Johannes Gerhard Scheffer
The History of Lapland

© 2014 Transcribed, Compiled and Annotated by William P. Reaves

Below are excerpts from Johannes Scheffer's Lapponia, concerning the pagan religious and magical practices of the Sami people. This remarkable illustrated source contains a detailed contemporary account of heathen worship in Lapland, bordering on Norway and Sweden, in the year 1673 by Johannes Scheffer, a German Professor of Law and Rhetoric at Upsala University in Sweden— at the request of the Swedish crown. Scheffer provides specific information about the rites and rituals involved in worship of Thor and other gods among the Sami people, as well as touching on various heathen beliefs and practices, based on firsthand information obtained from Swedish clergy living in Lappland.

The title of Scheffer's work, Lapponia, is the Latin name for Lappland. Originally published in Frankfurt am Main in Latin in 1673, the work was translated within a decade of its initial printing into English (Oxford, 1674), German (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1675), French (Paris, 1678), and Dutch (Amsterdam, 1682). Ironically, this classic text was published in Swedish for the first time in 1956. While most of the translations reproduced the original illustrations, frequently in mirror image, the Dutch edition contains original drawings, some only loosely based on the original (See Related Art). The best copies of the maps in the online versions are found in the French edition and reproduced below for those who wish to locate the specific regions mentioned in the text.  The remaining pictures here are from the Latin text unless otherwise indicated.

There were two English translations both titled The History of Lapland. The first from 1674 is a poor translation, often summarizing the information, omitting the quotes and failing to cite the sources. The second translation by Olaf Rudbeck in 1704 is a direct translation from the Latin, and contains an additional treatise not found in the first. This is the version used here. I have retained the spelling of the original, for the most part, with a few minor modifications. To this text, I have occasionally added missing text and more detailed references, such as chapter and/or page numbers, from the Latin edition. I have also supplied additional footnotes to clarify or explain the sources, whenever possible. These notes are marked with asterix (*) and appear in red; they are not part of the original text.

For additional information on Johannes Scheffer and his work, Lapponia, see The Northern Lights Route.
Excerpts from
The History of Lapland
Chapter VII: 
Of the First Religion of the Laplanders
Having thus far traced the Rise and Origins of the Lapland Nation, we must now treat of them more in particular; and before all the rest of their Religion, not such as it is now a-days, but what it was before they received the least Tincture of Christianity; it being unquestionable, that there were Laplanders, or at least such as inhabited the same Country now called Lapland, before the Christian Religion was introduced in those Parts, the Finni, Lappofinni, Skridfinni or Biarmi, as has been shewn before. Besides that the Laplanders, properly so called, did not embrace Christianity till in the latter Ages, which naturally leads us into an enquiry, what Religion was received among them before that Time. It seems to be beyond all doubt, that they were Pagans or Heathens, as all the other Northern Nations were in former Ages; but there being a remarkable difference betwixt the several Religions of the Pagans themselves, it is worth our enquiry, what kind of Religion it was the Laplanders profess'd. 'Tis very probable they were of the same Religion with the Finlanders; for, as they ow'd their Origine to them, so questionless, they received their Religion from them; but for want of ancient  Monuments it is a very difficult Task to determine what this Religion of the Finlanders was, so that we must rest satisfied with the best Conjectures we can make from what we have left of the ancient Biarmi and Skridfinni, and from some remainders of it, among the modern Finlanders and Laplanders; it having been sufficiently proved before, that the Biarmi were the most ancient Colony of the Finni, who settled themselves in the same Country, now called Lapland. If we search into their most ancient Monuments, we find that they pay'd Divine Worship to one they called Jumala. Thus the History of St. Olaus King of Norway (Heimskringla, Ólafs saga helga) says in express Terms: The God of the Biarmi, whom they call Jumala, stands upon an Altar. In the same manner Herrodus in his History, speaking of a certain Temple of the Biarmi, has these Words: Here you see a God, famous among them under the Name of Jomala. From whence it is evident, that this word Jumala or Jomala, was a Word altogether Foreign to those who writ those Historics, because they alledge it as a Word peculiar to the Biarmi, and unknown to themselves. And since those Historians were either of the ancient Goths, or Norwegians, or Islanders, this Word is not of Gothic extraction, but belongs properly to some other Nation, and in all probability to the Finlanders, because the same is used among them to this Day. For what the Greeks call Dio, the Latins Dais; the Swedes and Goths, and such as are descended from them, Gott or Gudh, is by the modern Finlanders called Jumala. The word Jumala then bearing the signification of the false God among them in ancient Times, it is very probable that the same was transplanted from the Finlanders to the Biarmi, and their Successors the Laplanders, who being likewise descended from the Finlanders, are joined with the Biarmi, so as to make but one Nation, did, according to their ancient Custom retain the word Jumala, to signifie the true God. Besides this Jumala, it seems as if the Laplanders had another God, the same who by the Swedes was called Thor; it being certain that to this very Day they Worship, among several other Idols, one Tor, as we shall have occasion to shew hereafter; besides, that the ancient Finlanders, and especially the Tavasti, had among their Gods one Turrisas, being the same with Tor. Siegefried Aaron, who writ in Verse of the Gods of the Finlanders, confirms the same by his Testimony; his Words alledged by Michael Wexouius are these; The Tavasti worshipped one Turisas, as the God of War and Victory. This word Turrisas  is joined from two others, to wit Turris and As, which imputes as much as Turris, Torus or Tures (for thus it is variously expressed, as we have shewn in our Treatise of Lapps) Prince of the Ases (Æsir) or Asiaticks; and that those who in most ancient times came out of Asia and settled in the Northern Parts were called Ases, I have sufficiently demonstrated in the before mentioned Treatise. One of their most ancient Leaders being called Turus, the Finlanders did worship him under the Name of Turisas.  Angrim Jonas tells us, that the Finlanders had in ancient Times one Tornis for their King, who was a Predecessor of Nori's, King of Norway, from whom, as some are of Opinion that Kingdom got its Name, quasi Norrige, or the Kingdom of Norus; and it is sufficiently known that it was not unusual among the ancient Kings to take upon them the Names of their Gods. And, as we read of several among the Greek; who were called by the Names, of Jupiter and Neptune, so without doubt King Torrus had derived his Name from Torrus or Turnes, the God of the ancient Finlanders. It is very probable that the Laplanders received this God Turrus, Tornes, or Tor, from the Finlanders, as they did their Language, Worships and Customs. To these two Gods (if they are Two) viz. Jumala and Tor, may be added a Third, to wit, the Sun; which Opinion I found upon this, because they reckon the Sun to this Day among their Gods, and that almost all the barbarous Pagan Nations have pay'd Divine Worship to the Sun; and, if these Nations who lived under a happy Climate, and consequently enjoyed all the Benefits of his Light and Heat, did adore this Celestial Body; how much more probable is it, that the Laplanders who live for a considerable Time of the Year in continual Darkness, and endure very bitter Frosts, should Worship the Sun that enlivens them? But concerning the Sun, we shall have occasion to say more hereafter. And these are the Gods of the ancient Laplanders, those which the Romans called Majorum Gentium, or of the first Rank: Whether they had any of an inferiour Degree, may perhaps be called in question; but considering that to this very Day they retain among them some of the Demi-Gods, as shall be shewn anon, and that the Finlanders in former Ages did Worship some of them, as Wexouius tells us, I don't question, but that they brought them into Lapland. These are Wexouius his Words, which he has taken out of Siegefried Aaron: The ancient Finlanders had likewise their Demi-Gods; thus the Inhabitants of Carelia had Rongotheus the God of Rye, Pellonpeko of Barley, Wierecannos of Oats, Egres was loosed upon among them as the Patron of Herbs, Peas, Turnips, Flax and Hemp; Teko (Uko) with his Wife Roane of Tempests; Kukre (Kækre) was supposed the Protector of Cattel; Hyse had the command of the Wolves and Bears; Nyrke was the Patron of Squirrel-Hunting, as Hyttavanes was of Hare-Hunting. It is, I think past all doubt, that the Laplanders did Worship some of these as Gods, especially those whose assistance they stood most in need of for the better performing of their Business, viz. such of these Demi-Gods whom they acknowledged as Patrons of Hunting and Protectors of their Cattle from wild Beasts; whereas they might perhaps make but little account of the reft, being useless to them, considering they did not addict themselves to cultivate the Ground; but whether they worshipped them under the same Names, I will not pretend to determine, because I can meet with no certainty of it, either in their ancient Monuments, or their modern Practice. The next thing which falls under our Consideration, is, to enquire what manner of Divine Worship they paid to thofe before mentioned Gods; but to refolve this also, is a very difficult Task, unless we make some conjectures from what is practised among the modern Laplanders in their Rites, of which we shall speak in the Ninth Chapter, which treats of the modern Religion of the Laplanders.

The only thing then remaining, is, to take notice in this place, what we read of Jumala. This God was represented in the shape of a Man, fitting upon an Altar, with a Crown on his Head, adorned with twelve Gems, and a Golden Chain about his Neck.* In the History of Herrodus, we find these following words of this Jumala, taken out of a very ancient Author: Then they approached to the Altar, or a Seat, upon which was seated Jumala. They took way his Crown, befit with twelve precious Stones, and a Chain valued at three hundred Marks of Gold.** In the History of Olaus there is likewise mention made of this Chain: Then Charles (Charlemange), says he, ran up towards Jumala, and espying a large Chain about his Neck, he with his Ax cut the String in pieces at one stroak, which fastned the Chain to the Neck

*This is reminiscent of the description of the Thor idol in the temple at Old Uppsala by Olaus Magnus (1555), —a fact that Scheffer points out further along. Here he cites his apparently Icelandic source as:  Historia Herrodi, ch. 7: Their komu as stalle theim, sem Iomali sat a. Af honum toku their Koronu med XII. gimsternum gulls oc men thad, sem kastadi thrin hundred markur gulls. This is: Tum veniebant ad aram sive sellam, sui insidebat Iomala et detrahebant coronam, lapidibus pretiosis duodecim distinctam, item torquem, cujus pretium erant marcæ anri trecentæ.

**Olaus Magnus says "Thor was depicted with a sceptre and crown with twelve stars." Where this detail originates is uncertain; it does not derive from the original account of the temple by Adam of Bremen in the 10th century, which only states that "Thor with his scepter apparently resembles Jove." A textual note adds "a golden chain goes round the temple." In the Book of Revelation (12:1, 2 & 5), St. John describes the Virgin Mary with such a crown: "And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars." In Ovid, the unhappy Ariadne is turned into the constellation Corona Borealis (Crown of the North) made up of nine stars, modelled on a jeweled crown she wore presented to her by the god Bacchus. Although the crown is described in several literary sources, no classical depictions of it have been found. In Titian's painting 'Bacchus and Ariadne' (1520–23), the constellation is shown above Ariadne's head as a circle of 8 stars. In Baroque art, a crown of stars came to represent immortality.

The word Men which is made use of in the Original, is commonly interpreted by the word Collar, it being obvious, that both are made use of about the Neck by a String, which was the reason that Charles was forced to cut it to pieces, before he could take it away; which had been needless, if it had been a Chain. It is therefore my Opinion, that this Men was a certain Golden Badge or Jewel, finely engraven and set with precious Stones; what confirms me in it is, that in the History of Herrodus no mention is made of its weight, but only of its value, which would have been otherwise, had it been a Chain. This Jewel, as I suppose, being ty'd round the Neck by a String, did hang down upon the Breast of the Image of Jumala, a thing not unusual in former Ages, as I have shewn in the before mentioned Treatise; which Custom is also obferved to this day among us, nothing being more frequent, than to see Golden Badges or Jewels fastned by a String or Ribband about the Neck. Wormius in his Dictionary [Lexicon Runicum  p. 39] says: Men was a round piece of Gold fastened on a Collar; a Mene, which signifies as much as the Moon, its rotundity resembling the shape of that Celestial Body. Thus the Latins call them Jumala's, as I have told you in the before mentioned Treatise. But whatever the Signification of the word Men may mean, thus much is certain, that they paid Divine Worship to the Image of Jumala, being of a Humane shape, with a Crown on its Head, set with twelve Gems, as it is described by the Author of the History of St. Olaus; which shews us, that in this, as well as in the other parts of his Habit, he had near a resemblance to the God Thor, which was worshipped by the ancient Swedes, according to the description we have given of that Image in our Treatise of Upsal; for this God was made fitting in the shape of a Man, with a Crown on his Head, adorned with twelve Stars, as Jumala with as many Gems; from whence I am apt to persuade my self, that the Biarmi, and afterwards the Laplanders did worship the same God under two different Names, or at least made use of both Names promiscuously. For they called the true God, whom they knew partly by the Dictates of Reason, partly by Tradition, Jumalia; but after the Name of Tor was introduced among them, they either called him Tor, or gave the Name of Jumala to Tor; what confirms me in this Opinion, is, that to this day the Laplanders attribute the same Power to Tor, that in former Ages they did to Jumala, viz. the supeam Command over all the inferior Gods, especially the bad and hurtful, over the Air, Thunder, and Lightning, Health, Life, and Death of Mankind, and such like, of which more anon. Thus much of the shape of Jumalia. What this Idol was made of, is not very well known, tho I am of opinion, that it was of Wood; because we are told in the History of St. Olaus (Heimskringla, Ólafs saga helga), that Charles did with his Ax cut off its Head, and that at one stroak, which could not have been done, bad it been of Gold or Silver; considering especially, that the Author speaks in that Passage of it as an accidental thing, Charles's Aim being only at the Collar on which the Jewel was fastned; but, says he, the blow was fo terrible, that at once it struck off the Head of Jumalia. Besides, from the History of Herrodus, it seems to be evident that this Image was of Wood, because it is said that it was burnt to Ashes with all that belonged to it. These are his words: Then, after they had taken away all the Gold and other precious Things, they set the Temple on fire, and burnt all to Ashes. He says, All, viz. the Temple, the Idol, and all the Furniture, except the Gold and other precious Things. The Gold here mentioned used  to be offered to this God; because the Biarmi paid their Homage to Jumala by casting as much Gold into a large Golden Bason of a vast weight, as it would hold, which stood upon his Knees to receive the sacred Offertory. Herrodus in his History says thus: They took from betwixt his Knees (Jomala's) a large Golden Bason, which is fill'd, might contain as much Liquor, as was sufficient for four Men; this was full of Gold. The History of Olaus makes this Vessel not of Gold, but only of Silver; and instead of the Gold within, full of Silver-Coin: These are his words: Thorer came back to Jumala, and took, away the Silver Bason, full of Silver-Coin, which rested upon his Knees. There it is to be observed, that instead of bare Silver, mention is made of Silver-Coin; so that probably the before-mentioned Gold ought to be taken in the same sense. Therefore why mention is made here of a Silver Vessel and Coin, is, because long before the time of Olaus, the Biarmi had lost their Golden Bason with the Golden Coin, and since that time had not been in a Condition to repair the Loss of it, by getting another of the same Metal. For the rest, the Biarmi did not worship this Jumal every where, but in a few particular places, and perhaps in one only, where a Structure was erected in the nature of a Temple. Herrodus seems to intimate this in his History, when he mentions this Temple as a peculiar place, known but to few, and places it among thick and remote Woods; for this he introduces a Country-Maid speaking: In this Forest is a very fine Temple, belonging to King Hareker; this is the Residence of a  God, called Jumala, who is worshipped far and near. I said in the nature of a Temple, because it was not built with Walls and Roof, as our modern Temples are, but only enclosed with a certain Fence; for the word Hoff made use of in the Original implies no more, Hoff signifying to this day a certain place enclosed round about tho’ open at the top. Thus Halo, by which the Latins undersland the Circle which appears round the Moon, is called Monshoff; perhaps by reason of its Resemblance to those Fences, wherewith they used to enclose the Statues of their Gods. The Roman Temples were built in the same manner, open on the top, which makes Testus say, A Temple is a place, which may be seen from all sides, and from whence you may look, every where; which could not have been done, had they been covered on the top. And such was the Temple of Jumala, placed in a thick Grove: They approached, says the History of Olaus, to a certain Grove, and in it they found a very high Fence, the Door of which was lock'd. Here you find the Fence and the Door mentioned, by which those were excluded who were not to be admitted to the Worship of Jumala. In this they did imitate moft of the other ancient Nations, who, tho' they commonly worship their Gods in Groves, yet were always careful to defend the sacred Residence of their Idols, by a sufficient Fence, or Hoff, which is the same with what the Romans called Templum. Thus much of Jumala, and the ancient manner of worshipping him among the Biarmi, as far as it is transmitted to us, by the ancient Writers. What concerns Tor, the Sun, and some other of an inferior Rank, there is scarce any Footsteps left of them, unless what we find intermixed with the Christian Religion, some of these Superstitions continuing among them to this day, of which we shall speak in a peculiar Chapter.

