There he lies in bonds till the Weird of the Gods."

51.  Frá ragnarökum. CHAPTER 51
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hver tíðendi eru at segja frá um ragnarökr? Þess hef ek eigi fyrr heyrt getit." Hárr segir: "Mikil tíðendi eru þaðan at segja ok mörg, þau in fyrstu, at vetr sá kemr, er kallaðr er fimbulvetr. Þá drífr snær ór öllum áttum. Frost eru þá mikil ok vindar hvassir. Ekki nýtr sólar. Þeir vetr fara þrír saman ok ekki sumar milli, en áðr ganga svá aðrir þrír vetr, at þá er um alla veröld orrostur miklar. Þá drepast bræðr fyrir ágirni sakar, ok engi þyrmir föður eða syni í manndrápum eða sifjasliti.  Svá segir í Völuspá:
55. Bræðr munu berjask
ok at bönum verðask,
munu systrungar
sifjum spilla;
hart er með hölðum,
hórdómr mikill,
skeggjöld, skalmöld,
skildir klofnir,
vindöld, vargöld,
áðr veröld steypisk.

Þá verðr þat, er mikil tíðendi þykkja, at úlfrinn gleypir sólna, ok þykkir mönnum þat mikit mein. Þá tekr annarr úlfrinn tunglit, ok gerir sá ok mikit ógagn. Stjörnurnar hverfa af himninum. Þá er ok þat til tíðenda, at svá skelfr jörð öll ok björg, at viðir losna ór jörðu upp, en björgin hrynja, en fjötrar allir ok bönd brotna ok slitna. Þá verðr Fenrisúlfr lauss. Þá geysist hafit á löndin, fyrir því at þá snýst Miðgarðsormr í jötunmóð ok sækir upp á landit. Þá verðr ok þat, at Naglfar losnar, skip þat, er svá heitir. Þat er gert af nöglum dauðra manna, ok er þat fyrir því varnanar vert, ef maðr deyr með óskornum nöglum, at sá maðr eykr mikit efni til skipsins Naglfars, er goðin ok menn vildi seint, at gert yrði. En í þessum sævargang flýtr Naglfar. Hrymr heitir jötunn, er stýrir Naglfari, en Fenrisúlfr ferr með gapandi munn, ok er inn neðri kjöftr við jörðu, en in efri við himin. Gapa myndi hann meira, ef rúm væri til. Eldar brenna ór augum hans ok nösum. Miðgarðsormr blæss svá eitrinu, at hann dreifir loft öll ok lög, ok er hann allógurligr, ok er hann á aðra hlið úlfinum. Í þessum gný klofnar himinninn, ok ríða þaðan Múspellssynir. Surtr ríðr fyrst ok fyrir honum ok eftir eldr brennandi. Sverð hans er gott mjök. Af því skínn bjartara en af sólu. En er þeir ríða Bifröst, þá brotnar hon, sem fyrr er sagt. Múspellsmegir sækja fram á þann völl, er Vígríðr heitir. Þar kemr ok þá Fenrisúlfr ok Miðgarðsormr. Þar er ok þá Loki kominn ok Hrymr ok með honum allir hrímþursar, en Loka fylgja allir Heljarsinnar. En Múspellssynir hafa einir sér fylking, ok er sú björt mjök. Völlrinn Vígríðr er hundrað rasta víðr á hvern veg.
En er þessi tíðendi verða, þá stendr upp Heimdallr ok blæss ákafliga í Gjallarhorn ok vekr upp öll goðin, ok eiga þau þing saman. Þá ríðr Óðinn til Mímisbrunns ok tekr ráð af Mími fyrir sér ok sínu liði. Þá skelfr askr Yggdrasils, ok engi hlutr er þá óttalauss á himni eða jörðu. Æsir hervæða sik ok allir Einherjar ok sækja fram á völluna. Ríðr fyrstr Óðinn með gullhjálminn ok fagra brynju ok geir sinn, er Gungnir heitir. Stefnir hann móti Fenrisúlf, en Þórr fram á aðra hlið honum, ok má hann ekki duga honum, því at hann hefir fullt fang at berjast við Miðgarðsorm. Freyr berst móti Surti, ok verðr harðr samgangr, áðr Freyr fellr. Þat verðr hans bani, er hann missir þess ins góða sverðs, er hann gaf Skírni. Þá er ok lauss orðinn hundrinn Garmr, er bundinn er fyrir Gnipahelli. Hann er it mesta forað. Hann á víg móti Tý, ok verðr hvárr öðrum at bana. Þórr berr banaorð af Miðgarðsormi ok stígr þaðan braut níu fet. Þá fellr hann dauðr til jarðar fyrir eitri því, er ormrinn blæss á hann. Úlfrinn gleypir Óðin. Verðr þat hans bani. En þegar eftir snýst fram Víðarr ok stígr öðrum fæti í neðra kjöft úlfsins. Á þeim fæti hefir hann þann skó, er allan aldr hefir verit til samnat. Þat eru bjórar þeir, er menn sníða ór skóm sínum fyrir tám eða hæli. Því skal þeim bjórum braut kasta sá maðr, er at því vill hyggja at koma ásunum at liði. Annarri hendi tekr hann inn efra kjöft úlfsins ok rífr sundr gin hans, ok verðr þat úlfsins bani. Loki á orrostu við Heimdall, ok verðr hvárr annars bani. Því næst slyngr Surtr eldi yfir jörðina ok brennir allan heim. Svá er sagt í Völuspá:


56. Hátt blæss Heimdallr,
horn er á lofti,
mælir Óðinn
við Míms höfuð;
skelfr Yggdrasils
askr standandi,
ymr it aldna tré,
en jötunn losnar.

57. Hvat er með ásum?
Hvat er með alfum?
Ymr allr Jötunheimr,
æsir ro á þingi,
stynja dvergar
fyrir steindurum,
veggbergs vísir.
Vituð ér enn eða hvat?

58. Hrymr ekr austan,
hefisk lind fyrir,
snýsk Jörmungandr
í jötunmóði;
ormr knýr unnir,
örn mun hlakka,
slítr nái niðfölr,
Naglfar losnar.

59. Kjóll ferr austan,
koma munu Múspells
of lög lýðir,
en Loki stýrir;
þar eru fíflmegir
með freka allir,
þeir er bróðir
Býleists í för.

60. Surtr ferr sunnan
með sviga lævi,
skínn af sverði
sól valtíva;
grjótbjörg gnata,
en gífr rata,
troða halir helveg,
en himinn klofnar.

61. Þá kemr Hlínar
harmr annarr fram,
er Óðinn ferr
við ulf vega,
en bani Belja
bjartr at Surti;
þar mun Friggjar
falla angan.

62. Gengr Óðins sonr
við ulf vega,
Víðarr of veg
at valdýri;
lætr hann megi Hveðrungs
mund of standa
hjör til hjarta;
þá er hefnt föður.

63. Gengr inn mæri
mögr Hlöðynjar
neppr af naðri
níðs ókvíðnum;
munu halir allir
heimstöð ryðja,
er af móði drepr
Miðgarðs véurr.

64. Sól mun sortna,
sökkr fold í mar,
hverfa af himni
heiðar stjörnur,
geisar eimi
ok aldrnari,
leikr hár hiti,
við himin sjalfan.