Chapter IX:
Of Some Remains of Paganism
in Lapland at this Time.
We have given you an ample Account of the true State of the Christian Religion in Lapland; and how both the Swedish Kings, and the Priests have not been sparing, by all possible means, to extirpate the ancient Superstitions, and their evil Consequences; notwithstanding which there are many Remnants, which require their further Care and Trouble. Samuel Rheen* (ch. 24) confesses this himself, when he says. That there are still remaining; among them many gross Errors and Superstitions; which makes their Conversion much suspected by many, as if they were Christians only in outward appearance, but Pagans in their Hearts: Which makes the before mentioned Author say of them in another Passage; That tho' they would have the World to believe that they adore and honour God, and put their trust in him, yet are they much addicted to the Superstitions of their Ancestors. To the same Purpose did Peter Claudi speak of the Norwegian Laplanders of his time: Tho', says he, they carry their Infants to be Baptised by the Priests, and several times every Year travel a great way, to go to Church and receive the Sacrament, yet their Idolatry sufficiently demonstrates, that all this is only Fictitious. 'Tis true, this rule is not to be applyed to all, this being contrary to Experience; nevertheless is it undeniable, that many of them make Profession of the Christian Religion, rather for a shew, than in reality. Many Reasons may be alledged, for this their obstinate perseverance in their ancient Impiety and Superstitions. Among the rest there is one of a very ancient Date, mentioned by Ziegler in his time: The Reason, says he, why there are so few Christians among the Laplanders, is in some measure the Avarice of some of the Heads of the Clergy, who either neglected their Duty of instructing them, or put a check to the growing Doctrin of Christ, by endeavouring to lay heavy Impositions upon the People, under the pretext of the Christian Faith. It is no wonder if the Laplanders, who were but Poor before, could not digest these exactions of the Priests. Olaus Magnus (Book 4, ch. 19) endeavours to contradict this, when he calls it, a gross and impious Lye, but he would have done well to have convinced us to the contrary, which he does not. For, what he mentions concerning the Priests being employed in the Conversion of the Southern Provinces there; and of his Brother John's coming into the uttermost part of Tempterland, where he bestowed large Alms upon the Poor, and at his own Charge set up a Salt Rock there, does not in the lead derogate from the Authority of Ziegler, in this as well as in several other respects. But this Obstacle is removed in our time, by the liberality of the Swedish Kings, as has been shewn before. There is another Reason mentioned by Olaus himself, viz. The vast extent of the Country, these are his Words: There is one Reason obvious to every Body, why the Laplanders are so backward to turn Christians, viz. because they are above two hundred Italian Miles distant from any Christian Churches. This Cause seems in some measure to be removed, they having now Churches built in several Provinces; notwithstanding which the vast distance of Places, which is so great, that the Priests can but seldom see them all, remains still an Obstacle, as we have told you before, of the Minister of Luhla, who by reason of the great extent of that Province, is forced to undergo an incredible Fatigue in his Function. These are the Reasons on one fide; besides which there are Causes having a more peculiar relation to the Natives; the First of which is, their Inclinations, which is bent to Superstition; of which we have said something already, and is sufficiently proved by daily Experience. This may be imputed partly to their living in Solitudes, Forests, and among the wild Beasts; partly to their solitary way of dwelling separately from the Society of others, except what belong to their own Families, sometimes at several Leagues distance. Hereafter may be added, that their daily Exercise is Hunting, it being observed that this kind of Life is apt to draw People into various Superstitions, and at last to a Correspondence with Spirits. For those who lead a solitary Life being frequently destitute of Humanee Aid, have oftentimes recourse to forbidden means, in hopes to find that Aid and Help among the Spirits, which they cannot find among Men;  aid what encourages them in it is Impunity, these Things being committed by them, without as much as the feat I any Witnesses; which moved the often mentioned Mr. Rheen to alledge, among Reasons for the continuance of the impious Superstitions of the Laplanders, this for One: Because they live among inaccessible Mountains, and at a great distance from the Conversation of other Men. Another Reason is, the good Opinion they constantly entertain of their Ancestors, whom they cannot imagine to have been so stupid, as not to understand, what God they ought to Worship; wherefore they judge they should be wanting in their Reverence due to them, if, by receding from their Institutions, they should reprove them of Impiety and Ignorance. In this they seem to agree with most of the other Pagans; Cicero, himself does confess it, when he says: They judged it their Duty to retain and Worship the same Gods their Ancestors had done before them. Samuel Rheen speaks upon the same Account of the Laplanders: They are much addicted to the Superstitions of their their Ancestors, the Reason they give for it, being no other but that their Ancestors, whom they call their ancient Fathers, did live thus, and made use of the same. The third Reason is an inveterate Custom, which, when once firmly rooted is so prevailing, as to obtain the force of a Law. This Custom the less relation it has to the true Dictates of Piety and right Reason, the more it has involved them in such Darkness, as to render them uncapable of discerning what is False, and what is Truth. Which has, questionless, moved Samuel Rheen to alledge among other Reasons for the continuance of the Laplanders in their Superstition, this for One; Because they have for many Ages past been involved in Darkness and abominable Errors. From all which it is evident that there are considerable Remains among them of Idolatry and impious Superstitions, which have taken so firm Root among them, that all the Art of Men has not been able to extirpate hitherto. Something of the same kind may be observed among the Country, and other common People, not only in Sweden, but even in Germany, France and some other Nations, where you may meet with abundance of Things, which as they favour much of Paganism, so they are the Relicks of their impious Superstitions, tho' for the rest they are Orthodox in their Religion. For the rest, these superstitious Remainders of the Laplanders may be reduced to Two several Heads: Under the First are comprehended such impious Superstitions, as had their Rise from the Pagans; under the Second, all those relating to their Magical and Diabolical Enchantments. Again, among those of the first Sort, some of their Superstitions are Vain and Foolish, others very Impious and Heathenish. Among those, as Lundius observes, they approach in many Things to the Opinions of most of the other ancient Pagans, especially in relation to natural Philosophy. Thus they believe that the World was from Eternity, and will continue for Ever. That at the time of the Eclipse of the Moon, the evil Spirits are endeavouring to devour this celestial Body, for which reason, when they find it eclipsed, they discharge their Arms towards it, in Hopes of relieving it from that Danger. In which they imitate the ancient Pagans, who were of Opinion, that the Moon might be forced out of its Orb, and that therefore it wanted the assistance of Men, upon such an Occasion, In the same manner as the Pagans did affirm, that Jupiter did punish the wicked with his Thunder, So they believe that the evil Spirits being in danger of being struck with Thunder, do enter the Bodies of Dogs, which is the reason, that as soon as they hear it Thunder, they will not let a Dog stay in their Huts. Besides this, they are very Superstitious in making distinctions of Times, calling some Days Black, others White. Among their black Days, are especially the Feasts of St. Catherine and St. Mark, whom they call Cantepaive, and St. Clement; on those Days they will do no Business of any Moment, neither go they a Hunting: They give you two Reasons for it; First, because if they should Hunt on either of those Days, their Bows and Arrows would certainly break; Secondly, That they should have no good Success in Hunting all the Year after. Samuel Rheen says to this purpose; They have some Days which they take particular notice of, as for instance, the Feasts of St. Catherine, St. Mark or Cantepaive, and St. Clement. No Laplander goes a Hunting, or will shoot with his Arrow at any Thing on those Days, it being their Opinion, that if they should either Hunt, or shoot at any Thing, they would have no good Luck the whole Tear after, but especially their Bows would be broken. In the same manner they account the first Day of Christmas amongst the Unlucky ones, for which reason no Matter of a Family will go out of his Hut, nay will not as much as go to Church, but fends only his Sons, Daughters and Servants. There are certain Days, says the before-mentioned Author, which they regard with a great deal of Superstition, especially the first Day of Christ-mass, when the Masters of Families don't care to come to Church themselves, but send only their Sons, Daughters and Maids. The Reason they alledge for it is, That they dread the Apparition of Spirits, which they say wander about the Air in great Numbers on this Day, and which must be appeased by certain Sacrifices, of which we shall speak hereafter. lam apt to imagine, that this Superstition had its Origin from the misapprehension of what they had heard some of their Priests relate, concerning the great Company of Angels, that descended from Heaven at the time of the Nativity of our Saviour, and frightned the Shepherds.

*Samuel Edvardi Rheen (ca 1615–1680), a Swedish priest and author of En kortt Relation om Lapparnes Lefwarne och Sedher, "A Short Relation of the Lapps' Lives and Customs" (1671). 
They are likewise great observers of Omens; and among the rest make particular Reflection upon what Beast they meet with first in the Morning, from whence they judge of the good or ill Success of that Day; which, if they think Ominous, they return to their Huts, and stir not abroad again all that Day. According to the Nature of that Creature, says Ziegler, they meet with at their first going abroad in the Morning, they judge of the Success of the Day.  Amongst these kind of Superstitions, this is none of the least, that they will not allow a Woman to go out of the same Door, thro' which a Man went abroad a Hunting, as judging that nothing bur ill Success would attend him in his Hunting, if a woman trod his Footsteps; as we are told by the before-mentioned Author: They look on it as unprosperous for a Woman to walkout of the same Door, thro which a Man has gone abroad a Hunting the same Day. Among the rest of their Superfluous Customs, Lundius observes, That they are used to throw the Bones of the wild Raindeers into a River, or other watry Place, after they have eaten the Flesh; and that before they fall to Eating, they always lay a piece of their Cloths, or some other Covert, upon the Plank or Table; which if they should happen to neglect, they say that their Raindeer would not be lively, but be tired at the beginning of their Journey.
We will now proceed to the second Head, under which belongs what is Impious and Heathenish among them. The first Thing to be taken notice of here, is, that they don't frequent the Church out of any Inclination, but rather by Compulsion. It is by Compulsion, says Samuel Rheen, that they go to Church and hear the Word of God. The Second is, That they don't give entire Credit to what is taught them concerning some of the principal Heads of the Christian Religion, especially to the Articles of the Resurrection of the Dead, the Union of the Soul and Body, and the Immortality of the Soul; it being their Opinion, that the Souls of Men, as well as those of Beasts perish for ever; and many of them can scarce be persuaded that there is another Life after this. To confirm which, I will give you the Words of the before mentioned Author: The Laplanders are to this Day so Ignorant, as not to believe the Article of the Resurrection of the Body, of the Union of the Soul and Body, and the Immortality of the Soul; but aye of Opinion, that there is no difference betwixt the Spirit of Men and Beasts. And in another Passage he says; Many of the Laplanders live in this erroneous Opinion, That there is no Resurrection of the Dead. Johannes Torneus tells us of a certain Priest, a Laplander by Birth, in the Lapmark of Torna, who desired to be Buried among them, whereby he hoped they might be persuaded of the Truth of this Article. These are his Words: I took Care to have a certain ancient Priest, a Native of Lapland, buried in the Church of Rounala, who at the point of Death desired to be buried among his Country-men, in hopes that this might induce them into an Opinion of the Resurrection of the Dead, and that they were to be raised again with him on the Day of Judgment, as he had often told them in his Sermons. Samuel Rheen does however confess, that they believe there remains something of us after Death, but knew not what it is; which is the very same Opinion the Pagans had, from whence they called their Manes*, the remains of Men after Death; it being my Opinion, that this is the true Etymology of it, rather than from Manando. They do believe, says Samuel Rheen, that something remains of Men after Death. Lundius speaks much to the same purpose, when he says, That if some among them do believe that something of the Soul remains after Death, they are quite Ignorant as to the present or future State of the Soul. Thirdly, They share there Devotion betwixt God and Christ, and their fictitious Gods, whom they Worship at the same time, just as if their might be an easie agreement made so twixt God and the Devil, or that either of them might or would rest satisfied with his Share. The Inhabitants of the two Lapmarks of Pitha and Luhlah have their Gods of the first and a lesser Rank.

*Manes: In ancient Roman religion, the Manes or Di Manes are chthonic deities thought to represent souls of deceased loved ones. 

To the First belong Three, whom they worship with more than ordinary Reverence, viz. Thor or Thordoen, Storjunkare, and the Sun (Samuel Rheen ch. 25). Damian á Goes tells us, that they worship the Fire and Stone Images. Their Religion, says he, consists in this, that they take the Fire and Statues of Stone for Gods. But by those Stone Statue sought to be understood no others but those Images, which were dedicated to the Worship of the Storjunkare, as we shall see hereafter; and the Fire mud be taken only as an Emblem of the Sun, for that they should have worshipped the Fire as a God, is contrary to Truth, and nothing like it among them. Johannes Torneus says, Some of our Divines affirm, that the Laplanders, as well as the Eastern Nations, did worship the Fire; but after the best enquiry I could make concerning it, I could not find the least Footstep of it even among the most ancient Traditions of the Laplanders. What ancient Divines he means here, I am not well able to guess, unless he speaks of Paulinus, who, what he says upon this Point, had taken it from Damian Peucek, tells us, That they worshipped both Stones and Wood as Gods; which must be referred to the Image of Thor made of Wood, as we shall shew hereafter. So that those Three before-mentioned are only accounted of the first Rank, at lead by the Inhabitants of the two Lapmarks of Pitha and Luhlab; for those of Torna and know nothing of them; and those of Uma and Angermanland are so little acquainted with Storjunkare, that they laugh at those, and look upon them as beyond their Wits, who speak of him; but in their stead worship a certain Deity, called by them Seita, as Lundius observes. Johannes Tornæus (ch. 7) says expresly; The Inhabitants of the Lapmark of Torna and Kima don't understand  what Storjunkare is. And of the Seita he has these Words: They worshipped Wood and Stones, each Family, nay even each Laplander having his own Idol placed near a Lake. Besides whom however they had one chief Idol, unto whom the whole Village paid divine Worship. And this, as well as all the lesser Gods they called Seita (a).
(a) Lundius says, that the Inhabitants of the Lapmarks of Uma and Argermanland call those domestick Idols Padde.
Tho' considering that the word Seita is a general Word among the Laplanders, denoting any God, without exception, it is very probable, that they worshipped under that Name the same whom those of Luhlah call Tiermes or Auke, i.e. the Thunderer, or Grandfather, or Thoron's, as the Chief and Head of all the other Seita's;  and that the rest were in the same manner with them, as the Storjunkare among the Inhabitants of the Lapmark of Luhlah; so that the whole difference does not so much consist in the Gods, as in their Names; those of Torna making use of a general, the rest of a more special Name; the First naming both their greater and lesser Gods indifferently Seitas, whereas the last Name the Greater Tiermes or Auke, the lesser Storjunkare. Truly if we attend the manner and other Circumstances of their Worship used both among those of Torna and the rest it will be evident, that there is not the least difference among them, as will be shewn more at large hereafter. But besides these Gods of a higher degree mentioned before, those of Luhlah, Pitha, and their Neighbours, worship some other Gods of a lesser Degree; the same is practised among the Inhabitants of the Lapmark of Torna with this difference only, that they call the greater and lesser promiscuously, Seita; except only One, whom they called Wikku Accha, which signifies as much as a Livonian old Woman (anum Livonicam). If l am not mistaken, this is the same mentioned by Olaus Petri Niurenius (ch. 19); The God of the Inhabitants of Kima, says he, called Viresaka, represents (the Face of a Man fixed on the top of a Trunk of a Tee. But instead of those of Kima, he should have said of Torna, and for Viresaka Wirka Accha, as we find in Joh. Tornaus, these are his Words: In the Center of the Lapmark of Torna stood formerly a famous Seita, called Wikku Accha, which signifies as much as a Livonian old Woman: This all the Circumjacent Laplanders did Worship and offer Sacrifices to for a longtime, till the Birkarli of Torna, who in those Days had a Priviledge to Traffick with the Laplanders, did pull it down. But notwithstanding they removed this idol, and hid it in a remote Place from thence, yet in a little while after it was found and put up in the same Place again, but now is wholly rotten. This had not any resemblance to a Humane Shape, being no more than the Trunk of a Tree. This was therefore the only God worshipped among those of Torna, under a peculiar Name, being now quite destroyed and forgotten; All the rest, whether of a higher or lower Degree they called by the same Name. 'Tis true Torneus has neglected to give us a Description of the manner of Worshipping used by them, both in ancient, and our Times; nevertheless, we may guess at it from what we find to have been observed of this kind in the rest of the Laplanders. First, therefore they comprehend under those, and worship as such, those we called before Manes. That they look upon those as Gods, is evident from thence, that they are much afraid of the Dead, being of Opinion, that what remains of Men after Death, is of such a Nature as to be able to hurt them; in which they approach in some measure to the Sentiments of the ancient Romans, of whom Servius says thus: Manes are called the Souls of Men, when having left their bodies, they are not as yet lodged in others. Samuel Rheen says; It is their Opinion, that there remains something of Mankind after Death, for which reason they fear the Dead. Paucer speaks much to the same Purpose: They are terribly afraid of the Manes or Remainders of their Kindred after they are Dead. What may confirm us in this Opinion is, that they offer them Sacrifices, In a certain Manuscript without a Name I find these Words, They Sacrifice to the Death, or the Dead. But of their Sacrifices we shall have occasion to say more hereafter. Besides these Manes, they believe certain Spectres or Dæmons, which they say, wander about among the Rocks and Mountains, and near the Rivers and Lakes; those they worship also like Gods, in the same manner as the ancient Romans did their Fauni, Sylvani and Tritons. They believe, says Samuel Rheen, that there are certain Dæmons wandring among the Rocks, Mountains and Rivers. They believe Thirdly, That there is a certain kind of good and evil Genius's, wandring in the Air, especially about Christmas Eve, of which we have said something  before. The before-mentioned Author speaking of certain Sacrifices they used to offer to them lays: Those they offer to the Juhlian Company, which they suppose are wandring, about that time in the Air.** These they call the Juhlian Company deriving their Name from the word Juhli (Yule), which now signifies as much as the Feast of the Nativity of Christ, but in former Ages was used for the time of the new Year, as I have sufficiently demonstrated in my Treatise of Upsal. But it being their Opinion, that more especially about this time the Air is filled with Spectres and Genius's, they have given it this Name. Thus having given you an Account of the Gods which the Laplanders even to this Day, suppose they may worship in Conjunction with the true God and Christ, we will now proceed to a more particular Relation of their manner of Worshipping them.

**The Wild Hunt, which rides at Yule, led by Odin and Odin's wife Frau Frekka or Frau Gode, known throughout Northern Europe.
Chapter X:
Of the Heathenish Gods of the Lapps,
and their manner of worship at this day.
We have shewed in the preceding Chapter, that to this Day the Laplanders worship three Gods, as the Head and Chief of all the rest. The First is Thor or Thordoen, according to the Swedish Dialect, signifying as much as Thorus or Thunder. The Laplanders call him Tiermes, i. e. any thing that makes a Noise. So that if we search into the true Etymology of the Word, it has a near relation to the same God, called by the Romans Jupiter the Thunderer, and to the God Tarami or Tarani, mentioned in our Treatise of Upsal. This Tiermes they make the Thunder it self, which they believe to be a living Being, endowed with Celestial Power; They are of Opinion, says Samuel Rheen (ch. 25), That the Thunder which they bear in the Air is a living Substance [Thor eller Thorodoen haolla the vvara ett lefvandes ting, som sao dundr ar i himmeln.] Here he calls Thor and Thordoen or Thunder the same Thing, which the Laplanders express by the word Tiermes, signifying the Power, from whence the Thunder proceeds, which is the same thing as the God that Thunders; for which reason they stile him likewise Aijeke [cp. Öku-Þórr, "driving-Thor"] which among the Laplanders bears the same signification, as Avus and Proavus, i. e. Grand and Great-Grandfather among the Latins, imitating in this Point also the Romans, who called Jupiter the Father; and the Swedes their Gubba, implying the same thing as Avus or Proavus; This God when he Thunders is their Tiermes, the same with the Tarami of the Scythes, and the Swedish God Thor or Thoro or Aijeke, whose Power they measure by the Noise and Force of the Thunder, and from thence have stiled him Tiermes, the Laplander's Worship, as supposing him to have the Power of Life and Death, of Health and Sickness of Men in his Hands. Samuel Rheen says to this purpose, They verily believe that this Thor (whom they call Aijeke or Tiermes) has the Disposition over Men’s Life and Death, Health and Sickness [Denne Thor menna the hafvva macht oefvver menniskiones hælsa och sundneet, liif och doedh.] Besides which they attribute to him the Command over all the evil Dæmons, dwelling among the Rocks, Mountains and Lakes, whom he Chastises, keeps in Awe, and sometimes Destroys with his Thunder-bolts; just as the Latines said of Jupiter, that he sent forth his Thunder to Chastise the worst of Men. It is their Opinion, says the before mentioned Author, That the Thunder destroys all the evil Dæmons [Thordoens ambete haolla the vvara, att doeda och dræpa alla troll]. Which is the reason they have given this Thor or Tiermes a Bow and Arrows in his Hand, to shoot the Dæmons with, and this Bow, they say, is the Rainbow: The same Author says in express Words: They stile the Rainbow the Bow of Thor, wherewith he shoots at and kills the evil Dæmons who come to hurt them [Regnbogn kalla the Thors bogan, thar med han skall skjuta och dræpa alle troll.] 'Tis true they don't call it thus in their own, but in the Swedish Tongue; for the Laplanders term it Aijeke dama, i. c. the Grand-father's Bow, intimating thereby, that God will like a kind Father protect his Offspring against the evil Dæmons: Wherefore they also give him a Mallet, which they call Aijeke Wetshera* to dash out the Brains of those Dæmons; this I speak upon the Credit of Olaus Matthew, a Native of the Lapmark of Torna, who told me this with his own Mouth. Now the Laplanders expecting so many Blessings from their Tiermes, and believing that he has the Disposition over their Lives and Death, that he is the Guardian of Health, drives away the Dæmons, who prejudice them in their Hunting, Fowling and Fishing, and punishes them when they are injurious to them; it is therefore that they worship him before all the rest.
*cp. Thor’s Mjöllnir, "Crusher", which is frequently said to break the skulls of the giants.
 The second God of the first Degree is called Storjunkare; which tho' it be originally a Norwegian Word, nevertheless the same is made used among the Laplanders, according to the Testimony of Samuel Rheen; The word Storjunkare, says bestows its Origin to the Norwegian Tongue; for, because the Norwegians call the Governours of their Provinces junkare, the Laplanders have given the Name of Storjunkare to their Gods. From whence it is evident, that the Laplanders made use of this Word, tho' perhaps not till in the later Ages, viz. since some of them were Conquered by the Norwegians. Thus much is certain, that this is not the only Name they give to this God, but stile him likewise Storra Passe, i. e. Great Saint, as appears by a certain Hymn they sing at his Sacrifices, of which more hereafter. 'Tis unquestionable that they look upon him as a God, whom they ought more frequently to Worship than the other Gods, because they esteem him as the Vicegerent of Aijeke or Tiermes. Samuel Rheen says, They look upon this Storjunkare as the Vicar and Lieutenant of God. Which is the reason they stile him Storjunkare, i. e. the Grand Vicar, superior to any of the Royal Governours. The Reason, says the before mentioned Author, why the Laplanders give the Name of Storjunkare to their Gods is, because they esteem them superior to all other Governours; from the word Stoere, signifying greater. Another Motive why they worship this Storjunkare is, because they imagine that they are obliged to him for many Blessings of Humanee Life, it being their Opinion, that all Beasts as well wild as tame are subject to his Jurisdiction; that as Aijeke or Tiermes has the Government over the other Gods and the Dæmons, so Storjunkare over the Beasts; and being in his absolute Disposal, he gives them to whom he pleases, and none can take them without his Consent. Samuel Rheen says to this purpose; They attribute to their Storjunkare, as being a Vicegerent of God, the absolute disposal of all Sorts of Beasts, viz. Bears, Wolves, Foxes, Reindeer, Fishes and Fowl; which cannot be taken without his Blessing.* He says expresly that the Laplanders believe their taking of wild Beasts to depend altogether on the Pleasure of their Storjunkare, who bestows them upon whom he will, as belonging to himself alone. And considering that the Laplanders are beholding to those Beasts both for their Nourishment and Clothing, what Wonder is it if they think themselves highly obliged to worship this Storjunkare? And these are the two Gods, peculiar to the Laplanders; whereof the First has the Government of Men, the other of Beasts; the First is Master of their Lives, the other provides them with Necessaries for their Sustenance. Thus far we have followed the Footsteps of Mr. Rheen, concerning their Storjunkare; it will not be amiss to understand also what Tornæus has said upon this Head, which tho' it seems somewhat different, yet may easily be reconciled with the rest, if it be rightly taken; these are his Words: "They say, that the Storjunkare has oftentimes appeared to some as they went abroad a Fowling or Fishing, in a Humane Shape, very Tall, with a goodly Aspect, in Black Clothes after the same Fashion as the Noble-Men are dress'd in the Northern Parts, with a Gun in his Hand, but his Feet resembling to those of Birds. They say as often as they meet him near the Sea-Shore or standing in a Vessel, they are sure to be successful in their Fishing, and that sometimes he will kill Birds with his Gun, as they fly by, and offer them to those that are then present. They relate that the first time this Storjunkare was discovered to any Foreigners besides the Laplanders, it happened thus: A Guide, a Laplander by Birth, being to conduct one of the King's Lieutenants to a certain Place, as they pass'd near a Mountain, where this Storjunkare was supposed to have his Residence, stop'd all on a sudden, fix'd the helve of his Ax upon the Ice, turning it round in a Circle, which he declared he did in Respect and Honour of that God who dwelt there, unto whom they were obliged for so many Benefits."
*The passage in question actually says: Storjunkaren tillskrifvaa the then machten  …saosom en Guds Staothhaollare, hafvva macht utoefver alla diur, som are bioernar, vvargar, ræfvar, ottrar, rhenar, fiskar och foglar, att han kan gifvva god lyka dem att faogna, "To Storjunkar they ascribe the power ...as a Great Govenor of the Gods, who has power over all animals, such as the bears, wolves, foxes, ottars, wild beast, fishes and birds, that he can give success to those who ask."
This Relation is agreeable to what has been mentioned before upon this Head, for it makes the Storjunkare the supeam Ruler of the wild Beasts, Birds and Fish, unto whom the Laplanders acknowledge themselves beholding for all those Things. And tho’ there is mention made but of one Mountain here, where this God is said to dwell, yet this may reasonably be supposed to proceed from thence, because they met with no other Mountain in their way, and so consequently the Lapland Guide had no occasion to speak of any more.
And as it is not improbable that the Laplanders bordering upon Norway, especially the Inhabitants of the Lapmark of Luhlah might give him this Name, as well in respect of his Habit in which he used to appear, as of his Office; so perhaps those of the Lapmarks of Kiema and Torna, having never seen him under the same Shape, did therefore not worship him under the same Name, but by the general Appellation of Seita, from whom they believed they received the Benefits of Fishing, Fowling and Hunting. We now come to their third God, whom they worship in common with most of the other Pagan Nations; I mean the Sun, which they call Baiwe: The first Reason why they worship him is, because he furnishes them with Light and Heat. They Worship, says Olaus Magnus (Book 3, ch. 2), the Sun, because he drives away Darkness and Cold by his Light and Heat. The second Reason is, because they believe him the Author of Procreation, by which means every Thing is produced. They look upon the Sun, says the before forementioned Author, as the Mother of all Beasts.  They especially are of Opinion, that their Raindeer do grow Strong and lusty by means of the Heat of the Sun; They believe, says the same Author, that the Sun it very instrumental in preserving the young of their Raindeer, and that by its Heat they are brought to Maturity and increase in Strength. They being thus persuaded of the singular Benefits they receive from the Sun, considering especially the extremity of the Cold of the Climate they live under, which being such as to be able to diminish, if not quite to extinguish their natural Heat, and that their chief sustenance is the Flesh of the Raindeer, they think it but reasonable, that they should worship him, unto whom they are obliged for all these Blessings.  Add to this, that the more sensible they are of the Darkness that surrounds them, not for a few Days only, but for many Weeks together, the more grateful is the appearance of the Sun, who being the Author of Light, refreshes and rejoyces them with his welcome return. To every one of these Gods, whom they, as I told you before, look upon as the principal ones, they pay a peculiar sort of Worship. For, they not only have peculiar Places dedicated to their Service in particular; but also certain Images consecrated to every one of them; and offer them diverse sorts of Sacrifices. The Place where they Worship their Thor or Tiermes, is generally a Piece of Ground Consecrated for this Purpose, on the backside of their Huts, about a Bow-shot distant from thence; here they erect a kind of a Scaffold made of Boards, and setting upon feet, not unlike a large Table, whereupon they fix their sacred Images. This Table they make use of instead of an Altar, which they surround with Branches of Birch and Pine; and the way leading to this Holy Place, dedicated to Thor, they likewise strew with the Bows and Leaves of the same Trees. On the backside of their Huts, says Samuel Rheen, they erect Scaffolds about three yards high from the Ground, upon which they fix round about Branches of Birch and Pine, as they do strew the Ground thereabouts with the Bows of Birch. The Laplanders therefore use this Scaffold instead of an Altar, the Branches of Birch, being the Fence of the Temple, where they place the Image of their God Thor. If we observe what Tornæus says concerning the Seitha of the Inhabitants of Torna and Kima, we find him speaking much to the same purpose, so that the whole difference betwixt this and Thor seems to be only in the Name, except that he makes no mention of any Scaffold. These are his Words: Their Gods, whom they call Seithas, they place near Lakes, or in some other low Grounds, taking always special care that the Place be stock’d with Grass during the Summer Season they take great Care to adorn the Place all round about with green Bows of Trees, in the Winter with Branches cut in small Pieces, which as often as they dry up, other fresh ones are laid in their stead. Unless we suppose him to speak in this Passage of the Storjunkare’s, because these used to be erected near the Lakes and Bogs, as we shall shew anon. And considering that they placed their Seitha not only near the Lakes, but also in Sundry other Places it seems, as if Tornæus in this place had not been very sollicitous to make any particular distinction betwixt those two Gods, but had spoke of both under the same Name; especially since the Temple of Thor or Tiermes belonged likewise to the Sun, as appears from the Words of the same Author, when Speaking of the Sacrifice to be offered to the Sun he says: They hang it up on the backside of the Hut, in the same Place where they Sacrifice to Thor. So that they offer their Sacrifices both to the Sun and Thor in one and the same Place, and upon the same Scaffold. Which induces me to believe, that they are not two distinct Idols, but One,  differing only in Name; and that when they implore his assistance against the Dæmons, and pray for long Life and Health, they stile him Tiermes and Aijeke, but when they invoke him for Light and Heat to fortifie themselves against the extremity of Darkness and Cold, they term him Baiwe. But the Case is quite different with their God Storjunkare, who has peculiar Places allotted for his Worship, being either certain Mountains, or upon the Banks of Rivers or standing Waters; there being few Families among the Laplanders, who have not certain Places consecrated to this Worship. A certain anonymous Author has these Words: Each Family has a Storjunkare near their dwelling Place. Samuel Rheen speaks to the same Purpose; Each Tribe or Family has its holy Mountain.  And in another Passage, speaking of those Holy Mountains he says these Words; They erect their Storjunkare’s among the rocks and in the caverns of mountains. Where it is to be observed that they not only place them among the Rocks, which are accessible, but that they consider some of the most inaccessible Rocks, as Sacred Mountains. The before mentioned Author says; They are of Opinion that Storjunkare has felled his Habitation in certain Places, which by reason of their podigious height are inaccessible to Men. From whence it is evident, what it is that induces them to Worship him among the Rocks, viz. because there he has fix'd his Habitation. Which however ought not to be understood of the Rocks alone, but likewise of the Banks of Rivers and standing Waters, for in those Places they also Worship their Storjunkare. Which makes Samuel Rheen say afterwards; That they not only place their Idols of the Storjunkare's among the Rocks and in the Concavities of the Mountains, but likewise near the Rivers and Boggy Places. The Laplanders having observed some Spectres or Apparitions in the Darkness of the Night, among certain Rocks, or near the watry Places, and that in the Shape of a Noble Man, with a Gun in his Hand, as we have related before out of Tornasus, have from thence concluded, that he had his Residence in those Places. Samuel Rheen says, "That they place their Storjunkare among those Rocks and Concavities of the Mountains, or near such Rivers and Lakes, where they have been informed of the Apparitions of certain Spectres. For, it being their Opinion, that Storjunkare by these Apparitions intends to give them Notice of his Residence, and what kindness he bears to that Place, they look upon it as Sacred, and pay Divine Worship to it, which is the reason, that if such an Apparition happen upon a Mountain, they call it by a peculiar Name Passewarra, i e. the Sacred Mountain, as we are informed by the so often mentioned Author: Every Mountain, says he, where they Worship their Storjunkare, they call Passewarra, i. e. holy Mountains, or Mountains dedicated to Storjunkare. It being their Opinion, That they ought to prefer those Places before all others to Worship him in, as we are inform'd by Samuel Rheen, who besides those before cited Passages has these Words; They consider those Places, as belonging in a most peculiar manner to the worship of their Idols. They used to allot certain Limits to those Places. Places dedicated to their Storjunkare's, to let all People know how far the Bounds of those Sanctified Places reached, for fear that cut of Ignorance some Body or other might trespass upon the sacred Ground, and consequently be punished by Storjunkare for his neglect of the due observance of the Holy Place. They set, says the before mentioned Author, certain Bounds to distinguish the utmost extent of the Place belonging to Storjunkare. And thus much of the Places dedicated to the Storjunkare; which, considering that every Family had its peculiar Place chosen for their Superstitious Worship, must needs be in considerable Numbers throughout all Lapland; Samuel Rheen having reckoned up Thirty of them in the District of Luhlah, under the following Names.
  • The First upon the River Waikijaur, about half a (Northern) League from the Lapland Church, called Joachmochs.
  • The Second, near the Mountain Piadnackwari, half a League further from the said Church.
  • The Third, in an Island of the River Porkijaur, about a League and a half distant from thence.
  • The Fourth on the Top of a high Mountain, called by them Ackiakikwari, i.e. the Father’s or Thor’s Mountain, five Leagues beyond Jochmoch, not far from the River Porkijaur.
  • The Fifth near the Lake of Skalkatrask, eight Leagues distant from the before-said Place.
  • The Sixth at the Cataract or Waterfall of Muskoumokka, eleven Leagues from thence.
  • The Seventh on the very Top of the high Mountain Skierphi.
  • The Eighth on the Top of the Mountain Tiackeli.
  • The Ninth at the Hill Haoraoaos.
  • The Tenth on the higheft Top of the high Mountain Kasia, near a small Lake called Sabbut.
  • The Eleventh on a Hill half a League distant from Wallawari.
  • The Twelfth on the Top of a Mountain of a most prodigious height, called Danawaori, two Leagues from the aforesaid Place.
  • The Thirteenth near Kiedkiewari.
  • The Fourteenth near the Lake Wurijaur, at a Place called Nebbel.
  • The Fifteenth, near the Lake Kaskajaur.
  • The Sixteenth at the Hill Enudda, towards Norway.
  • The Seventeenth at the Hill Rarto likewise on the side of Norway.
  • The Eighteenth in an Island of the Lake Luhlatrask, called Hiertshulos. The Nineteenth upon a very high Mountain towards the side of Norway, called Skjpoiwe. TheTwentieth near the Lake Saiivo.
  • The Twenty-first near Ollapassi, a Bay of the Lake called Stoor Luhlatrask.
  • The Twenty-second near the Lake Sugga.
  • The Twenty-third on the Hill Kierkowari.
  • The Twenty-fourth on the Hill Kautom Jaurbii.
  • The Twenty-fifth near the Cataract or Waterfall called Bao.
  • The Twenty-sixth on the Top of a high Mountain, called Kaitzikia.
  • The Twenty-seventh near the Lake Ryggtrask.
  • The Twenty-eighth on the Hill Pioki.
  • The Twenty-ninth in an Isle of the Lake Wajkejaur, called Lusbyshulos.
  • The Thirtieth on the Hill Warialuth, near the River Juleus.
Neither are these all the Places of this District dedicated to this Worship, there being many more, which are unknown, because those who are addicted to this Idolatrous Worship, endeavour, as much as in them lies, to keep them from the Knowledge of others, to avoid all Suspicion, and the deserved Punishment. It is easie to imagine, that a far greater Number of them must be throughout all Lapland, so that it would be too tedious to tire the Reader's Patience with giving their Names. All these Places, whether Dedicated to the Worship of Thor and the Sun, or of Storjunkare, are in great Veneration among them, and they are very careful to exclude all Women from it, it being their constant Opinion, that no Woman ought to appear on the backside of their Huts, or to approach the Place Dedicated to Thor. No Woman is permitted, says Samuel Rheen, to come to the backside of their Huts. The same Thing he tells us in another Passage, where he speaks of the Place Consecrated to Storjunkare. They have, says he, certain Bounds prescribed for the Habitation of Storjunkare, unto which no Marriageable Woman is allowed to approach. If any Woman should be so bold as to transgress those Limits, they believe her in great danger, even of Life, from the Dæmons. Which makes the before-mentioned Author say, That the Women dare not come near, much lets within those Bounds, unless they will expose themselves to great Miseries, or perhaps Death it self. The Reasons why they will not allow their Women to be present at their Worship, seems to be, that they look upon the Female Sex as Impure, especially during their Monthly Times. What induces me into this Opinion, is, that he says, the marriageable Women are excluded; it being obvious, that Women are commonly accounted Marriageable from the Time of the first appearance of their monthly Distemper. And it being very difficult to determine the exact Time of every Woman, when subject to that Distemper, they judged it most proper, to exclude the whole Sex from those Holy Places, for fear, that if they should by chance pollute them, they might provoke their God to Wrath. What confirms me in it is, that Damian á Goes has made this Observation of the Laplanders, that they believe the Dæmons to have a particular Aversion to the Monthly Flowers of Women. For, in a certain Passage, where he gives an Account, that the Laplanders, by their Magick Arts, can stop a Ship in its full Course, he prescribes this as a certain Remedy against it, To besprinkle the Sides and Masts of the Vessel with some of this excrementitious Blood of Women; which, he says, was taught him by some of the Inhabitants themselves.
I come now to their Images, it being their Custom to Worship their God under several Shapes. The Image of Thor or Tiermes, is always of Wood, which is the Reason they term him the Wooden God. And, since the Inhabitants of the Lapmark of Torna, as well as other Provinces of Lapland, make use of Wooden Images, it seems very probable that they Worship the same Tiermes, tho' under the Name of Seitha. Peter Claudi makes likewise mention of these Wooden Images, in his Description of Norway. There are some, says he, who make themselves Wooden Images of a considerable bigness, which they deposite in Caves on the Foot of certain Hills. They are of Birch, according to Samuel Rheen; They erect, says he, as many Idols, in Honour of Thor, as they offer Sacrifices, and these Idols are made of Birch. Their Shape is very Rude, representing only on the Top somewhat like a Man's Head. Mr. Mathias Steuchius,* speaking in his Letter to me concerning these Idols of Thor, says; My Father told me that they were nothing else but large Trunks of Trees, being on the Top shaped like the Head of a Man. The Father of this Mr. Steuchius, upon whose Credit he writes me this, was  Superintendent (or Bishop) of Hernosand, who having the supeam management of the spiritual Affairs throughout the greatest part of Lapland, could not be ignorant of these Matters. Samuel Rheen adds, that they shape the Head out of the Root, the Body out of the Trunk. They make, says he, those idols out of Birch, the Head out of the Root, the Body out of the Trunk. For Birch growing commonly in fenny Grounds, has its Root round, which sending forth some lesser Branches of Roots, may easily be fitted for the shape of a Man's Head. As a certain Token that this is the Image of Thor, they put a Hammer into his Right Hand, they make, says the afore-mentioned Author, this Idol out of Wood, with a Hammer in his Hand: This being his Ensign, which distinguishes him from the rest. They drive an Iron Nail, and a small Piece of Flint Stone into the Head of Thor, to Strike Fire with, if he pleases. A certain Anonymous Author has these Words upon this Subject; They drive a Nail of Iron or Steel into the Idol's Head, with a small Piece of Flint, to enable their God Thor to strike Fire.** Tho' in my Opinion the first intention of this was thereby to give us an Emblem of the Fire, which they worshipped at the same time in the Image of Thor, the image of which is represented in the following figure:

*Matthias Steuchius (b. 1644) was the son of Superintendent Peter of Hernosand.  He became a magister in Uppsla in 1668 and in 1671 was ordained Lector in Hernosand. After receiving his Doctorate in Theology in 1676, he became a Professor at Uppsala University, where the king appointed him Bishop of Lund. He eventually rose to the position of Archbishop, enjoying a 50 year marriage to Anna, daughter of Bishop Terserus. In their extended family 32 persons of episcopal or quasi episcopal dignity were connected together by blood or marriage and the influence of this family was felt in Upsala, Lincoping, Hernosand, and Gothenburg, from 1531 to 1778. [Gershom Mott Williams, The Church of Sweden and the Anglican Communion, 1910, p. 64; Jöran Jacob Thomaeus, Skandinaviens kyrko-häfder, 1838, p. 706]
**This is an original detail not found elsewhere, which may be confirmed by references in other sources. Nails driven into idols find their parallel in Eyrbyggja Saga ch. 4 which describes a temple devoted to Thor at Hofvag stating, “Just inside the door stood the high-seat pillars with the so-called holy nails fixed in them.”  The same source mentions a bowl from which sacrificial blood is sprinkled. The flintstone finds its explanation in Skáldskaparmál, where Thor is left with a piece of a whetstone lodged in his head after a duel with the giant Hrungnir. This myth appears in the first modern printing of Snorri’s Edda, Peder Hansen Resen’s Edda Islandorum (1665).  While it is possible that Scheffer’s anonymous source had encountered these texts, neither provides the specific detail of an iron nail and a small piece of flint in an idol’s head to strike fire.  
According to W.H.D. Rouse in "Magic Songs of the Finns" (Folklore Society Publictions Vol. 32, 1893), a note accompanying Kalevala, R. 47, 7r, which says that "He struck fire upon his nail", explains that  'Ukko's nail' is a folk expression for the old stone axes that are sometimes found, and which are attributed to Ukko, the thunder-god.

Worship before an Idol of Thor

But tho' this Idol is generally thus Shaped, yet are there not a few among the Laplanders, especially those of the Lapmark of Torna, who worship a bare Stump. The Seithæs, says Tornæus, have no shape, or any certain figure, those Wooden Idols being either the Trunks of Trees with their Roots, or else Stumps fastned in the Ground.* They have no peculiar Image of the Sun, either because it is known to every one by Sight, or because, according to the Sacred Mystery of their Religion, he is the same with Thor. The Image of Storjunkare is represented by a Stone. The Idols of Stojunkare, says Samuel Rheen, are of Stone. And the before-mentioned anonymous M. says these Words; With this they anoint these Stones, they call Storjunkare. It is in this Sense that the Words of Peter Claudi are to be taken, when he says of the Lappofinni; That they have their Idols, which are no more than vast Stones, among the Deserts and uninhabitable Places. The Stones he mentions here could not belong to Thor, whose Image is always of Wood, neither to any other God, but to Storjunkare. In the same sense also must be interpreted Damian á Goes and Jacob Ziegler, when they say of the Laplanders; That they Worship certain Stone Images in the Mountains as Gods. It was very well observed that they are in the Mountains, these being the proper Places, where Storjunkare used to be worshipped, as has been shewn before. If we rely upon the Judgment of Olaus Petri Niurenius, They resemble in Shape a certain Bird. Lundius is of the same Opinion, and tells us, that they call this Bird Sedde. Samuel Rheen affirms, that sometimes they are shaped like a Man, sometimes like some other Creature. They resemble, says he, a Man, or some other Creature. But this Resemblance is so Rude, as not to be discernable by any Body but themselves, who imagine it to be like something, without being able to persuade others that it is so. Their chief Reason, why they Dedicate them to their Storjunkare, being, because they Fancy to have found such and such a figure in them. For they never take any Pains to form them into any Shape, but such as they find them upon the Banks of the Rivers or Lakes, they Consecrate them as the Image of Storjunkare. Their Storjunkares, says Samuel Rheen, are nothing else but Idols of Stone, such as they find either among the Rocks and Mountains, or near the Waterside. They are extreamly taken with such a Shape, which they don't look upon as made by Chance, but by the peculiar Influence of their God Storjunkare, who ought therefore to be worshipped in this Image; which being erected in some certain Place, in order to be worshipped as such, they call it Kied Kie Juhmil i.e. the stone God. The Shape of these Stones being so Rude, and rather imaginary than real, has moved Tornæus to affirm that these Idols have no Shape at all. The Seithæ, says he, have no certain figure or Shape form’d  either by Nature or Art; Their Stone Images being no more than a common Stone, blacky rough and full of Holes, occasioned by the continual falling of the Water upon them near the Cataracts. Questionless this roughness interspread with several small Concavities, has given occasion to the Laplanders to Fancy their likeness to something. He confesses however, that in one Place he met with some that resembled a Humane Shape: These are his Words; Near that Place, where the River Tornatrask sends forth a Branch, making an Island, is a Cataract, called Darra; in the midst of this Island are certain Scithæs of Stone, of a Humane Shape, set up in good Order. First one as high as a tall Man; next to him are Four more, but somewhat shorter, having altogether a kind of Hats on their Heads.** But it being very dangerous, by reason of the Cateract or Waterfall, to pass over into that Island, the Laplanders have not of late years frequented that Place; so that it is not easie to be determined now, how, and in what manner they used to Worship them, and by what means these Stone Idols were fix’d in that Island. They don't always set up one Stone, but increase their Number, according as they find more or less. The First they give the Title of Storjunkare, the Second is stiled his Spouse; Thirdly comes his Son or Daughter, and last of all his Men and Maid Servants. In some of these Mountains, says Samuel Rheen, you see Two, Three, or more of those Stones set up, the First they stile Storjunkare, the Second Acte, i.e. his Spouse; Thirdly comes his Son and Daughter, and the rest of the Stones are his Men and Maid Servants.** In this they imitate Persons of Quality, for having observed that the King's Governours came among them, being accompanied by their Spouses, Children and Attendants, they would not have their Storjunkare, whom they look upon as the Lieutenant of Thor, or the Vicegerent of God, appear in a worse  Condition. The Image or Idol of Storjunkare, you may see in the following figures; the First of these I have drawn according to the best Description. I received of this Stone and their Worship. For the Second I am obliged to Mr. Grape, a young Gentleman, who brought me One of those Stones out of the Lapmark of Torna, of which I give you here the Draught, done to the Life. The Third is likewise a Stone of this kind, being dent out of the same Lapmark into Sweden, and which is preserved as an extraordinary Piece of Curiosity in the Royal Cabinet of Antiquities of the City of Upsal.

*In the Rusila of Ibn Fadhlan, an Arab travelor in the 10th century describes idols of the Scandinavian Rus in a similar fashion: "[E]very one of them disembarks, carrying bread, meat, onions, milk and alcohol, and goes to a tall piece of wood set up. This piece of wood has a face like the face of a man and is surrounded by small figurines behind which are long pieces of wood set up in the ground. he reaches the large figure, he prostrates himself before it and says, “Lord, .. I have brought this offering,” leaving what he has brought with him in front of the piece of wood." 

**Two metal representions of the gods Thor and Freyr, dating from the heathen period (See Early Art) have been recovered  both wearing pointed hats on their heads. In Hymiskviða, Thor is depicted wearing Hymir's brewing kettle on his head as he leaves the giant's hall. Thor secures the kettle for Ægir to brew beer for all the gods. Might this suggest that the hlaut-bowl which catches sacrifical blood at a blót was placed sometimes on the head of the wooden idol, perhaps when not in use?

***In the Eddas, the Germanic gods are represented as an extended family. In Icelandic sagas and in the account of the temple at Old Uppsala by Adam of Bremen, it is not uncommon to see a number of related idols residing in the same place. At Upsala, we find Odin, and his son Thor, and a third god Fricco (probably Freyr), whose name is a masculine form of Frigga, Frekka, Odin's wife. Similarly, in the Rusila of Ibn Fadhlan the large idol is surrounded by a number of smaller idols representing his family and followers: "If his wishes prove to be impossible he brings an offering to every single one of those figurines and seeks its intercession, saying, 'These are the wives, daughters and sons of our Lord.' He goes up to each figurine in turn and questions it, begging its intercession and grovelling before it.  ...He procures a number of sheep or cows and slaughters them, donating a portion of the meat to charity and taking the rest and casting it before the large piece of wood and the small ones around it. He ties the heads of the cows or the sheep to that piece of wood set up in the ground." 

Worship before an Idol of Storjunkar (the Great Govenor)

Neither of them has the resemblance either to a Humane Shape, or to the Head of any other Creature, unless you will Fancy something like it by the Strength of your own Imagination. To speak the real Truth, they are nothing else but large Flint Stones, which are full of Holes, and are frequently found in or near the High Ways. They are about a Roman Foot in height, of a blackish Colour, which however I don't look upon as their natural Colour, but adventitious, viz. from the Blood and Greese wherewith they have been besprinkled, when the Sacrifices were offered unto them. Considering the Qualifications of this Stone, we have all the reason in the World to believe, that its natural Colour is a mixture of Black and White, which we call Gray, or an Ash Colour; all the other Stones found in Lapland being of the same Colour, which is the reason that in their Tongue they call them Grausteen, i. e. Gray Stones. It is now time we proceed to the third Head, viz, their Sacrifices, and other Ceremonies belonging to their Worship. The first Thing to be taken notice of, is, That the same are performed by the Men only, all Women being excluded; it being their constant Opinion, that a Woman ought neither to Sacrifice, nor to approach near any Place whatsoever, Dedicated to the Worship of God. No Woman is permitted, says Samuel Rheen, to offer Sacrifices. The Second is, That they never Sacrifice, without having first made an enquiry, whether the Sacrifice will be acceptable or nor, to the God they are to offer the Sacrifice to. This is performed by the help of a certain Instrument, called by them Kannus, resembling our old Fashion Drums, from whence it is commonly called the Lapland Drum, of which we shall give you an exact Description hereafter (See Chapter XI). At the beat of this Drum, and the singing of some Songs, they offer the Sacrifice, intended to be kill'd, to Thor, which if it be accepted of (which they know by a certain Sign given by a Ring) they Sacrifice with the usual Ceremonies; if it be not pleasing to him, they apply themselves in due Order; First to the Sun, and afterwards to Storunkare. till one of them gives the Sign, that the Sacrifice is acceptable to him: The manner of it is very circumstantially described in the aforementioned Anonymous M S. in the following Words: When the Laplanders have taken a resolution to offer a Sacrifice, they present it to Storjunkare; whilst one is beating the Drum, the rest, as well Men as Women, sing together; What sayest thou O great and sacred God? Wilt thou, be pleased to accept of this Sacrifice I intend to offer to Thee? To this they add the Name of the Mountain, where they intend to Sacrifice. If the Sacrifice be pleasing to Storjunkare, the Ring stands still upon the Drum, at that very place, where the Image of Storjunkare is painted; if Storjunkare refuses it, they offer the Sacrifice to Thor, in the same manner as before. Singing at the same time; and thou Father God, wilst not thou accept my Sacrifice? If the Ring stands fix'd upon the Image of Thor, the Sacrifice is to be offered to him. In the same manner they proceed with the rest. Samuel Rheen mentions another Circumstance, viz. that they used to tye a Hair pull'd out of the Neck of the Beast to be Sacrificed, to the Ring: These are his Words; When they would be satisfied, unto whom they ought to offer their Sacrifice, whether to Thor, to Storjunkare or the Sun, they proceed thus: After they have tyed the Sacrifice to be kill’d on the backside of their Hut, whither no Woman is permitted to come, they pull out a Hair of the lower part of its Neck, which they tye to one of the Rings, of which they have a whole Bundle, design'd for the use of the Drum. While they beat the Drum, the Bundle of Rings moves round about, till that Ring on which the Hair is fastned, coming to the Picture of Thor, or of Storjunkare, or the Sun, remains fix'd upon the Drum in one of these Places, as a Sign that the Sacrifice is pleasing to either one or other of them; neither does the Ring move from the Place of that Picture, till the Sacrifice be promised to the said God. What I have told you before concerning the Drum, has been long ago taken notice of by Peucerus, tho' in a different manner, thro' either misinformation or misapprehenfion: These are his Words; They make use of a Drum of Brass, whereon are Painted several sorts of such Four Legged Beasts, Birds or, Fishes, as they are able to procure without much difficulty They have likewise a Brazen Frog, put upon an Iron Pearch, which being fix'd perpendicularly in the middle of the Drum; they begin their enchantments  under the Beat of this Drum, at the Sound of which, the Frog leaps upon one or other of those Creatures; the Creatures upon whose picture the Frog  happens to fall, must be Sacrificed to the Gods. Their most usual Sacrifices are Raindeer, tho' sometimes they also make use of other Creatures; Sperri Nils, a Native of Lapland, observes that they Sacrifice sometimes Cats, Dogs, Lambs and Hens. In the Lapmark of Lubhli, says he, they offer several Sorts of Sacrifices to Storjunkare, such as Cats, Dogs, Lambs and Hens. Some object that no such Beasts are found in Lapland, but Spirri Nils, speaking of these Sacrifices, says; Which they fetch out of Norway. Which is confirmed by Samuel Rheen, when he says; But especially they buy speaking of the Laplanders, when in Norway) those Creatures they are to Sacrifice to their Idols in Autumn. These Words lead us to the third Head to be taken notice of, viz. That most commonly they offer their Sacrifices in Autumn; which I gather from these Words, They are to Sacrifice to their idols in Autumn. It seems as if they most generally did perform their solemn Sacrifices in Autumn, by reason of the approaching Winter and long Darkness, during which they are most in need of God's assistance. Which I suppose is also the Reason, that about the same time, they erect a new Image to the Honour of Thor. For after those Preparations before mentioned, one Thing they strictly observe in those Sacrifices, is, That they make every Year a new Image of Thor, which is done fourteen Days before Michaelmass. Fourteen Days before Michaelmass, says Spirri Nils, they make a new Idol of Thor.* The next thing they do is, that they Consecrate the said Image with certain Ceremonies, viz.  by killing a Sacrifice, with the Blood and Fat of which they anoint the Idol. Near the Idol, says the same Author, they kill a Raindeer, then taking out the Bones, they anoint the whole Idol with the Blood and Fat. Last of all they bury the Reindeer's Flesh and Bones under Ground. This is the solemn Consecration of the Image of Thor, which is usually repeated every Year; tho' besides this Idol they set up many others, viz. One every time they Sacrifice a Raindeer. As often, says Samuel Rheen, as a Laplander Sacrifices, as many Idols are to be erected for the God Thor. All these they place one by another upon the Scaffold behind the Hut, of which I have spoken before, where they offer the Sacrifice, in the following manner: First of all they tye the Sacrifice approved of by Thor, according to the Signal given by the Drum, on the backside of the Hut. The Raindeer chosen for this purpose, (which must be a Buck, if offered to Thor) they run with a sharp pointed Knife thro' the Heart, and gather the Heart Blood in a Vessel, wherewith they anoint the Image of Thor. After they have placed the Image, and adorned the Table or Scaffold (which, as I told you, is done as often as they Sacrifice) they approach with a great deal of Reverence, and Worship the Idol, by anointing the Head and Back all over with Blood, but the Breast they only Paint with several Crosses, made with the same Blood. Making certain Crosses, says Samuel Rheen, upon his Breast. Behind him they place the Horns of the Sacrificed Raindeer, as likewise some part of the Skull, and the Feet; and before him a Box made of the Bark of Birch, in which they put a bit of every Member of the Raindeer, and some of the Fat; They place, says the Anonymous M. S. the Horns and Bones of the Skull upon the Scaffold of Thor. The remaining part of the Flesh they convert to their own use. Thus far the Ceremonies of the Laplanders, observed in their Sacrifices made to Thor. 