Hér segir enn svá:

65. Vígríðr heitir völlr,
er finnask vígi at
Surtr ok in svásu goð;
hundrað rasta
hann er á hverjan veg;
sá er þeim völlr vitaðr."
LI. Then said Gangleri: "What tidings are to be told concerning the Weird of the Gods? Never before have I heard aught said of this."
Hárr answered: "Great tidings are to be told of it, and much. The first is this, that there shall come that winter which is called the Awful Winter: in that time snow shall drive from all quarters; frosts shall be great then, and winds sharp; there shall be no virtue in the sun. Those winters shall proceed three in succession, and no summer between; but first shall come three other winters, such that over all the world there shall be mighty battles. In that time brothers shall slay each other for greed's sake, and none shall spare father or son in manslaughter and in incest; so it says in Völuspá:

Brothers shall strive | and slaughter each other;
Own sisters' children | shall sin together;
Ill days among men, | many a whoredom:
An axe-age, a sword-age, | shields shall be cloven;
A wind-age, a wolf-age, | ere the world totters.

Then shall happen what seems great tidings: the Wolf shall swallow the sun; and this shall seem to men a great harm. Then the other wolf shall seize the moon, and he also shall work great ruin; the stars shall vanish from the heavens. Then shall come to pass these tidings also: all the earth shall tremble so, and the crags, that trees shall be torn up from the earth, and the crags fall to ruin; and all fetters and bonds shall be broken and rent. Then shall Fenris-Wolf get loose; then the sea shall gush forth upon the land, because the Midgard Serpent stirs in giant wrath and advances up onto the land. Then that too shall happen, that Naglfar shall be loosened, the ship which is so named. (It is made of dead men's nails; wherefore a warning is desirable, that if a man die with unshorn nails, that man adds much material to the ship Naglfar, which gods and men were fain to have finished late.) Yet in this sea-flood Naglfar shall float. Hrymr is the name of the giant who steers Naglfar. Fenris-Wolf shall advance with gaping mouth, and his lower jaw shall be against the earth, but the upper against heaven,--he would gape yet more if there were room for it; fires blaze from his eyes and nostrils. The Midgard Serpent shall blow venom so that he shall sprinkle all the air and water; and he is very terrible, and shall be on one side of the Wolf. In this din shall the heaven be cloven, and the Sons of Múspell ride thence: Surtr shall ride first, and both before him and after him burning fire; his sword is exceeding good: from it radiance shines brighter than from the sun; when they ride over Bifröst, then the bridge shall break, as has been told before. The Sons of Múspell shall go forth to that field which is called Vígrídr, thither shall come Fenris-Wolf also and the Midgard Serpent; then Loki and Hrymr shall come there also, and with him all the Rime-Giants. All the champions of Hel follow Loki; and the Sons of Múspell shall have a company by themselves, and it shall be very bright. The field Vígrídr is a hundred leagues wide each way.
"When these tidings come to pass, then shall Heimdallr rise up and blow mightily in the Gjallar-Horn, and awaken all the gods; and they shall hold council together. Then Odin shall ride to Mímir's Well and take counsel of Mímir for himself and his host. Then the Ash of Yggdrasill shall tremble, and nothing then shall be without fear in heaven or in earth. Then shall the Æsir put on their war-weeds, and all the Champions, and advance to the field: Odin rides first with the gold helmet and a fair birnie, and his spear, which is called Gungnir. He shall go forth against Fenris-Wolf, and Thor stands forward on his other side, and can be of no avail to him, because he shall have his hands full to fight against the Midgard Serpent. Freyr shall contend with Surtr, and a hard encounter shall there be between them before Freyr falls: it is to be his death that he lacks that good sword of his, which he gave to Skírnir. Then shall the dog Garmr be loosed, which is bound before Gnipa's Cave: he is the greatest monster; he shall do battle with Týr, and each become the other's slayer. Thor shall put to death the Midgard Serpent, and shall stride away nine paces from that spot; then shall he fall dead to the earth, because of the venom which the Snake has blown at him. The Wolf shall swallow Odin; that shall be his ending But straight thereafter shall Vídarr stride forth and set one foot upon the lower jaw of the Wolf: on that foot he has the shoe, materials for which have been gathering throughout all time. (They are the scraps of leather which men cut out: of their shoes at toe or heel; therefore he who desires in his heart to come to the Æsir's help should cast those scraps away.) With one hand he shall seize the Wolf's upper jaw and tear his gullet asunder; and that is the death of the Wolf. Loki shall have battle with Heimdallr, and each be the slayer of the other. Then straightway shall Surtr cast fire over the earth and burn all the world; so is said in Völuspá:

 

High blows Heimdallr, | the horn is aloft;
Odin communes | with Mimir's head;
Trembles Yggdrasill's | towering Ash;
The old tree wails | when the Ettin is loosed.