*Michaelmas, traditionally falls on September 29th, on or around the Autumnal Equinox. This day, 14 days before Michaelmas, is marked as being of special significance on a wooden calander documented in "A Runic Calendar found in Lapland in 1866" p. 64 (cp. p. 63 for reference). However, as noted there, the symbol used and meaning of the date is unknown to the author Eirikr Magnusson.
When they are to offer a Sacrifice to Storjunkare (which must likewise be a male Raindeer) they first of all (according to Samuel Rheen, whose Words I make here my own) draw a red Thread thro' his Ear; then they tye the Sacrifices to be offered to Thor; and so kill him in the same manner as they used to do with the Sacrifices of Thor, preferring the Blood likewise in a Vessel. This done, he who offers the Sacrifice, takes the Horns, the Bones of the Head and Neck, as also the Hoofs and Feet of the Sacrificed Beast, and carries them altogether to the Mountain Consecrated to the same Storjunkare, for whom the said Sacrifice is intended. No sooner does the Laplander approach to the Sacred Stone, but he makes a dew Reverence, bareheaded, bending his Knees, and performing all the other Ceremonies with a most profound Respect, such as anointing the Idol with the Blood and Fat of the Beast, brought along with him for that Purpose. Thus far Samuel Rheen. The Anonymous M S.
adds to this, [From the Latin] That they tie to the right horn of the reindeer, its penis, to the left a red thread, covered with tin and some silver. The Horns and Bones, says he, of the Head they carry to the Place Dedicated to Storjunkare, where they set them up. On the right Horn they tye the Privy Member of the Reindeer, on the Left a red Thred covered with Tin, and some small quantity of Silver. It is observable that the Rites observed in the Worship of Storjunkare are the same with those used in the Worship of Seithæ, from whence  is apparent, that the Idol of the Inhabitants of Torna differs from that of the Inhabitants of Luhlah and Pitha, only in Name. Johannes Tornius gives us the following Description of the Last: The Laplanders meet at certain appointed Times, especially on Holy-days, or when any Misfortune or Loss has befallen them, near their Seitha being equip’d in their best Apparel, they approach the Idol, and offer their Prayers and several sorts of sacrifices, viz. the Feet of the Raindeer his Flesh, Fat, Skin, Horns and Hoofs. There being, to this Day, great Quantities to be seen of them in those Places, where they worshipp'd the Seitha Here you see the Worship of the Seitha and the Storjunkare to be the same. There are in some Places found great Numbers of those Horns placed one above the other, which surround these Stone Idols like a Fence, and are therefore call'd by the Laplanders Tiorfwi-gard, i. e. a Court fenced with Horns. They call it, says Samuel Rheen, Tiorfwigard, i. e. a place inclosed with Horns, it being like a Fence to the Idol Storjunkare. If we believe the said Author, there are sometimes above a Thousand of these Horns in one Place; He adds, That those who bring along with them and see up those Horns, used to hang before them a Garland twitted of Birch-Tree Branches, stuck about with bits of Flesh cut from every Member of the Sacrifice. They take, says he, a bit of Flesh, out of every Member of the Sacrifice, all which they fasten to a Birch-Tree twisted in a circular figure, which they hang up before the Horns. From hence it is, I believe, that some have been milled into this Error, as if the Laplanders did Worship the Horns of the Raindeer; concerning which, these are Tornæus his Words: Some who either don't know or understand better, have given out, that the Laplanders Worship among other Things the Horns of Raindeer. They are, as I suppose, fallen into this Error, because there are great Heaps of Raindeer Horns found in several Places there: But with how little Reason this Assertion is made, I leave to those who a reasonable, that these Heaps are the Remains of those Sacrifices they used to offer to their Seitha; it being an ancient Custom among the Laplanders, to Sacrifice the Raindeer with their Horns and Hoofs. All the remaining Flesh they convert to their private use. This is the ordinary way  of Worshipping Storjunkare; besides which they have Two more less used; One is, when they carry the Sacrifice alive to the Mountain, where the Idol is placed; the Second, when they intend to Sacrifice on the Mountain dedicated to Storjunkare, but cannot approach it, by reason of its inaccessibleness. The First they perform by killing the Sacrifice near the Idol, and so proceeding in the same manner as we told before; they boil the Flesh of the Sacrifice upon the Spot, especially that about the Head and Neck, and unto the Feast they invite their Friends, leaving the Skin behind them; this they call the Storjunkare’s Feast.* This is not usually practised in all the Mountains Consecrated to Storjunkare, but only in such as he himself has chosen and intimated for that Purpose. Samuel Rheen says to this Purpose; upon some of these sacred Hills they kill the Raindeer to be offered as a Sacrifice, and consume the Flesh, after it is boiled, with their Friends invited for that Purpose; especially the Flesh of the Head and Neck: This they call Storjunkare's Feast; the Skin remains behind for some years after. The Second is, when by reason of the Steepness of the Holy Mountain, they can't carry up the Sacrifice to the Idol; in this Case, they throw a Stone, dip'd in the Blood of the sacrificed Beast, up to the Mountain, and so end their Devotion. They take a Stone, says the same Author, which they dip in the Blood of the Raindeer, sacrificed to Storjunkare, and so throw it up towards the top of that Mountain, where they believe he has his Dwelling Place. As we told you before, that besides their Worshipping Thor with Sacrifices, they used, especially once a Year, to erect new Images to his honour; so they practise the same with Storjunkare, by laying fresh Boughs of Birch and Pine round his Stone Image. This is commonly done twice a Year; in the Summer with Boughs of Birch, in the Winter with Pine. The Laplanders, says the just now mentioned Author, are obliged to Honour their Storjunkare's twice a Year,  in the Winter, by laying Boughs of pine, in the Summer of Birch or Grass, round about them. What we have mentioned before out of Tornæus, concerning the Seitha, is very agreeable to this Relation. As often as they intend to perform this Ceremony, they at the same time make an Enquiry, whether their God be propitious or not. For if the Grass, or what else they are to strew about him, is light, they look upon it as a good Omen; if it be heavier than ordinary, they fear he is angry with them, and therefore endeavour to reconcile him, by devoting some Sacrifices to him. The same Author says to this Purpose; If they find the Stones heavier than they ought to be, they look upon it as a Sign that Storjunkare is offended with them; but, if they prove lighter than ordinary, they esteem him to be Propitious; to avoid his Anger they are obliged to make promises of Sacrifices. Thus the Words of Peucer are to be interpreted, when he says; When they are going abroad a Hunting or Fishing, or are to go upon any other Enterprise, they endeavour, after some Enchantments, to move their Gods, whose Advice they ask, from the Place they stand in; if they move easily, they look upon it as a good Omen, if they do otherwise, they promise themselves no Success; if they are immoveable, they shew that they are Offended. This is not practised upon all Occasions, nor at all Times, but only when they are to strew the Grass and Boughs. For, otherwise, as I told you before, they try the Inclination of their Gods by the Drum. 
*At Hofstaðir, Iceland there stood an ancient heathen feasting hall, which contains evidence that sacrificial feasts were held there and the heads and horns of the animals slaughtered were displayed on the exterior walls of the structure.  
It remains now, we say something of the third Sort of Sacrifice, which is made to the Sun. This is chosen out of the Females; neither are the Raindeer to be full grown, but very Young, according to Samuel Rheen, whose Authority we always rely upon in this Point. They offer, says he, to the Sun young Raindeer, especially Females. The Ceremonies observed are near the Same, as has been related before, except that they draw a white Thred thro' the right Ear of the Raindeer, this being the Sign, shewing, that it belongs to the Sun; whereas the Sacrifices belonging to Storjunkare, are distinguish'd by a red Striing. They draw, says the same Author, a white Thred thro' the right Ear of the Raindcer, as a Sign that it is to be Sacrificed to the Sun. They make a Garland, not of Boughs of Birch, but of Willow, on which they fatten the Pieces of Flesh, which they fix upon a Scaffold, behind their Huts, not unlike that belonging to Thor, After they have kill’d, says he, the Raindeer, they take a bit of Flesh cut of every Member, which they fasten to a Garland of Willow, of the bigness of a Hoop, belonging to a Hog’s head. This they fix upon a high Scaffold, on the backside of their Huts, where they used to Sacrifice to Thor. This Scaffold is not the same, but like to that of Thor, as I said before; the chief difference is, that in this there is neither any Image nor Horns; the Beasts being not come to their Growth, and consequently destitute of Horns. The only thing in this Scaffold bearing any resemblance to the Sun, being a Circle made out of the Bones of the Sacrificed Beasts. These are the Ceremonies observed in Sacrificing to the Sun.
Besides those three Gods, which are accounted of the first Rank, they have others of a lower Degree, as we have shewn before; especially the Manes of the Dead, and the Juhlian Company. They don't give any particular Names to those Ghosts, but in general call them Sitte. Neither do they erect them any Images, as they do to Thor and Storjunkare, only they offer them some certain Sacrifices: The first Thing they have to do is, to enquire the Will of the Dead, by the Drum, whether he will accept of that Sacrifice. Whilst they are beating the Drum, after their usual way, some Sing thus; What sort of sacrifice would you have Manes? And the Ring shewing the desired Sacrifice, they draw a black Thred thro' the Beast's right Ear, which is to be Sacrificed. They draw, says the so often mentioned Author, a black String thro' the right Ear of the Raindeer, to be sacrificed to the Dead. The anonymous M. S. which likewise mentions the Words of the Song, says, that they tye the String about the Horns, being made of Wool; The Raindeer, says he, or other Beasts to be Sacrificed to the Dead, must have a black Woollen String tye’d to their Horns. This done they kill their Sacrifice, the Flesh whereof they spend for their own use, except a small Piece of the Heart and another of the Lungs; each of which they divide into three Parts, and put them upon as many Sticks, which after they have been well dip'd in the Blood of the Sacrifice, they bury under Ground. The before mentioned anonymous M. S. has these Words: They take a Piece of the Heart and of the Lungs which they cut in three Pieces, and after they have fastned them upon three Sticks and dip'd them in Blood, they bury them under Ground, in the same manner, viz. in a Chest or Box made after the Fashion of a Lapland Dray. The Words, after the same manner, have a relation to a preceding Passage, when he Speaks of the Bones of those Sacrifices, which they used to take out and bury, as Samuel Rheen informs us; Then they take all the Bones, says he, which they put in a Chest made for that Purpose, and thus bury them. Of this we shall have occasion to say more hereafter, when we come to treat of the Funeral Rites of the Laplanders, where the same is made use of. We will add no more at present upon this Head, but that these are the Ceremonies observed to this Day in Sacrificing to the Dead among those Laplanders, who have not shaken off the Superstitions of their Ancestors. We will now come to the Juhlian Company, whom, as I have shewn before, they call Juhlafolket.** These, as well as the Ghosts, have no Statues or Images allotted for their Worship, the Place where they are worshipped being a Tree, at about a Bow shot from the back-side of their Huts. They likewise worship them by Sacrifices, a Description of which has been left us by Samuel Rheen, in the following Words; The Day before the Feast of the Juhlian Company, being Christmass-Eve, and on Christmass-Day it self, they offer superstitious Sacrifices, in Honour of the Juhlian Company, whom they suppose wandring at that time thro' the neighbouring Forests and Mountains. The manner thus: On Christmass-Eve they Fast, or rather abstain from all sorts of Flesh; but of every thing else they eat, they carefully preserve a small quantity. The same they perform on Christmass Day, when they live very Plentiful. All the Bits they have preserved for these two Days, they put in a small Chest made of the Bark of Birch, in the shape of a Boat, with its Sails and Oars; they pour also some of the Fat of the Broth upon it, and thus hang it on a Tree, about a Bow Shot distant from the backside of their Huts, for the use of the Juhlian Company, wandring at that time about the Forests, Mountains, and the Air. Thus we have also given you an account of this kind of sacrifices, which resemble in a great measure the Libations of the Ancients to their Genius's. But why they do this in a Boat, they know not, nor can give the least reason for it. In my Opinion, this seems to intimate, that they had it first from foreign Parts, where perhaps they used to pay a certain Reverence to the Company of Angels, who brought the News of Christ's Birth; as I told you before, of this they could not be inform'd but by Christians, who probably might come thither in ancient Times by Sea and consequently in Vessels. So much concerning the Idolatry and superstitious Worship of the Lapland Gods, which is continued to this Day, if not by all, at least among a great many of the Laplanders, as far as we have been able to discover them by the experience and Enquiry of those, who have frequented and lived a considerable time in these Parts; for, as Lundius well observed, it must be acknowledged at the same time, that there are many things wanting, in relation to those Sacrifices, which, if they were to be described in all their Circumstances, would require the Pen of a Man, who had the opportunity of being present at, and an exact ocular Witness of them, as well as of their Magical Arts, both which they are very careful to hide from others, it being almost impossible to learn any thing of that kind from them, unless when they are Drunk, and that the Strength of the Liquor makes them speak what they would not at another time. Sometimes you may fish Something out of their Children, tho’ at the same time they give them a great charge not to discover the least Thing of this kind to the Swedes.

**Juhlfolket, the Yule Folk i.e. The Wild Hunt led by Odin. 

Chapter XI: 
Of the Magical Ceremonies,
and Arts of the Laplanders
There is scarce a Country under the Sun, whither the Name of Lapland has reach'd by Fame or otherwise, which does not always look upon this Nation as greatly addicted to Magick. It is this that has induced me to treat in this Chapter of their Magick, this being the Second of the capital Branches of their Impieties, which are not as yet quite abolished among them. And to begin with the Ancients, Jacob Ziegler has already in his time, given them this Character; That they are great Artists in Sorcery.  And Damian á Goes gives us the same Description of them. They are so well instructed in Magick, that by their Enchantments they are able to stop Ships, when under full Sail, not to mention here several other strange Effects of their Art. Neither are the northern Writers differing from them in this Point; These Countries, says Olaus Magnus, of Finland and Lapland, extending to the furthermost Parts of the North, were in the time of Paganism so well instructed in Sorcery, as if they had been instructed in this damnable Art, by Zoroaster the Persian himself. Peter Claudi says of the Norwegian Laplanders: They are such prodigious Sorcerers, that I much question, whether they ever could, or now can be match'd in this Art, by any upon Earth. Tho' at the same time some of the Lappofinni are worse than the Finlanders living near the Sea-shore. This is the Judgment of the Historians concerning the Laplanders of the later Ages; and considering, they speak to the same purpose of the Biarmi their Predecessors, this verifies our former Opinion of their being descended from the same Original. The Biarmi, says Olaus Magnus, are very expert in Witchcraft. For, either by their Looks, certain Words, or some other diabolical Arts, they know how to bewitch People so, that they take away the use of their Limbs and Reason, and many times induce them to lay violent Hands on themselves. Saxo gives us an Instance of this kind, when he says: the Biarmi instead of Arms, having recoup to Art did by their Enchantments raise a Storm, the brightness of the Sun being soon overcast by the Darkness of thick Clouds and Rains. The History of King Heraud and (Snorri) Sturleson speaking much to the same effect, leaves no room, to doubt of the Truth of it. 'Tis true, it must be confess’d that now a-days the Laplanders do neither so frequently nor publickly practise it, as in former times, which makes Andræas Buræus say: The Laplanders are not now so much addicted to magical Superstitions as in former Ages. And not long after; The greatest part of the Laplanders are free from those magical Superstitions which is confirmed by Peucerus, who lived long before him: Now a-days, says he, they don't use so frequently their Enchantments, as they did before, because the King of Sweden has made most severe Laws against them. Nevertheless there are not a few among them, who apply themselves to Magick. If you desire to know the reason of it, besides those mentioned before in general, I can give you no better than, that they think it absolutely necessary, to defend themselves against the Designs of their Country-men. This they frankly confess, and Peter Claudi relates it upon his own Credit; That the knowledge of those Arts is look’d upon by them as absolutely necessary, to prevent the danger of being hurt by others. For which reason they have their certain Masters and Tutors; and Parents bequeath to their Children, as part of their Inheritance, such Spirits or Dæmons, as they have found serviceable to them. Concerning the First Tornæus says; Some are instructed in this Art and perfected by Practice. And Peter Claudi, They send their Children to be instructed by the Laplanders viz. in the Magical Art. Sturleson mentions a certain Virgin called Gunilda, who was, by her Father Odzar Huide, living in Halogalana, sent to Motle, then King of the Fin Lapmark or Norwegian Lapland, to learn the Finland Arts. He likewise makes mention of two Finlanders, whose Magical Artifices he relates at large. Nothing more frequent, than that the Parents are the Masters, who instruct their own Sons in this Art: Those, says Torneus who have attained to this Magical Art by Instructions, receive it either from their Parents, or from some Body else, and that by degrees, which they put in practice, as often as an Opportunity offers. Thus they accomplish themselves in this Art, especially if their Genius leads them to it. For, they don't look upon every one as a fit Scholar, nay some are accounted quite incapable of it, notwithstanding they have been sufficiently instructed, as I have been informed by very credible People. And Joh. Tornæus confirms it by these Words: As the Laplanders are naturally of different Inclinations, so are they not equally capable of attaining to this Art. And in another Passage; They bequeath the Dæmons as part of their Inheritance, which is the reason that one Family excels the other in this Magical Art. From whence it is evident, that certain whole Families have their own Dæmons, not only differing from the familiar Spirits of others, but also quite contrary and opposite to them. Besides this, not only whole Families, but also particular Persons have sometimes One, sometimes more Spirits belonging to them, to secure them against the Designs of other Dæmons, or else to hurt others. Olaus Petri Niurenius speaks to this effect, when he says: They are attended by a certain Number of Spirits, some by Three, others by Two, or at least by One. The Last is intended for their Security, the other to hurt others. The First commands all the rest. Some of those they acquire with a great deal of Pains and Prayers, some without much trouble, being their Attendants from their Infancy. Joh. Tornæus gives us a very large Account of it. There are some, says he, who naturally are Magicians; an abominable Thing indeed. For, those who the Devil knows will prove very serviceable to him in this Art, he seizes on in their very Infancy with a certain Distemper,  when they are haunted with Apparitions and Visions, by which they are in proportion of their Age, instructed in the Rudiments of this Art. Those who are a second time taken with this Distemper, have more Apparitions coming before them, than in the First, by which they receive much more insight into it, than before. But if they are seized a third time with this Disease, which then proves very daingerous, and often not without the hazard of their Lives; then it is they see all the Apparitions the Devil is able to contrive, to accomplish them in the Magical Art. Those are arrived to such a Degree of perfection, that without the help of the Drum, they can foretell things to come, a great while before; and are so strongly possessed by the Devil, that they foresee Things, even against their Will. Thus not long ago, a certain Laplander, who is still alive, did voluntarily deliver his Drum to me, which I had often desired of him before; notwithstanding all this, he told me in a very melancholy Posture, that tho' he had put away his Drum, nor intended to have any other hereafter, yet he should foresee every Thing without it, as he had done before. As an Instance of it, he told me truly all the particular Accidents that had happened to me in my Journey into Lapland; making at the same time heavy Complaints , that he did not know, what use to make of his Eyes, those Things being presented to his Sight much against his Will. Lundius observes that some of the Laplanders are seized upon by a Dæmon, when they are arrived to a middle Age, in the following manner: Whilst they are busie in the Woods, the Spirit appears to them, where they Discourse concerning the Conditions, upon which the Dæmon offers them his assistance, which done, he teaches them a certain Song, which they are obliged to keep in constant remembrance. They must return the next Day to the same Place, where the same Spirit appears to them again, and repeats the former Song, in case he takes a Fancy to the Person, if not he does not appear at all. These Spirits make their appearances under different Shapes, some like Fishes, some like Birds, or others like a Serpent or Dragon, others in the Shape of a Pigmee, about a Yard high; being attended by Three, Four or Five other Pigmees of the same bigness, sometimes by more, but never exceeding Nine. No Sooner are they seized by the Genius, but they appear in a most Surprising Posture, like mad Men, bereaved of the use of Reason. This continues for six Months, during which time they don't suffer any of their Kindred to come near them, not so much as their own Wives and Children: They spend most of this time in the Woods and other solitary Places, being very Melancholy and Thoughtful, scarce taking any Food, which makes them extreamly weak. If you ask their Children, where and how their Parents sustain themselves, they will tell you, that they receive their Sustenance from their Genii. The same Author gives us a remarkable Instance of this kind in a young Laplander called Olaus, being then a Scholar in the School of Liksala, of about eighteen Years of Age. This young Fellow fell mad on a sudden, making most dreadful Postures and Outcries, that he was in Hell, and his Spirit tormented beyond what could be express'd. If he took a Book in Hand, so soon as he met with the Name of JESUS he threw the Book upon the Ground, in great Fury, which after some time being pass'd over, they used to ask him, whether he had seen any Vision, during this Extasie? He answered, that abundance of Things had appeared to him, and that a mad Dog being tyed to his Foot, followed him wherever he stirr'd. In his lucid Intervals he would tell them, that the first beginning of it happened to him one Day, as he was going out of the Doors, to make Water, when a great Flame Passing before his Eyes and touching his Ears, a certain Person appear'd to him all Naked. The next Day he was seized with a most terrible Head-Ache, so that he made most lamentable Outcries, and broke every Thing that came under his Hands: This unfortunate Person's Face was as Black as a Coal, and he used to say, that the Devil most commonly appear'd to him in the Habit of a Minister, in a long Cloak; during his Fits he would say that he was surrounded by Nine or Ten Fellows of a low Stature, who did use him very barbarously, tho' at the same time the standers by did not perceive the least thing like it. He would often climb to the Top of the highest Firr trees, with as much swiftness as a Squirrel, and leap down again to the Ground, without receiving the least hurt. He always loved Solitude, flying the Conversation of other Men. He would run as swift as a Horse, it being impossible for any Body to overtake him. He used to talk amongst the Woods to himself, no otherwise, than if several Persons had been in his Company.
I am apt to believe, that those Spirits, were not altogether unknown to the Ancients, and that they are the same, which were called by Tertullian Paredri, and are mentioned by Monsieur Valois, in his Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius.
Whenever a Laplander has occasion for his Familiar Spirit, he calls to him, and makes him come by only singing the Song, he taught him at their first Interview; by which means he has him at his Service as often as he pleases: And because they know them Obsequious and Serviceable, they call them Sveie, which signifies as much in their Tongue, as the Companions of their Labour, or their Help mates. Lundius has made another Observation, very well worth taking notice of, viz. That those Spirits or Dæmons never appear to the Women, or enter into their Service; of which I don't pretend to alledge the true Cause, unless one might say, that perhaps they do it out of Pride, or a natural Aversion they have to the Female Sex, subject to so many Infirmities. Those Women who apply themselves to Witchcraft among the Laplanders, and are by them called Kuepekass, i. e. Sorceresses, perform it by pronouncing certain Words, magical Characters, and other Ceremonies, which they make use of to the detriment of those they have a Grudge to.
But it is time to proceed to their Magical Arts, which may be comprehended under two general Heads: Under the First those who make use of no Instrument at all. The Second may be subdivided into two Parts, according to the difference of the Instruments they make use of. One comprehends all, where the Drum is made use of; the other all such Things, to which they use Knots, Darts, Spells, Conjurations, and such like. We speak first of The Drum, this being an Instrument peculiar in his kind to the Laplanders, who call it Kannus, as Joh. Tornæus, Minister of Torna informs us in his Treatise of Lapland: They used, says he, to perform their superstitious Art by the means of a certain Wooden Instrument (called by them Kannus) made after the Fashion of a Drum. And in his Description of Sweden, The Laplanders call it Quobdas or Kannus, we call it the Lapland or Magical Drum. This Drum is made of Wood. They make, says Olaus Petri, their Drum out of a hollow Trunk of a large Tree. Which must be of a Pine, Firr or Birch-Tree, growing in certain particular Places, and turning according to the Course of the Sun; as has been found by Experience, and is confirmed by the Testimony of Samuel Rheen: The Lapland Drums, says he, are made of Pine, Firr or Birch; but the Tree, out of which they are cut, must grow in a particular Place, and turn directly according to the Course of the Sun, not contrary. Which shews, that Peucerus was in the wrong when he says; They make use of a Drum made of Metal. Where it is to be observed, that a Tree is said to turn according to the Course of the Sun, when the Grain of the Wood, turning from the Bottom to the Top, winds from the Right to the left Hand; this being a Token to them, that the Tree is acceptable to the Sun, which, pursuant to the Mysteries of their Religion, they Worship under the Name of Thor. They make it out of one Piece of Wood, which must be of the Root, cleft asunder, and hollowed out on one side, over which they stretch the Skin; the other side being convex, is the lower part, where is the Handle to hold by. This is made by two Hollownesses on the out side of the Body of it, the Wood remaining betwixt them, being instead of a Handle. That part, on which the Skin is fastned, resembles a Circle, approaching however more to an Oval than circular Figure, its diameter seldom exceeding half a Yard; but is often less. They are covered with one Skin only. One fide of this Drum, says Olaus Petri, they cover with a Skin. Which makes Tornæus compare them to our Kettle-Drums, for, says he, they are Instruments made after the Fashion of our Bokor (so the Swedes call a Kettle-Drum) only they are of a more oblong Figure. Tho' in another Place he says very well, that they differ also from them in this, that they are not altogether so round, nor so deep, and, that the Skin is not fastned to them with Iron Screws, but with Wooden Pegs. I have also seen some, the Skin of which was not fastened by Pegs, but sewed with the Sinews of Raindeer. Olaus Magnus did call it an Anvil, but not very properly: These are his Words, He beat the Frog or Serpent, made of Metal, with a Hammer, repeating his Blows upon the Anvil: By which that he understands nothing else but the Drum, will be shewn hereafter. The Engraver, who made the Cut before that Chapter, was questionless by those Words misled into an Error, which made him put a Smith's Anvil, with a Serpent and Frog upon it, the Smith's Hammer laying by, quite contrary to the intention of the Author, and the nature of the Thing he was to Delineate; the Laplander making no use of a Smith's Anvil, but of a Drum, which because they beat with a kind of a Hammer, this made Olaus call it an Anvil.
Upon the Skin, which covers this Drum, they Paint diverse Figures in Red, made of the Bark of an Alder-tree beaten and boil'd for a considerable Time. The Skin, says Johannes Tornæus, is all over painted with divers Figures in Red, made with the Bark of the Alder-tree. Samuel Rheen agrees with him, when he says; They stretch  Skin over the Drum, painted with various Figures, of the Bark of the Alder-tree. He also gives us also a large Catalogue of these Figures, as follows: About the middle of the Drum, they draw several Lines quite cross, upon which they paint those of their Gods, that are most reverenced among them, viz. Thor the supeam Ruler of all the rest, with his Attendance; then  Storjunkare with his: these are placed on the Top of the first Line. Then they make another Line parallel to the former, but reaching only half cross the Drum; here they place the Picture of Christ and his Apostles. All the Figures above these Lines, representing Birds, Stars or the Moon. Below them, in the Center of the Drum, Hands the Sun, as the middlemost of the Planets, upon which they put the Bundle of Brazen Rings as often as they intend to beat the Drum. Under the Sun they place the terrestrial Things, and various Sorts of living Creatures; such As Bears, Wolves, Raindeer, Otters, Foxes and Serpents; as likewise Marshes, Lakes, Rivers and such like. This is the Lapland Drum, according to the Description given by Samuel Rheen, of which he has left us the following Delineation.

  Explanatory Notes

In the Drum A. a. marks Thor, b. his Servants, c. Storjunkare, d. his Servants, e. Birds, f. Stars, g. Christ, h. his Apostles,  i. a Bear, k. a Wolf, l. a Raindeer, m.  an Ox, n. the Sun, o. a Lake, p. a Fox, q. a Squirrel, r a Serpent.
In the Drum A. a. signifies God the Father, b. Jesus Christ, c. the Holy Ghost, d. St. John, e. Death, f. a Goat, g. a Squirrel, h. Heaven, i. the Sun, l. a Wolf, m. the Fish Scik , n. an Ouhr Cock, or wild Cock, o. Friendship with the wild Raindeer, p. Anundus Erici (unto whom this Drum did belong) killing a Wolf, q. Gifts, r.  an Otter, s. Friendship with other Laplanders, t. a Swan, v. a Sign to try the Condition of others, and whether a Distemper be Curable, x. a Bear, y. a Hog, B. a Fish, V. one carrying a Soul to Hell.

For the rest I have observed, that all their Drums are not Painted with the same Figures; I my self have no less than Three, which are very different, One of which I have represented here with the First, by the Letter B.
And Johannes Tornæus has given us a different Description of them, in the following Words; They divide their Figures in relation to different Countries, but especially into three Parts; The First Division is intended for Norland and some other Swedish Provinces, placed on the South Side of the Drum, and distinguished from the others by a Line; this also contains the next Neighbouring City of Note, where they used to Traffick most. As for Instance, in those Drums which are made at Torna or Kiemi, you will see the City of Torna Painted, with its Church, Minister, the Governour of Lapland, and several other Persons, with whom they used to Converse. So likewise the High-way leading from their dwelling Place to Torna, which serves them to discover when the Minister, the Governour, or certain other Persons will come that way, as also what is transacted there.
On the Northern Side of the Drum, they paint Norway, with what chiefly belongs to it. But betwixt both these Countries they place Lapland, which takes up the greatest part of the Drum, with most of such Creatures as are found in that Country. Here you see whole Herds of wild Raindeer painted, Bears, Foxes, Wolves and all Sorts of wild Beasts, placed there with an intent to discover where they are to be found; whether a tame Raindeer, if lost, is to be found again, and where; whether their Raindeers young Ones will be long lived; whether they shall be successful in their Net Fishing; A Sick Body, whether he will recover or not; whether a Woman with Child is likely to have an easie Labour; whether a certain Person shall dye or not, and by what means; and many other Things they want to know I will not pretend to give you the true Reason of this difference, but as I am informed, some Drums are intended for more malicious Designs than others, and are better adapted to the accomplishing of their Magical Art; which makes me believe that according to the different Intention of what Business they are to be applyed to, they either add or take away certain Figures, and sometimes also make considerable Alterations. For the better understanding of the diversity of these Drums, I here give you the Draught of two other Drums, both which I had from the Illustrious Lord Chancellor of Sweden:


The Latin version of Lapponia p. 127 includes this legend;
It is not found in the English translation:

a. some birds. b. black wolves. c. Tiurr, the god. d. Thor, the god. e. the hammer of Thoronis. f. Storjunkare. g. wooden idol. h. servant i. stars. k. cattle. l. goat. m. stars. n. the moon o. the Sun. p. stars q. likewise r. wolves. s. Noria's fjord.
Both the Figures of these Drums represent and shew you the Signs and their Explication, as they were sent to me; in the same manner as I have represented in the Drum marked with B.
And here I must acknowledge , that this is not the only Obligation I have to this illustrious Lord of this kind, he having likewise sent me a Third scarce to be match'd for its bigness, mark'd with E. the Draught of which I give you likewise, together with another mark'd with F; for which I am obliged to the Illustrious Lord Henry  Flemmimg, Colonel of a Swedish Regiment.
The following picture and the legend have been added by Olaf Rudbeck, the English translator.
It does not appear in the original Latin version of the text.
Upon this occasion I cannot forbear to represent to you the Figure, as well as the Explication of a certain Drum of this kind, exceeding all the rest both in bigness and the number of its Characters. It belongs to a certain Citizen of Stockholm, called Laurence Altlmack. Mr. Laurence Norman has sent me the Draught of it, and the Explication of the Figures, taken from the Mouth of a certain Laplander, a Native of Torna, by Chistopher Utterius, June 16. 1673.

Upon this occasion I cannot forbear to represent to you the Figure, as well as the Explication of a certain Drum of this kind, exceeding all the rest both in bigness and the number of its Characters. It belongs to a certain Citizen of Stockholm, called Laurence Altlmack- Mr. Laurence Norman has sent me the Draught of it, and the Explication of the Figures, taken from the Mouth of a certain Laplander, a Native of Torna, by Chistopher Utterius, June 16. 1673. 

1. Paul of Torna,  2. the River of Torna,  3. the Rivulet of Torna, 4. the Weather-Cock pointing to the North, by the help of a Line mark'd with two Crosses, 5. God,  6. the Sun, 7. the Moon, 8. the Thunder, 9. the Angel of God, 10. the Angel Gabriel, 11. St. John, 12. St. Peter, 13. St. Matthew, 14. St. Martin, 15. St. Luke, 16. God's Sergeant, 17. the Rain, 18. the Light of the Sun, 19. The Wind, 20. Good Fortune, 21. Bad Fortune,  22. The Earth, 23. the Water, 24. the Fire, 25. ____ dedicated to Sacrifices, 26. ____ dedicated to Sacrifices, 27. the Mountain Stadeberg, dedicated to Sacrifices, 28. the Mountain Titro, dedicated to Sacrifices, 29. Sweden, 30. Russia, 31. Holland, 32. England, 33. Spain, 34. France, 35. Cologne, 36. Turkey, 37. Lapland, 38. Finland, 39. the Cities of Finland, 40. the Cities of Sweden, 41. the Cities of Germany, 42. the Village of the labourers, 43. War, 44. Peace, 45. some Persons going to Church, 46. a great Ship, 47. a Chaloup, 48. a Lapland Idol, 49. the Devil's Boat, 50. the Holy Tree of the Laplanders, 51. a Citizen, 52. his Wife, 53. a  Country man, 54. his Wife, 55. a Laplander or his Wife, 56. the Governour of Lapland, 57. the Governour’s Gentleman, 58. a Bayliff, 59. a Lapland Church, 60. the Church of the City of Torna, 61. the Country Church of the Lapmark of Torna,  61. the Holy Stone of the Laplanders, 63. the Trunk of the Holy Tree of the Laplanders, 64. A Bear, 65. A Cow, 66. An Ox, 67. A Wolf, 68. a Raindeer, 69. a Sheep. 70. a Hog, 71. a Horse with a long Tail, 72. a 73. a Swan, 74. a 75. a great wild Cock, 76. a Laplander Travelling in his Sledge, 77. the Mountains of Lapland, dedicated to Sacrifices, 78. a Lapland Hat, 79. the most dangerous and malicious Sorcerers, 80. a Priest, 81. a Man, 82. a Squirrel, 83. a Fir-tree, 84. a Pine-tree, 85. a Hare, 86. a Fox, 87. the young One of a Raindeer, 88. a Birch tree, 89. a Cat, 90. a __­­­­ 91. a Bog or Lake, and several Fishes, and a Boat in it, 92. a Castor, 93. a certain Beast called Jerf or Goulu, 94. A __  95. a Dog, 96. an Orneskre or Ornskre, a corrupted Word, signifying perhaps as much as the cast off Skin of a Serpent, 97. A Serpent,  98. a Frog, 99. the God Nao,  100. the Devil's Ditch, 101. the Genius of the Mountains, 102. the Hill of Hell, 103. Death, 104. an Otter, 105. Lucifer,  106.  Asmodeus, 107. a Tyre, i. e. a magical Ball, 108. magical Arrows, 109. it has happened according to the Devil's Will,  110. it has happened contrary to the Devil's Intention, 111.  the same Devil, 112. his Sergeant, who attends constantly his Person, 113. the Kettle of Hell, 114. Spectres, 115. ___  116. ___ of Hell, 117. the first President of the Assembly of Magicians, 118. the second President of the same Assembly. 119. the third President of the same College, 120. The fourth President of the same Assembly, 121. the Sorcerers going to their Meeting-Place, with those Children they instruct in the Magick, 12a. the Place where the Sorcerers assemble, and their chief Master, 123. the District of Drontheim, 124. the Gallows, 125. the Prison, 126. the Chief Judge, 127. the Law, 128. the twelve Judges, 129. the Chamber, where the Judges sit to give Judgment, 130. the Presiding Judge, 131. What is Law, 132. what is no Law. 133. the Feast of the Nativity of Christ, 134. Easter, 135. Whitsontide, 136. the Feast of ____  137. S. Mary’s or Midsummer Day, 138. the Day of the Sun, 139. S. Eric's Day, 140. S. John's, Day, 141. S. Peter's Day, 142. S. James's Day, 143. S. Michael’s Day, 144. to Sacrifice without exception, 145. one that Speaks Truth. 146 those who are pernicious to the Earth and Waters. 147. Health, 148. Sickness, 149. a mortal Wound given by a magical Javelin, 150. not allowed to Sacrifice to any God of the Mountains, neither to the Trunk of a Tree, nor to any Stone because this Character implies, that it will be in vain, and unsuccessful. Thus I have given you an Explication at large of the Contents of this Drum, of which you may see the Draught over Leaf.