 

What of the Æsir? | What of the Elf-folk?
All Jötunheim echoes, | the Æsir are at council;
The dwarves are groaning | before their stone doors,
Wise in rock-walls; | wit ye yet, or what?

 

Hrymr sails from the east, | the sea floods onward;
The monstrous Beast | twists in mighty wrath;
The Snake beats the waves, | the Eagle is screaming;
The gold-neb tears corpses, | Naglfar is loosed.

 

From the east sails the keel; | come now Múspell's folk
Over the sea-waves, | and Loki steereth;
There are the warlocks | all with the Wolf,--
With them is the brother | of Býleistr faring.

Surtr fares from southward | with switch-eating flame;
On his sword shimmers | the sun of the war-gods;
The rocks are falling, | and fiends are reeling,
Heroes tread Hel-way, | heaven is cloven.


Then to the Goddess | a second grief cometh,
When Odin fares | to fight with the Wolf,
And Beli's slayer, | the bright god, with Surtr;
There must fall | Frigg's beloved.

 

Odin's son goeth | to strife with the Wolf,--
Vídarr, speeding | to meet the slaughter-beast;
The sword in his hand | to the heart he thrusteth
Of the fiend's offspring; avenged is his Father.

 

Now goeth Hlödyn's | glorious son
Not in flight from the Serpent, | of fear unheeding;
All the earth's offspring | must empty the homesteads,
When furiously smiteth | Midgard's defender.

 

The sun shall be darkened, | earth sinks in the sea,--
Glide from the heaven | the glittering stars;
Smoke-reek rages | and reddening fire:
The high heat licks | against heaven itself.

 

And here it says yet so:

 

Vígrídr hight the field | where in fight shall meet
Surtr and the cherished gods;
An hundred leagues | it has on each side:
Unto them that field is fated."

52. Vistarverur eftir ragnarökr. CHAPTER 52

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat verðr þá eftir, er brenndr er heimr allr ok dauð goðin öll ok allir Einherjar ok allt mannfólk? Ok hafið þér áðr sagt, at hverr maðr skal lifa í nökkurum heimi um allar aldir."
Þá svarar Þriði: "Margar eru þá vistir góðar ok margar illar. Bazt er þá at vera á Gimlé á himni, ok allgott er til góðs drykkjar þeim, er þat þykkir gaman, í þeim sal, er Brimir heitir. Hann stendr á Ókólni. Sá er ok góðr salr, er stendr á Niðafjöllum, gerr af rauðu gulli. Sá heitir Sindri. Í þessum sölum skulu byggja góðir menn ok siðlátir. Á Náströndum er mikill salr ok illr, ok horfa norðr dyrr. Hann er ofinn allr ormahryggjum sem vandahús, en ormahöfuð öll vitu inn í húsit ok blása eitri, svá at eftir salnum renna eitrár, ok vaða þær ár eiðrofar ok morðvargar, svá sem hér segir:

66. Sal veit ek standa
sólu fjarri
Náströndu á,
norðr horfa dyrr;
falla eitrdropar
inn um ljóra;
sá er undinn salr
orma hryggjum.

67. Skulu þar vaða
þunga strauma
menn meinsvara
ok morðvargar.

En í Hvergelmi er verst:

Þar kvelr Níðhöggr
nái framgengna."

LII. Then said Gangleri: 'What shall come to pass afterward, when all the world is burned, and dead are all the gods and all the champions and all mankind? Have ye not said before, that every man shall live in some world throughout all ages?" Then Thridi answered: "In that time the good abodes shall be many, and many the ill; then it shall be best to be in Gimlé in Heaven. Moreover, there is plenteous abundance of good drink, for them that esteem that a pleasure, in the hall which is called Brimir: it stands in Ókólnir. That too is a good hall which stands in Nida Fells, made of red gold; its name is Sindri. In these halls shall dwell good men and pure in heart.

"On Nástrand[1] is a great hall and evil, and its doors face to the north: it is all woven of serpent-backs like a wattle-house; and all the snake-heads turn into the house and blow venom, so that along the hall run rivers of venom; and they who have broken oaths, and murderers, wade those rivers, even as it says here:

I know a hall standing | far from the sun,
In Nástrand: the doors; | to northward are turned;
Venom-drops fill | down from the roof-holes;
That hall is bordered | with backs of serpents.


There are doomed to wade | the weltering streams
Men that are mansworn, | and they that murderers are.
But it is worst in Hvergelmir:
There the cursed snake | tears dead men's corpses."

1. Strand of the Dead.

53. Hverir lifa af ragnarökr. CHAPTER 53

Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvárt lifa nökkur goðin þá, eða er þá nökkur jörð eða himinn?"
Hárr segir: "Upp skýtr jörðunni þá ór sænum ok er þá græn ok fögr. Vaxa þá akrar ósánir. Víðarr ok Váli lifa, svá at eigi hefir særinn ok Surtalogi grandat þeim, ok byggja þeir á Iðavelli, þar sem fyrr var Ásgarðr, ok þar koma þá synir Þórs, Móði ok Magni, ok hafa þar Mjöllni. Því næst koma þar Baldr ok Höðr frá Heljar, setjast þá allir samt ok talast við ok minnast á rúnar sínar ok ræða of tíðendi þau, er fyrrum höfðu verit, of Miðgarðsorm ok um Fenrisúlf. Þá finna þeir í grasinu gulltöflur þær, er æsirnir höfðu átt. Svá er sagt:

68. Víðarr ok Váli
byggva vé goða,
þá er sortnar Surtalogi;
Móði ok Magni
skulu Mjöllni hafa
Vingnis at vígþroti.

En þar, sem heitir Hoddmímisholt  leynast menn tveir í surtaloga [U: En í holdi Mímis leynask meyjar í Svartaloga], er svá heita, Líf ok Leifþrasir, ok hafa morgindöggvar fyrir mat, en af þessum mönnum kemr svá mikil kynslóð, at byggvist heimr allr, svá sem hér segir:

69. Líf ok Leifþrasir,
en þau leynask munu
í holti Hoddmímis [U: Mím holdi];
morgindöggvar
þau at mat hafa,
en þaðan af aldir alask [U: ok þar um aldr alask].

Ok hitt mun þér undarligt þykkja, er sólin hefir getit dóttur eigi ófegri en hon er, ok ferr sú þá stigu móður sinnar, sem hér segir:

70. Eina dóttur
berr alfröðull,
áðr hana fenrir fari;
sú skal ríða,
er regin deyja,
móður brautir mær.

En ef þú kannt lengra fram at spyrja, þá veit ek eigi, hvaðan þér kemr þat, fyrir því at engan mann heyrða ek lengra segja fram aldarfarit, ok njóttu nú sem þú namt."