The Latin text continues with the second paragraph on p. 130 of the Latin text:
Now, to make this Drum useful, there are two Things required an Index and a Hammer. The First shews the Thing desired by pointing at some certain Figure on the Drum, with the other they beat the Drum. I call that an Index, what Samuel Rheen calls a Bunch of Rings made of Metal. For when they make use of the Drum, they take a pretty large Ring, on which they hang several fmall ones, all which make up a Bunch. Tho' they also sometimes vary in this Point. One of those I have by me, is made of a thick Piece of Copper, about the bigness of a Crown Piece, with a square Hole in the middle; and instead of the small Rings, it is hung round about with little Copper Chains. The other is made of Brass, on which hangs a round Copper Plate, fastned to little Chains. I have also seen some made of Bones, resembling in shape the Greek Letter A, with Rings hanging about them; and of other different Shapes. Mine, I have given you a Draught of, with the two Drums A. B. mark'd with G. However since they most commonly make use of a Ring (those Drums sent me by my Lord Chancellor, having no others than such) this is the reason, why the so often-mentioned anonymous M. S. has call'd them barely Rings. The Ring, says he, laid upon the Drum, did not stand still in any certain Place. Olaus Magnus calls them Brazen Serpents or Toads: For so they call those Rings, not that they are really such, or have any resemblance to Serpents or Toads, but because by those Rings they represent those Creatures, which they look upon to be very acceptable to the Devil, and whose Pictures they frequently make use of in their Magick. Peucerus calls them Frogs, They have likewise, says he, a brazen Frog, fastned to an Iron Bar: Perhaps because there is no great difference betwixt a Toad and a Frog. Which makes Olaus Petri say: In the Center they draw the Picture of their God, upon which they lay a Frog or some other Piece made of Brass. Tornæus tells us that the Laplanders call it Arpa. The Index, says he, which they call Arpa, is composed cut of several Chain Rings, made of Copper, Iron, Brass or Silver: Which shews us, that they are not only made of Brass, but also of several other Metals. The Hammer they call that same Instrument, wherewith they beat the Drum, as we may see from what has been alledged out of Olaus Magnus and Johannes Tornæus; the Last of which says; They raise their Familiar Spirits by heating the Skin with a Hammer. But this Hammer must be imagined to have the least resemblance to a Smith's Hammer, as the Engraver of Olaus Magnus's had falsly persuaded himself, but it is a certain Instrument so call'd by the Laplanders, and dedicated to this peculiar use, made of a Raindeer's Horn, branching out like a Fork; this being the Head of the Hammer, the rest the Handle. The true Shape of it I have given you in the same Cut, which contains the two Drums under A. and B. the Hammer being mark'd with H. With this Hammer they beat the Drum, not so much to make a Noise, but thereby to put the Ring, laid upon the Skin, into motion, so as to pass over the Pictures, till they are satisfied in what they look for. And thus I have given you a description of the Lapland Drum, with all its Appertinencies, viz. the Ring and the Hammer, such as they use among the Laplanders, subject to the Crown of Sweden. The Finlanders, bordering upon Norway, and subject to Denmark, do likewise use those Drums, but something different of those I have described to you just now; as is manifest from the Description given of them by the learned Olaus Wormius. It is however my Opinion, That the difference betwixt theirs and ours is not real, but rather accidental; arising from thence, that the Drum described by Wormius, was perhaps intended for some particular use. But let us see, for Wormius describes the Drum he makes mention of in the Description of his Study; The Lapland Drum, says he, which they use in their Magick, and by beating which, to a certain Tune, they pretend to discover many Things, it made of an oval Piece of Wood hollowed; its Length is about a Foot, its Breadth ten Inches, having six Holes cut in it with a Handle in the middle; whereby they hold it with the left Hand, whilst they beat with the Right. Over this they stretch a Skin, fastned to it with Nerves, painted with divers rude Shap'd Figures, drawn with Blood or some other Red Colour. Upon this lies a Piece of Brass in the Shape of a Rhomboides, somewhat convex, its Diameter being of two Inches, in the Middle of which, and on each Corner, hangs a small Brass Chain. The Instrument made of Bone, wherewith they beat the Drum, is about six Inches long, of the thickness of a little Finger, resembling the Latin T. The Laplanders use this Drum upon divers occasions and pretend to do great Matters by the help of it; which makes them have it in great esteem, and keep it with much Reverence; they secure and wrap it up together with the Index and Hammer in a Lambskin. The Laplanders, says Samuel Rheen, set a great value upon their Drum, for they always keep it wrap'd up, together with the Rings and Hammer, in Lamb-Skin. Thus it is in my Edition, tho' I have found it in another written Loomskin, which does not signifie a Lamb-Skin, but the Skin of a certain Bird, of the Water Fowl kind, and is in this Country called Loom. Wormius has given us a Description of it in his Study, and I shall perhaps have an Opportunity of describing it more at large, when I shall publish a Catalogue of the Rarities I preserve in my Study. Nay, they look upon this Drum as a Sacred Thing, which for this Reason, must not be touch'd by marriagable Women. No Woman, says the same Author, that is come to Age of Maturity, is permitted to touch the Drum. If the Drum is to be removed from one Place to another, it is either carried last of all, and by the Hands of a Man, or else must be brought by a quite different Road, or some untrod way. The Drum, says the same Author, never goes First, but last of all, being carried by a Man, and not a Woman; sometimes thro' such Roads as were never made use of before. He gives us likewise the Reason of it, viz. Because they are afraid, that if any Body, but especially a Woman should pass the same way after it, would be in great danger of losing either her Health, or perhaps her Life; and this Hazard they run for the first three Days after; of which they do give you several Instances. They will tell you, says he, that if any Woman Kind, that is come to Age of maturity, should travel the same Road, thro' which the Drum has been carried, within three Days before, the same would either dye immediately, or at least fall into some great Misfortune, and this they prove by many Instances. It seems as if the Devil would not have his Worship despised, but keeps a strict Hand over those who neglect his Rites, by punishing them Severely, as far as God is pleased to permit; so that there is no great reason to doubt of the Truth of those Examples. Now, because it happens sometimes, Women must of necessity travel the same way, the Devil is somewhat more favourable to them, provided they pay him, as an Acknowledgment, a Ring of Brass, to the Same Drum, that was carried that way before them. If it so happen. Says the before-mentioned Author, that a Woman is forced to travel the same way, thro' which the Drum has been carried before, she is obliged to present a Brass Ring for the use of  the said Drum, But since we have told you before, that according to their Opinion, they can effect strange Things, by the help of this Drum, we must take a view, what these Things are, and how they are performed. Olaus Petri mentions Three; relating either to their Hunting, to their Sacrifices, and the enquiring into far distant Matters. They have, says he, a threefold use for this Drum, in relation to their Hunting, Sacrifices, and the knowledge of Things at a distance. Samuel Rheen mentions Four. The First, To enquire what partes in other Places, tho' never so remote. The Second, To know the good and bad Success of any Undertaking, and what issue any Distemper is like to have. The Third, To Cure Diseases. The Fourth, To know what sort of Sacrifice their Gods are pleased with, and what kind of Beasts each God desires for his Sacrifice. They don't all use the same way or Ceremonies, in making their Enquiries. There are however several Circumstances which are to be observed by all. The First is, That they take care to stretch the Skin very stiff, by holding it near the Fire. They hold, says Olaus Petri, the Skin to the Fire, to make it Stiff. Secondly, That they don't always beat in one Place, but round about the Index or Ring. Thirdly, That they first begin to beat softly, and so continue Stronger and Stronger, till they have done their Business. Tornæus says to this effect: He lifts up the Drum a little, and then beats round about the Index, first softly till the Index begin to stir and to move about, and when he finds it removed from the Place where it first laid, to one or the other side of the Drum, the Drummer beats harder and harder, till the Index Points at a certain Sign, from whence they may draw a Conjecture as to the Point they sought for.  Another Ceremony they constantly observe, is, That he who beats the Drum, does it upon his Knees, not standing, and so do all the rest that are present. He that is skilful in this Art, says the same Author, falls down upon his knees, as well as all the rest, and so he takes the Drum. As to the Occasions, of their beating the Drum, we having given you the last of them already; we must now proceed to the rest, the first of which is, to knew, what is transacted in far distant Places; concerning which Olaus Magnus speaks to this effect; If they are solicitous to know in what Condition their Friends or Foes are, tho' at 500 or 1000 Leagues distance, they go to a Lap or Finlander, whom they know well skill’d in this Art, and by the means of a Present of a Linnen Sute of Cloths, or some Money, they oblige him to try his Skill, to know what their Friends or Foes are doing at that time, and where they are. And so he proceeds to give an Account of the whole manner of doing it, of which we shall say more anon. Peter Claudi, speaking of the Finlanders under the Jurisdiction of Norway, says: They are so Skill’d in this Art, that they can satisfie any Body, that wants to know what other People are doing, at a great distance. He likewise relates the manner of performing it, and gives us an Instance, which happened at Bergen, the chief Trading City of Norway, which is to be seen upon record there, viz. in the publick Register of the German Factory:  There was one John Delling, living in that City in the Quality of a Factor, of a certain German Merchant, who meeting one time with a Friend of his called James Smaufuend, who had a certain Norwegian Finlaplander in his Company, he ask'd him whether he could tell him, what his Master was then doing in Germany then. The Finlaplander having answered him he could, began immediately to make a great Noise, as if he were Drunk, then leaping and turning himself several times round in a Circle, he fell upon the Ground without any Sense or Motion; after he had continued thus for some time he recovered out of his Trance, Started up, and told him, what his Matter was transacting in Germany; which being immediately entered into the Register of the German Merchants, was found, upon Enquiry made afterwards to agree with what the Finlaplander had told him. A memorable Instance, which deserves the more Credit, as being confirmed by publick Authority. There are besides this many more Instances of this kind, related upon the Credit and Experience of those now living, among which, that which happned to Johannes Tornæus deserves to be taken particular Notice of; a certain Laplander, who is still living, having told him all what happned to him in his first journey into Lapland; he never having seen him before: These are his Words; He told me truly and exactly every thing that had happned to me in my Journey into Lapland. And, notwithstanding I was sensible of the Truth of what the Laplander had told me, concerning this journey, I told him, that what he had said was altogether false; for fear he should glory in his Diabolical Art, or rely upon it, as a means to investigate Truth. There is not the least shew of Reason, to Question the Truth of this Relation, being founded upon the Authority of a Person not in the least addicted to Superstition, who speaks by his own Experience. The Authors however differ in the Method, used in making those Discoveries. Olaus Magnus describes it thus: The Drummer goes into some private Room, accompanied only by one Person, besides his own Wife. Then by beating upon the Anvil with his Hammer he moves the Brazen Frog or Serpent about the Figures, mustering at the same time certain Words; till he falls into a Trance, lying extended on the Ground, as if Dead: His Companion in the mean while taking great Care, that no Gnat, Flie or any other living Creature touch him. By the force of his Charms, his Soul is by some evil Dæmon or other carryed into some distant Place, from whence he brings back (as a Token that he has executed his Commission) a Ring, Knife, or some such Thing; which, so soon as he rises from the Ground, he shews, and declares to his Companion. Peter Claudi gives us the following Account of it: He falls upon the Ground without any Life or Motion, turning quite Yellow or Black in the Face. Thus he continues for One or more Hours, according to the distance of the Place, of which Enquiry is to be made, When he recovers from this Trance, be is able to tell what Passes in that Place, and what those People transact there, of which Enquiry was made. Here no mention is made either of a Drum, Song, his Companions, or any Tokens of the Performance of the Business; which difference must be attributed to this, that each Author gives an Account of what seem'd most worth taking notice of to him, without excluding the rest, mentioned by others; so that from what has been said already, the use of the Drum can scarce be call'd in question; but what Olaus Petri relates of the Drums, made for this particular use, viz. That they have a Handle shaped like a Cross, deserves our special Observation. The Drum they make use of, says he, is the same as I described to you before, with this difference only, that the lower part of it is divided into four Parts, by a Cross, by which the Sorcerer holds it with one Hand. Here you find a Handle made in the shape of a Cross, of which make is the Drum, which I told you was presented to me by my Lord Henry Flemning, Colonel of a Finland Regiment of Foot, the Draught of the lower Side of which you see in the next following Figure.
He adds, That some hang about their Drums the Bones and Claws of several Creatures. On the Instrument it self, says he, they hang the Claws and Bones of such Creatures, as they have taken. What was mentioned before concerning the Drum-beater's Companion, and some other Ceremonies, is confirmed by Samuel Rheen, in the following Words: When they are curious to know what passes in foreign Countries, the Laplander has recourse, to his Drum as follows: He takes several Rings made of Brass, which being ty’d together by a Chain of the same Metal, are laid upon the Drum, where the Figure of the Sun is Painted. Then, with a forked Hammer, made of Bone, he beats the Drum till the Rings are put in Motion. In the mean while he that beats the Drum sings a Song with a loud Voice, call'd by them Jouke. The rest there present, at well Men as Women, sing likewise certain Songs, the First with a high, the Last with a lower Voice, which they call Duura. These Songs are composed of certain Words, relating especially to those Places, from whence they are to bring Intelligence. Here you find the Drum mentioned as well as the Standers-by, not only One, besides the Drummer's Wife as Olaus has it, but several, both Men and Women, singing as well as the rest, besides two different sorts of the First belonging to the Drum-beater, called Jouke, the other sung by the Standers-by, Duura; we must now see also, what they say concerning their casting themselves on the Ground. After the Drummer says the same Author, has for some time thus beat the Drum, he falls on the Ground, as if he were asleep. The so often-mentioned Manuscript says: They fall down on the Ground, as if they were in a Trance, nay as if they were Dead. Peucerus says thus; After the Sorcerer has with his usual Ceremonies call'd upon his Gods, he falls down and sounds away on a sudden, no otherwise than if the Soul had left the Body. There being not the least appearance of Life, or Motion. Peter Claudi says, Their Spirits and Soul leave them, there being not a few, who are of Opinion, that the Soul really leaves their Bodies, whilst they lye in this Condition, and returns afterwards, which makes Olaus say, That the Soul (of the Sorcerer) under the Conduct of the evil Spirit goes to bring back certain Tokens from most remote Places. Tho' I cannot but look upon this as a very erroneous One, it being not in the Power of of the Devil to restore the Soul to the Body, when once departed; so that this Drum-beater lyes only dead in appearance, the Soul having not left his Body, but her active Faculties being only Stifled, which makes him lye in a Trance, and appear as if he were asleep, his Face being Black, with a most horrid Aspect; concerning which the Anonymous M. S. (besides what Peter Claudi has upon this Head) Says: They sing for a considerable time, till they fall down in a Trance. During this time, they suffer extreamly, the Sweat breaking forth plentifully in their Faces, and all over their Bodies; which as Lundius observes, all this while feels as hard as a Stone. After the Drum-beater has done beating he falls on the Ground with his Drum, which he lays on his Head, as you see in the following Picture.
Upon this Point Samuel Rheen makes this particular Observation, viz. that both the Men and Women, there present, don't cease to Sing, and repeat their Songs, as long as he lays thus on the Ground, for fear he should lose his Errand, he is sent upon: His Words are as follow: In the mean while all there present, both Men and Women, continue their Singing without Intermission, till the Drum-beater be awakened from his Sleep to put him in mind, of what is desired to be known. The Anonymous M. S. adds to this that unless they did so, the Drum-beater would never recover out of his Trance, but dye in good earned. The rest there present, says he, obliged to continue Singing as long as he lies in this Trance, to put him in mind of what had been proposed to him, before he fell into the Trance, otherwise he would never come to Life again. The same Danger attends him if they should go about to awaken him, by touching his Body with their Feet or Hands. Which is perhaps the Reason, why Olaus says, that they take Angular Care to frighten the Flies and other such Insects away from them, neither differ him to be touch'd by any living Creature. Peucous says; That they are forced allways to keep some Body or other to watch the Drummer, whilst he lyes thus dead on the Ground, if they should do otherwise, the Devil would certainly carry away his Body.
What he mentions here of the Devil's carrying away the Body, is absolutely contrary to Truth, his Opinion being only that he would never recover out of his Trance. They are obliged, says Olaus Petri, to watch the Body whilst thus extended on the Ground, without Life, lest any thing should touch it; it being their Opinion, that if it should happen so, he would never come to Life again. At the Ceremonies requisite to this Work being thus performed in a little time, the Drum-beater comes to himself again, and gives them a satisfactory Account, of what they desired to know. Then the Drum-beater, says the same Author, begins to tell what he has been able to learn by the help of his Drum, viz. what is transacted in far distant Places. Peucerus will have it, that it requires Four and Twenty Hours, but the time is not certainly determined, the Drummer awakening sometimes in a less, sometimes in a longer time, according to the greater or lesser distance of the Place, from whence he is to give an Account; Four and twenty Hours being the longest time requisite for the enquiry of Matters, tho' at never so great a distance. Olaus Petri, says positively; They give you an Account of whatever is proposed to them (tho' at some hundred Leagues distance) and this they perform within Four and twenty Hours time. And to take away all Objection, To what the Drummer relates, were not agreeable to others, he shews them certain Tokens, such as are proposed by the Person, who ask'd him the Question, according to Olaus. Olaus Petri does confirm this by his Testimony, when he says: As a Confirmation, that what they have said is really true, they bring to him, who hired them, a Knife, Shoe, Ring, or some other thing, as a Token, that they have performed their Business well. This is the First and principal use of the Drum. If we believe Lundius, there are some among the Laplanders, who, without the use of the Drum, are able to discover Things, tho' at the greatest distance; by the help of their Genius's, with whom they have contracted such a Familiarity, that (as we told you of a certain Laplander of Torna) they send them before-hand to the Places, where their Fairs are to be kept, to bring them Word, what Swedish and other Merchants are come thither; if they are at a considerable Distance from their Habitations, they dispatch their Genii to see what passes there and how their Wives, Children and Raindeer do in their absence. Those of the Laplander who are most Skilful in this Art, are most esteemed and honoured by the rest, who call them Lords or Kings of the Mountains called Tellices (which divide Norway from Lapland) they acknowledge their Authority, and willingly submit their Genius's to the others Command.
We must now come to the second use, viz. to know the Event of Things to come, whether they shall meet with good Success in their Hunting, or any other Thing they intend to go about. For this they also pretend to know by the help of their Drum. In order to this they put the Rings upon it, and whilst they are beating, they Sing their Songs. If the Rings go about to the Right, according to the course of the Sun, they promise themselves good Luck; if they move contrary, viz. to the Left, they dread the event, as fearing it will prove unfortunate. Samuel Rheen says to this purpose; When they have a Mind to enquire after the good or bad Success of Things, they place the same Bunch of Rings on the Picture of the Sun, upon the Drum. If the Rings move about the Drum according to the Course of the Sun, they promise themselves good Fortune, Health and Prosperity, both to Men and Beasts; but if they turn about otherwise, contrary to the Course of the Sun, they expel nothing but ill Luck, Distempers and back Success. It is no difficult Matter to guess at the reason of this Opinion. For, they looking upon the Sun, (as we told you before) as the original Cause of all Productions, they conclude that if the Rings follow the Footsteps of that Being, which rejoyces them with so many beneficial Things, they portend Prosperity to them; this they make use of in all their concerns of Moment, as when they are to undertake a Journy, or to go a Hunting, to change their Habitations, or any such like Thing, as we have told you before, and shall shew more at large hereafter. They make a certain peculiar Observation, when they use the Drum, on the account of Hunting viz. whether the Index or Ring moves to the East or West, it being their Opinion, that accordingly they ought to go in quest of their Game, if they shall have good Success. When they intend to go a Hunting, says Olaus Petri, they hold the Skin that covers the Drum near the Fire, to extend it the better; then they put the Frog, which is placed in the Center, into a Motion, by continually beating the Drum with the Hammer, till it stand still upon one of the Pictures, either to the East, West, North or South; which serves as a direction to the Skilful Drummer, or Hunts-man, which way he is to look for his Game that Day, or what kind of Creature, Fishes, Birds or wild Beasts be is to catch. We now come to the third use of the Drum, having a peculiar reference to Distempers, which is two-fold: For, First they enquire, whether the Distemper owes its Offspring to some natural Cause, or whether to the Magical Artifices and Charms of their Enemies? This makes Samuel Rheen say: The Drum-beater is thereby satisfied, whether the Disease proceeds from any Disorder in the Body, or whether from Magical Charms.
The Second is to find out a proper Remedy, viz. what Sort of Sacrifice will be most pleasing to their Gods, but especially to Storjunkare, without whose peculiar Favour they never hope to recover their Health. The before mentioned Author proceeds thus: This done, the Patient must make a Vow of a certain Sacrifice, ofa Raindeer, Bull, He-Goat or Ram, or something else of this Kind, to be offered to some certain Storjunkare, dwelling in some certain Mountain or other. Neither is it left to the Choice of the Patient, but to the direction of the Drum-beater; it being his Province to prescribe, what they ought to do. Whatever the Drummer orders the Patient to do, says the same Author, he must perform, and either Sacrifice immediately, or at least promise to offer such a Sacrifice at a certain appointed Time. For it is the Business of him, who beats the Drum, to enquire (as I told you before) which of the Gods the Sacrifice is to be offered to, and what kind of Sacrifice will be acceptable to him; for the same Sacrifice is not pleasing to every one of their Gods, neither is the same God satisfied with one kind of Sacrifices at all times; so that the choice of it depends on the Manager of the Drum, whose direction the sick Person is to follow. The manner of performing it, is thus described by Samuel Rheen: When they pretend to Cure any Distemper by the help of the Drum, it is done in the following manner: The Patient must present the Drummer with two Rings, as a Reward for his Pains, one of Brass, the other of Silver; both which he tyes to his right Arm. The Drummer, after having put those two Rings in the same Bunch  which commonly is made use of, as often as the Drum is employed for those Purposes, beats the said Drum, singing all the while, as do likewise all the Men and Women there present, the first with a loud Voice, the latter somewhat lower. From the Motion and Position of the Rings, the Drum-beater makes his Conjecture, as we told you before. Lundius gives the following Account concerning this Method: If a Laplander happen to fall Sick in the Lapmark of Uma, they send for the next Neighbour, whom they think most expert in the management of the Drum. The first Thing to be done after his coming is, to Sacrifice one of the best Raindeer, belonging to the sick Body, or to his best Friend; then he begins to beat his Drum, and falling on the Ground, remains there for some time unmoveable, his Body being as hard as a Stone. In the mean while the rest there present sing a certain Song, which they have been taught by him beforehand, till he recovers his Senses, arises, takes up his Drum, and holding it up to his Head, beats it softly for some small time. After which he sits down very pensive, and begins to give them an Account of his Transactions; he tells them, that he has Passed thro' the Body of the Terrestrial Globe, where he has met with the Antipodes, being conducted by his Genius, among a People of a very handsome and venerable Aspect; those People, he says, being advertised of his coming, had Shut their Gates against him, but that by the assistance of his Genius, he had got among them thro' a Hole, where he had seen something belonging to the Sick Person, either his Hat, his Shoes, or perhaps his Mittens, or some such like Thing, which he was either able or unable to bring away. Their general Opinion is, That if the Drummer did bring it away, there is great Hopes of the Patients recovery, but if not, that he will Dye, and endure a great deal of Pain. And because they are fully persuaded, that the Soul of the Drummer does actually leave his Body and is carried to the Place he Names to them; they say that his Soul is brought back by his Genius over the highest Rocks and Mountains, with such swiftness, that the Sand and Stones doe flye about like Hail, Mr. Paul Venetus relates something not unlike this of the Tartars of the Province of Areladam. And these are the Things commonly performed by this Drum. Besides which they make also another use of it, to accomplish their Designs against one another, even with the hazard of their Lives; tho' this is not so commonly practised as the others. Some Laplanders, says Samuel Rheen, but not all, make use of this Drum to do Mischief. Which is the Reason, that the rest of the Laplanders look upon this last alone as unlawful, but not the before-mentioned, because they are not intended or made use of to the detriment of others. Those, says Johannes Tornæus, who make use of the Drum to enquire after such Matters (as have been before-mentioned) take it amiss, if you account them to be of the same Stamp with those, who employ it to the detriment of others; because they do it to the Detriment, but these for the Benefit of other People. This has questionless, moved Lundius to affirm, that those among the Laplanders, who use the Drum, have no Commerce with evil minded Spirits, and that they have recourse to the Drum, upon no other Account, than for the conveniency of Hunting, to know which way they are likely to meet with good Game, or to satisfie their Curiosities in some other Points; and that whenever they do any Mischief to others, this is performed by certain Words, or some other Charms, taught them by some other Laplanders, who keep Correspondence with Evil Spirits. But tho' it must be confess'd that the Drum is not so generally used for mischievous Purposes, yet are there too many who Still employ it upon that Account. Johannes Tornæus declares positively, that in the Year 1671, there were taken up several in the Lapmark of Kjema, who had such Drums, of a prodigious Bigness. They surrendred, says he, their Drums, of such a vast Breadth and Compass, that they could not be removed from thence, but were burnt upon the Place. And as a confirmation of it, gives us the following Instance: There was, says he, among those Laplanders, one of about fourscore Years of Age, who confess'd, that he had learn d this Art from his Father, when yet a Child; and that in the Year, 1670 upon some Quarrel with another Country Fellow of Kiema, about a Pair of Mittens, he caused him to be drowned in a Cataract. Whereupon being condemned to Death, he was carried in Chains out of Lapland, to be Executed in the next Town of Bethnia; but whilst they were upon the Road, he found means to kill himself by the help of his Sorcery, he being but a Moment before found very healthy and lusty, which indeed he had foretold he would do, rather than fall into the Hands of the Executioner. But what Rites or Ceremonies, Words, Signs or Postures they observe upon this Account; I have not been able to learn from those, from whom I have received the rest belonging to the use of the Drums. The reason of which, as I suppose, is, that they keep it very Secret, and that no Body can be instructed in the management of this Point, without lying under a great suspicion of bearing a Share in this most abominable Art.
Having thus given you a large Account of what belongs to the use of the Drum among the Laplanders, it is now time we proceed to the other Parts of the magick Arts, exercised among them, by certain proper Instruments. Where it is to be observed, that by the word Instrument, I understand every Thing, which serves them in the performance of their magical Art. Thus they make use of the Snow (according to Lundius) when they intend to or to increase the Cold Weather, which is commonly done by Women, and by such only, as are born in the Winter Season, the rest having no Power to effect it.  Upon this occasion they take some Snow which they form into a Humane shape, then they chew the Bark of the Alder tree and with the red Spittle and the Part they besmear the Face, Hands and Feet of this little Image. They make likewise another use of this Bark of the Alder Tree for the same purpose, viz. they chaw it and lay it up And down, either in the Middle, or on both side of the Roads. The same Ludius says That when the Laplanders pretend to cause an alteration of the excessive Cold, they take a Bear’s Skin, which they hang up all Night abroad. The first Thing the Laplander does after he rise out of his Bed, is to whip the said Skin for a considerable time with Rods, by which means they pretend to moderate the excessive Cold of the Season; tho' l am apt to believe that they also make use of certain Words, a they mutter betwixt their Teeth. They also make use of another Secret for the same purpose. They take the Skin of the best Fawn they have, which they cut in Pieces of the bigness of a Hand, and throw them into the Fire, whilst they are muttering a certain long Prayer. Among those Instruments, one of the chiefest is, the Cord tyed with Knots, for the raising of Wind. Of this Ziegler says thus: They tye three magical Knots in this Cord; when they untie the First they raise a tolerable fair Wind; at the untying of the Second it blows a very fresh Gale; but the loosening of the Third makes the Weather Tempestuous to the highest Degree, in the same manner as the Ancients used to raise Thunder. What Ziegler says of the Laplanders, Olaus Magnus attributes to the Finlaplanders. These are his Words: The Finlanders among other heathenish Superstitions, retain this, that they sell Wind to such Merchants as are detained by contrary Winds upon their Coasts. For a certain Sum of Money they give them a Cord, with three Knots upon it, with this Caution, That when they untie the first Knot, they shall have a favourable Gale if the Second, a much brisker; but, if the Third, the Tempests will raise upon them to such a Degree, that they will not be able to lookabout them to avoid the Rocks, or to be upon the Deck to take down the Sails, or to stand at the Helm to govern the Ship. Here you see, that Olaus says the same of the Finlanders, what Ziegler mentions of the Laplanders. And considering that neither Samuel Rheen, nor Johannes Tornæus, both Writers of our Time, make any mention of it, this seems not to belong properly to the Laplanders, who live in an Inland Country, and seldom approach to the Sea-Shore; which induces me to believe, that this Art belongs rather to the Norwegian Finlaplanders, of whom Peter Claudi makes this Observation: The Finlaplanders can raise and encrease any Wind, when, and as much as they please. (a) He makes also this Observation, very well  worth our taking notice of, viz. That such as are skill'd in this Art, have a most peculiar Command over the Winds, that blew at the time of their Nativity, so that one commands such a certain Wind, the other another, as if they had been endowed with this devilish Act by a certain Constitution, which ruled at their Birth, from whence they derive this Power. They can, says the same Author, raise such a Wind, as blew at the time of their Nativity. This they perform in the same manner, as has been told before; for he proceeds thus: When Mariners buy a Wind of a Finlaplander, he gives them a Rope, or a Slip of some Stuff with three Knots upon it; when they untie the first Knot, they have a moderate Gale, when the Second, the Wind blows very Strong, yet so that they may make use of their Sail; when the Third, they are in Danger of being and Lost. As this piece of Skill belongs most peculiarly to the Finlanders, and the Laplanders Subject to the Crown of Norway, so there is another, being of the same nature with the former, unto which they may duly lay Claim, viz. the Art of stopping a Ship at Sea, in its full Course. This is however likewise attributed to the Laplanders by Damian á Goes. They can, says he stop Ships in their full Course, so that they cannot stir from the Place, let the Wind blow never so strong. Ziegler seems to make Reflections upon this, when he says: they make use of this Art at Pleasure, against the Mariners, for according as they either intend to favour or to disoblige them they slop the Course of the Rivers and Seas. Which I suppose cannot be done by any other means, but what has been alledged before. For the rest, they are so skilful in this Art, that there is no Remedy prevailing against it, except the Excrements of Maidens: Which Evil, says Damian, is not to be avoided any other way than by smearing some of the Excrements of Virgins on the Masts and Doors of the Ships, the Spirits having a natural Aversion to it, as I have been informed by the Inhabitants. It may perhaps be questioned, what he means by the Excrements of Virgins; my Opinion is, That he speaks of the menstrual Excrements, which has been many Ages past look'd upon as a proper Remedy against Magical Enchantments. This is verified by Pliny, when he says: I am very apt to believe what is related of the menstrual Blood, viz. That it destroys all Magical Arts, if smear'd only to the Posts of the Doors.  We now come to the third Kind, viz. their Magical Darts, as Ziegler calls them, by which they cause Distempers, Pains and other Mischiefs, even at a great distance. These are his Words, They make certain Magical Darts of Lead of a Fingers length; these they send forth at a great distance, to take revenge of their Enemies; who thereupon are seized with a Cancerous Tumor, either on the Legs or Arms, with so violent a Pain, that they scarce ever out-live three Days. Olaus Magnus speaks to the same purpose, which I suppose he has taken out of Ziegler. They are, says he, reputed to be very skilful in casting and shooting Magical Darts made of Lead, of the length of a Finger, tho' at the greatest distance; by which means they throw those, whom they owe a Spite, into various Distempers. These are Ziegler’s Words, so that there is no great question, but in this, as well as some other Matters, mentioned by him, he has followed the Footsteps of the said Author. But I am sorely afraid they both have been mistaken in these Leaden Darts, which they have thus erroneously described to Posterity, there being no such Thing known now a-days. Certain it is, that neither Samuel Rheen, nor any other of the Modern Authors mike the least mention of it, who would not have pass'd it by in Silence, if they had heard any thing of it, only by rumour. Neither can I conceive, why they should just be of Lead. I am apt to imagine, that Ziegler was deceived by the word Skott, which is frequently made use of upon such an Account for if either Man or Beast is seized with any sudden Distemper, so as to lose all its Strength, or perhaps its Life, without any manifest Cause, the common People are apt to say, it is done by Witchcraft, and call it Skott, i. e. a Dart. Ziegler having perhaps heard something of this Skott, this has milled him into the Opinion of those Leaden Darts, which in that Sense are unknown now a-days, the same being performed by other means. Peter Claudi calls it a Gan, which, he says, they send abroad in the shape of a Flie, under which the Devil disguifes himself, and of those, as he relates, the Norwegian Finlanders, addicted to this Art, keep a great many in a Leathern Bag, of which they dispatch abroad some every Day. Of this he gives us an Instance, which happened in his Time. Some few Years ago, says he, a certain Person, who is as yet living, travelling in Helieland, towards the Mountains of Norway, whither he was a going to shoot Bears, happened to light upon a Cave among the Rock. Within it he found a certain Image, rudely made, being an Idol belongingto a certain Finlander, and hard by it his Ganeska or magical Pouch. He opened it, and found in it many Files, of a blewish Colour, crawling about, which were the Finlanders Garis or Spirits, and used to be sent abroad daily to execute his Magical Exploits. And that he understands by this Gan the same thing, which they make use of to endanger other Men's Healths or Lives, he explains in these following Words: A Finlander can scarce rest satisfied, unless he sends abroad every Day his Gan, i. e. a Flie or Spirit out of his Ganeska or Ganhiid, i. e. his Magical Satchel, where he always keeps them. If he does not think it convenient to send his Gan to hurt any Man (which is never done without some Reason) then he lets him flie into the Air to act at Pleasure, and to destroy either Men, Cattle, wild Beasts, or any thing else he meets with.  Sometimes be dispatches him to the next Mountains, where he cleaves vast Rock asunder. They will however upon very slender Account send their Gan to destroy Men. Which Words plainly shew, that this Gan is made use of to the detriment of Men and Beasts, and sent abroad for that purpose, which puts it beyond all doubt, that this is the same, which Zeigler calls Darts; for he says in another Place; de Skjude deris Gan, they shoot their Gan, like a Dart, the word Skjuta belonging properly to the Shooting of an Arrow And this is, as we said before, the third Tryal of their Magick Skill, which they make use of not only against Stangers, but also against one another, even those whom they know to be as well versed in this Art as themselves. Of this the before-mentioned Peter Clauid gives us a memorable Instance in a certain Finlander called Asbivem Gankong, from his great Skill in the management of the Gan; who upon some Quarrel with another Finlander was Several Times put in danger of being destroyed by his Enemies Gan, which however he always prevented by his more prevailing Art; at last it happened that this Asbivem fell asleep under a Rock, whereupon the other immediately dispatch'd away his Gan, that cleft the Rock asunder, tumbled it upon him, and thus kill'd him. This, he says, happened in his time, and not long before he did write his History. These Sorcerers also try their Skill in expelling a Gan sent by another: Some among them, says the same Author, strive to outview one another in their magical Art so that whilst one sends forth his Gan a certain Person, the other commands him away. Lundius goes further, when he assures us, that they will often make a tryal of Skill of this kind, against one another, especially at their Fairs, when they are got Drunk, and quarrel together. They sit down with their Backs joined together, which they term in their Language Killodt, which is as much as to try the Skill of your Companion. Thus they try the utmost Strength of one another, to such a degree of Malice, that he, whose Genius is Superiour to that of his Adversary, is not so satisfied, till he has totally ruin'd him; he kills all his Raindeer, bereaves him of all Success in Hunting or Fishing, nay sometimes of his Life. Two Laplanders having once set themselves in this Posture, with their Backs against one another, in one of their Huts, each trying the best of his Skill; it was not long before one of them, whose Genius was inferiour to the others, drop'd down dead on the Ground, the Blood issuing forth out of his Mouth, Eyes, Ears and Nostrils. One thing is very remarkable, that they are of Opinion, they cannot hurt any Man with their Gan, unless they know his Parent's Name. They have Power, says the same Author, to hurt a Man, unless they know his Parent's Name. Upon which Head, Lundius makes this following Observation: I know not whether this takes place against the rest of their magical Attempts, but this is certain (by the Confession of some of the Laplanders) that if the Person, against whom the Sorcerer has laid his Design, beats him till he fetches Blood from him, this defeats his intention; a Coal thrown after the Sorcerer at his return, is said to have the same effect. What Peter Claudi ascribes to the Gan of the Finlanders and Norwegian Laplanders, the other Laplanders perform by their Tyre. This Tyre is a round  Ball of the bigness of a Wallnut, or a small Apple, made of the finest Hair of some Beast, or else of Moss; it is very light, smooth and hollow within; being of a mixt Colour of Yellow, Green and Ash, inclining most te a pale Yellow. Of this kind I had one presented to me by Mr. John Otto Silverstroom, Warden of the Society belonging to the Metals, and Governour of the Mines of Salbergh and Tahlune; of which I have given you here the Draught, being sensible, that the same was never made publick before, and has been seen but to few.
(a) The Northern Voyage, undertaken, 1653, by Order from the Northern Company erected at Copenhagen, 1647, by King Frederic  III gives us the following Account of these Wind Merchants: After two Days we set Sail again from Dromheim, and had a fair Wind for some Days, but being becalmed near the Sea-shore, some of our Crew told us, that we might easily buy what Wind we pleased, from some of the Inhabitants of the Country, bordering on the Finland Sea. This being resolved on, we sent a Chaloop to Shore, to fetch the most noted Necromancer of an adjacent Village, who being come aboard of us in a small Fisher-Boat, we ask'd him, whether he could furnish us with a favourable Wind, as far as Mourmanskoimora, he told us he could not, because his Command reached no further than the Point or Cape of Roukella; so that considering we might easily from thence make the North-Cape, we agreed with him, and his three Companions,  for ten Crowns and a Pound of Tobacco. Then to Work they went; and taking a piece of Linnen Cloth of about a third part of an Ell long, and four Inches broad, with three Knots in it, tyed it to one Corner of our great Sail, and so away they went. They were no sooner gone, but the Master of our Vessel (according to their direction) unty'd the first Knot, and immediately we had the finest Gale from the East-South-East, which carried us and the rest of our Ships 30 Leagues beyond the Maelstrom (a knot of dangerous Rocks in the Sea of Norway) the Wind then beginning to change, our Master unty'd the Second Knot, which made the Wind continue favourable to us, as far as to the Cape of Roukella, when the Wind beginning to fail us, our Master did untie the third Knot, but not long after their arose such a Tempest from the North-North-East, as if Heaven and Earth would come together, so that we expected no less than to be lost every Minute, especially when after three Days we were cast upon a Rock, where we must infalliably have perished, if by good Fortune we had not been soon thrown off again by the violence of the Stream and Waves, &c.