LIII. Then spake Gangleri: "Shall any of the gods live then, or shall there be then any earth or heaven?" Hárr answered: "In that time the earth shall emerge out of the sea, and shall then be green and fair; then shall the fruits of it be brought forth unsown. Vídarr and Váli shall be living, inasmuch as neither sea nor the fire of Surtr shall have harmed them; and they shall dwell at Ida-Plain, where Ásgard was before. And then the sons of Thor, Módi and Magni, shall come there, and they shall have Mjöllnir there. After that Baldr shall come thither, and Hödr, from Hel; then all shall sit down together and hold speech. with one another, and call to mind their secret wisdom, and speak of those happenings which have been before: of the Midgard Serpent and of Fenris-Wolf. Then they shall find in the grass those golden chess-pieces which the Æsir had had; thus is it said:

In the deities' shrines | shall dwell Vídarr and Váli,
When the Fire of Surtr is slackened;
Módi and Magni | shall have Mjöllnir
At the ceasing of Thor's strife.

In the place called Hoddmímir's Holt there shall lie hidden during the Fire of Surtr two of mankind, [U: And in Mimir's flesh there shall lie hidden maidens during the Fire of Surt.... (nothing follows until verse)] who are called thus: Líf and Lífthrasir, and for food they shall have the morning-dews. From these folk shall come so numerous an offspring that all the world shall be peopled, even as is said here:

Líf and Lífthrasir, | these shall lurk hidden
In the Holt of Hoddmímir [U: in Mimir's flesh cp. Ymis holdi, Grímnismál 40];
The morning dews | their meat shall be;
Thence are gendered the generations. [U: and reside there through the ages]

And it may seem wonderful to thee, that the sun shall have borne a daughter not less fair than herself; and the daughter shall then tread in the steps of her mother, as is said here:

The Elfin-beam | shall bear a daughter,
Ere Fenris drags her forth;
That maid shall go, | when the great gods die,
To ride her mother's road.

But now, if thou art able to ask yet further, then indeed I know not whence answer shall come to thee, for I never heard any man tell forth at greater length the course of the world; and now avail thyself of that which thou hast heard."

54.  Frá Ganglera. CHAPTER 54
Því næst heyrði Gangleri dyni mikla hvern veg frá sér ok leit út á hlið sér. Ok þá er hann sést meir um, þá stendr hann úti á sléttum velli, sér þá enga höll ok enga borg. Gengr hann þá leið sína braut ok kemr heim í ríki sitt ok segir þau tíðendi, er hann hefir sét ok heyrt, ok eftir honum sagði hverr maðr öðrum þessar sögur.

LIV. Thereupon Gangleri heard great noises on every side of him; and then, when he had looked about him more, lo, he stood out of doors on a level plain, and saw no hall there and no castle. Then he went his way forth and came home into his kingdom, and told those tidings which he had seen and heard; and after him each man told these tales to the other.



En æsir setjast þá á tal ok ráða ráðum sínum ok minnast á þessar frásagnir allar, er honum váru sagðar, ok gefa nöfn þessi in sömu, er áðr váru nefnd, mönnum ok stöðum þeim, er þar váru, til þess, at þá er langar stundir liði, at menn skyldu ekki ifast í, at allir væru einir þeir æsir, er nú var frá sagt, ok þessir, er þá váru þau sömu nöfn gefin. Þar var þá Þórr kallaðr, ok er sá Ása-Þórr inn gamli.

Here Wilken closes his edition; Jónsson admits the following:

But the Æsir sat them down to speak together, and took counsel and recalled all these tales which had been told to him. And they gave these same names that were named before to those men and places that were there, to the end that when long ages should have passed away, men should not doubt thereof, that those Æsir that were but now spoken of, and these to whom the same names were then given, were all one. There Thor was so named, and he is the old Ása-Thor.



Þórr, sá er Akuþórr, ok honum eru kend þau stórvirki er Ektor gørði í Troju. En þat hyggja menn at Tyrkir hafi sagt frá Ulixes ok hafi þeir hann kallat Loka, þvíat Tyrki<r> váru hans inir mestu óvinir.

All reject what follows:

He is Öku-Thor, and to him are ascribed those mighty works which Hector wrought in Troy. But this is the belief of men: that the Turks told of Ulysses, and called him Loki, for the Turks were his greatest foes.

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